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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence, MDAI 2015, held in Skövde, Sweden, in September 2015. The 18 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 38 submissions. They discuss theory and tools for modeling decisions, as well as applications that encompass decision making processes and information fusion techniques.
This book discusses the use of microorganisms for improving nutrient quality and producing healthier foods. Conventional roles of microbes in food preservation and in producing more readily digestible nutrients via natural fermentation processes are also examined. Individual chapters explore topics such as bio-preservation, incorporation of lactic acid bacteria, traditional fermented Mongolian foods, fermented fish products of Sudan, probiotics in China, fermented soymilk, food colorants, and the effect of food on gut microbiota. Readers will gain insights into current trends and future prospects of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This volume will be of particular interest to scientists working in the fields of food sciences, microbiology, agriculture and public health.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Trust and Trustworthy Computing, TRUST 2015, held in Heraklion, Crete, Greece, in August 2015. The 15 full papers and 3 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: hardware-enhanced trusted execution; trust and users; trusted systems and services; trust and privacy; and building blocks for trust. There are 7 two-page abstracts of poster papers included in the back matter of the volume.
This book explores mobilities as a key to understanding the practices that both frame and generate contemporary everyday life in the urban context. At the same time, it investigates the challenges arising from the interpretation of mobility as a socio-spatial phenomenon both in the social sciences and in urban studies. Leading sociologists, economists, urban planners and architects address the ways in which spatial mobilities contribute to producing diversified uses of the city and describe forms and rhythms of different life practices, including unexpected uses and conflicts. The individual sections of the book focus on the role of mobility in transforming contemporary cities; the consequences of interpreting mobility as a socio-spatial phenomenon for urban projects and policies; the conflicts and inequalities generated by the co-presence of different populations due to mobility and by the interests gathered around major mobility projects; and the use of new data and mapping of mobilities to enhance comprehension of cities. The theoretical discussion is complemented by references to practical experiences, helping readers gain a broader understanding of mobilities inrelation to the capacity to analyze, plan and design contemporary cities.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Search-Based Software Engineering, SSBSE 2015, held in Bergamo, Italy, in September 2015. The 12 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited talks, 4 short papers, 2 papers of the graduate track, and 13 challenge track papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 51 submissions. Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) studies the application of meta-heuristic optimization techniques to various software engineering problems, ranging from requirements engineering to software testing and maintenance.
This timely volume explores tissue-derived stem cells, summarizing and evaluating the current body of knowledge. Sixteen chapters cover hematopoietic, osteoblast, skeletal, cardiac, pancreatic, epithelial, corneal, hepatic, renal, testicular, ovarian, fingernail, hair follicle and other stem cells- discussing their individual development, functions and pathologies, as well as the commonalities and interdependence between niches. This installment of the popular Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series delivers authoritative, international perspectives on this rapidly growing field. Tissue-Specific Stem Cell Niche is an ideal complementary volume to Biology of Stem Cell Niche and Adult Stem Cells, Second Edition and will be invaluable to clinicians and researchers working with stem cells as well as to postgraduate trainees who are studying them.
This book provides readers with a snapshot of the state-of-the art in fuzzy logic. Throughout the chapters, key theories developed in the last fifty years as well as important applications to practical problems are presented and discussed from different perspectives, as the authors hail from different disciplines and therefore use fuzzy logic for different purposes. The book aims at showing how fuzzy logic has evolved since the first theory formulation by Lotfi A. Zadeh in his seminal paper on Fuzzy Sets in 1965. Fuzzy theories and implementation grew at an impressive speed and achieved significant results, especially on the applicative side. The study of fuzzy logic and its practice spread all over the world, from Europe to Asia, America and Oceania. The editors believe that, thanks to the drive of young researchers, fuzzy logic will be able to face the challenging goals posed by computing with words. New frontiers of knowledge are waiting to be explored. In order to motivate young people to engage in the future development of fuzzy logic, fuzzy methodologies, fuzzy applications, etc. , the editors invited a team of internationally respected experts to write the present collection of papers, which shows the present and future potentials of fuzzy logic from different disciplinary perspectives and personal standpoints.
Nuclear Receptors focuses on the structural analysis of nuclear receptors from the initial work using isolated protein domains to the more recent exciting developments investigating the conformational shape of full-length receptor complexes. The book also reviews the structure of key nuclear receptor co-regulatory proteins. It brings together, for the first time, a comprehensive review of nuclear receptor structure and the importance of receptor conformation underpinning allosteric regulation by different ligands (hormone, drugs, DNA response elements, protein-protein interactions) and receptor activity. The nuclear receptor superfamily, including receptors for steroid hormones and non-steroid ligands, are pivotal to normal physiology, regulating processes as diverse as reproduction, metabolism, the immune system and brain development. The first members of the family were cloned over 25 years ago, which heralded in the idea of a superfamily of intracellular receptor proteins that bound small molecule ligands: classical steroid hormones, vitamins, fatty acids and other products of metabolism. These signals are then transmitted through multiprotein receptor-DNA complexes, leading to the regulation of target genes, often in a cell-selective manner. The cloning of the receptor cDNAs also ushered in an era of unparalleled analysis of the mechanisms of action of these ligand-activated transcription factors.
This work presents a series of experiments with ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases, which establish said gases as an ideal model system for exploring a wide range of non-equilibrium phenomena. With the help of newly developed tools, like full distributions functions and phase correlation functions, the book reveals the emergence of thermal-like transient states, the light-cone-like emergence of thermal correlations and the observation of generalized thermodynamic ensembles. This points to a natural emergence of classical statistical properties from the microscopic unitary quantum evolution, and lays the groundwork for a universal framework of non-equilibrium physics. The thesis investigates a central question that is highly contested in quantum physics: how and to which extent does an isolated quantum many-body system relax? This question arises in many diverse areas of physics, and many of the open problems appear at vastly different energy, time and length scales, ranging from high-energy physics and cosmology to condensed matter and quantum information. A key challenge in attempting to answer this question is the scarcity of quantum many-body systems that are both well isolated from the environment and accessible for experimental study.
This new text helps facial plastic surgery fellows and advanced residents in otolaryngology/head and neck surgery find the answers they're looking for when preparing to take the American Board of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery exam. Covering core content relevant to the ABFPRS board exam, this guide emphasizes key facts and clinical pearls essential to exam success and includes hypothetical exam questions and relevant surgical and clinical images. Written by leader in the field and the Director for the facial plastic surgery fellowship program at the University of California Irvine, this book discusses everything from basic techniques and evidence-based medicine, to fillers, injectables, implants and the psychological aspects of plastic surgery. Additionally, the chapter layout and organization of the Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Study Guide allows the reader to focus on just those topics relevant to the board exam, making it a must-have for anyone preparing to take the exam.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2014, held in Denver, CO, USA in June 2014. The 21 revised full papers presented together with three keynote papers and 9 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on Design and Usability, assistive and sentient environments, cognitive technology, activity recognition, context and situation awareness, Health IT and short contributions.
This edited, multi-author volume contains 14 selected, peer-reviewed contributions based on the presentations given at the 18th International Workshop on Quantum Systems in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology (QSCP XVIII), held at Casa da Cultura de Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in December 2013. It is divided into several sections written by leaders in the respective fields of quantum methodology applied to atomic molecular and condensed matter systems, each containing the most relevant material based on related topics. Recent advances and state-of-the-art developments in the quantum theory of atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems (including bio and nano structures) are presented.
This new book is the first to make logical and important connections between trapping and foraging ecology. It develops and describes--both verbally and mathematically--the underlying principles that determine and define trap-organism interactions. More important, it goes on to explain and illustrate how these principles and relationships can be used to estimate absolute population densities in the landscape and to address an array of important problems relating to the use of trapping for detection, population estimation, and suppression in both research and applied contexts. The breakthrough nature of subject matter described has broad fundamental and applied implications for research for addressing important real-world problems in agriculture, ecology, public health and conservation biology. Monitoring traps baited with potent attractants of animals like insects have long played a critical role in revealing what pests are present and when they are active. However, pest managers have been laboring without the tools necessary for quick and inexpensive determination of absolute pest density, which is the cornerstone of pest management decisions. This book spans the gamut from highly theoretical and fundamental research to very practical applications that will be widely useful across all of agriculture.
This textbook is for the standard, one-semester, junior-senior course that often goes by the title "Elementary Partial Differential Equations" or "Boundary Value Problems". The audience consists of students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. The topics include derivations of some of the standard models of mathematical physics and methods for solving those equations on unbounded and bounded domains, and applications of PDE's to biology. The text differs from other texts in its brevity; yet it provides coverage of the main topics usually studied in the standard course, as well as an introduction to using computer algebra packages to solve and understand partial differential equations. For the 3rd edition the section on numerical methods has been considerably expanded to reflect their central role in PDE's. A treatment of the finite element method has been included and the code for numerical calculations is now written for MATLAB. Nonetheless the brevity of the text has been maintained. To further aid the reader in mastering the material and using the book, the clarity of the exercises has been improved, more routine exercises have been included, and the entire text has been visually reformatted to improve readability.
The book provides an up-to-date overview of the diverse medical applications of advanced polymers. The book opens by presenting important background information on polymer chemistry and physicochemical characterization of polymers. This serves as essential scientific support for the subsequent chapters, each of which is devoted to the applications of polymers in a particular medical specialty. The coverage is broad, encompassing orthopedics, ophthalmology, tissue engineering, surgery, dentistry, oncology, drug delivery, nephrology, wound dressing and healing, and cardiology. The development of polymers that enhance the biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices and the incorporation of polymers within biosensors are also addressed. This book is an excellent guide to the recent advances in polymeric biomaterials and bridges the gap between the research literature and standard textbooks on the applications of polymers in medicine.
Tryptophan metabolism via kynurenine pathway plays a critical role in both health and a variety of human diseases. This book highlights the known associations between kynurenine pathway and various disease states, as well as examines the current status of drug development and clinical trials of compounds known to alter tryptophan metabolism. The research plays a critical role in molecular targeted therapies directed at altering the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. The initial and rate-limiting step of tryptophan metabolism is mediated by one of two enzymes, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO; predominantly in the liver, but also in the brain) and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; in a host of tissues in response to immune activation). Targeting the enzymes IDO and TDO, as well as other downstream effectors would therefore be likely to generate novel treatment options that would be helpful in a wide variety of clinical settings. This book provides a unique bridge between basic mechanistic understanding of the role of the kynurenine pathway with translational applications and clinical relevance. It will explore the indications that tryptophan metabolism is a potential biomarker of disease activity, can contribute to local and possibly systemic immune suppression in cancer, and is an attractive target for which a variety of inhibitors are readily available.
Data Preprocessing for Data Mining addresses one of the most important issues within the well-known Knowledge Discovery from Data process. Data directly taken from the source will likely have inconsistencies, errors or most importantly, it is not ready to be considered for a data mining process. Furthermore, the increasing amount of data in recent science, industry and business applications, calls to the requirement of more complex tools to analyze it. Thanks to data preprocessing, it is possible to convert the impossible into possible, adapting the data to fulfill the input demands of each data mining algorithm. Data preprocessing includes the data reduction techniques, which aim at reducing the complexity of the data, detecting or removing irrelevant and noisy elements from the data. This book is intended to review the tasks that fill the gap between the data acquisition from the source and the data mining process. A comprehensive look from a practical point of view, including basic concepts and surveying the techniques proposed in the specialized literature, is given. Each chapter is a stand-alone guide to a particular data preprocessing topic, from basic concepts and detailed descriptions of classical algorithms, to an incursion of an exhaustive catalog of recent developments. The in-depth technical descriptions make this book suitable for technical professionals, researchers, senior undergraduate and graduate students in data science, computer science and engineering.
At the Mogao Grottoes, a World Heritage site near Dunhuang city in Gansu Province, visitor numbers have increased inexorably since 1979 when the site opened. A national policy that identifies tourism as a pillar industry, along with pressure from local authorities and businesses to encourage more tourism, threatens to lead to an unsustainable situation for management, an unsafe and uncomfortable experience for visitors and irreparable damage to the fragile art of the cave temples for which the site is famous. In the context of the comprehensive visitor management plan developed for the Mogao Grottoes, a multi-year study began in 2001 as a joint undertaking of the Dunhuang Academy and the Getty Conservation Institute to determine the impact of visitation on the painted caves and develop strategies for sustainable visitation such that, once implemented, these threats would be resolved. The methodological framework featured a major research and assessment component that integrates visitor studies; laboratory investigations; environmental monitoring; field testing and condition assessment to address the issues affecting the grottoes and visitors. Results from this component led to defining limiting conditions, which were the basis for establishing a visitor capacity policy for the grottoes and developing long-term monitoring and management tools.
This book analyzes the risk management process in relation to building design and operation and on this basis proposes a method and a set of tools that will improve the planning and evaluation of design solutions in order to control risks in the operation and management phase. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between design choices and the long-term performance of buildings in meeting requirements expressing user and client needs. A risk dashboard is presented as a risk measurement framework that identifies and addresses areas of uncertainty surrounding the satisfaction of particularly relevant requirements over time. This risk dashboard will assist both designers and clients. It will support designers by enabling them to improve the maintainability of project performance and will aid clients both in devising a brief that emphasizes the most relevant aspects of maintainability and in evaluating project proposals according to long-term risks. The results of assessment of the proposed method and tools in tests run on a number of buildings of worship are also reported.
This book offers a detailed and fascinating picture of the astonishing astronomical knowledge on which the Roman calendar, traditionally attributed to the king Numa Pompilius (reign 715-673 B. C. ), was based. This knowledge, of Mesopotamian origins, related mainly to the planetary movements and to the occurrence of eclipses in the solar system. The author explains the Numan year and cycle and illustrates clearly how astronomical phenomena exerted a powerful influence over both public and private life. A series of concise chapters examine the dates of the Roman festivals, describe the related rites and myths and place the festivals in relation to the planetary movements and astronomical events. Special reference is made to the movements of the moon and Venus, their relation to the language of myth, and the particular significance that Venus was considered to have for female fertility. The book clearly demonstrates the depth of astronomical knowledge reflected in the Roman religious calendar and the designated festive days. It will appeal both to learned connoisseurs and to amateurs with a particular interest in the subject.
Although every country is distinguished by its history, culture and language as well as its unique economic, environmental and social conditions, it can be expected that international operating companies will exhibit common patterns since sustainability challenges do not stop at national borders. Building on original data based on results of the International Corporate Sustainability Barometer survey, this book depicts and analyzes the current state of corporate sustainability management and corporate social responsibility. Part I describe the approach and summarizes the broad results, outlining the methodology and offering an overview of results of the ICSB survey. Part II presents specific findings for each of eleven countries surveyed: Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the USA. Part III provides a comparative analysis and highlights broad patterns in the international results. Most strikingly, the book reveals surprisingly widespread similarities among the sustainability management practices of large companies in economically developed countries all over the world. All the survey results are analyzed according to the same Triple-I approach: Intention - Why do companies manage sustainability?; Integration - To what extent do companies embed sustainability in their core business and in their organization? And Implementation - How is corporate sustainability operationalized? Based on this structure the analysis serves not only to make comparisons and to investigate national characteristics; it also builds a foundation for examining whether there truly is a world-spanning common state of the art of corporate sustainability. Distinguished authors who were involved in the International Corporate Sustainability Barometer project offer their insights, identifying and discussing national and international patterns that can provide the basis for further ideas and inspiration to practitioners and researchers worldwide who are engaged in corporate sustainability.
Developing new products, services, systems and processes has become an imperative for any firm expecting to thrive in today's fast-paced and hyper-competitive environment This volume integrates academic and practical insights to present fresh perspectives on new product development and innovation, showcasing lessons learned on the technological frontier The first part emphasizes decision making. The second part focuses on technology evaluation, including cost-benefit analysis, material selection and scenarios. The third part features in-depth case studies to present innovation management tools, such as customer needs identification, technology standardization and risk management. The fourth part highlights important international trends, such as globalization and outsourcing. Finally the fifth part explores social and political aspects.
Networks of Echoes: Imitation, Innovation and Invisible Leaders is a mathematically rigorous and data rich book on a fascinating area of the science and engineering of social webs. There are hundreds of complex network phenomena whose statistical properties are described by inverse power laws. The phenomena of interest are not arcane events that we encounter only fleetingly, but are events that dominate our lives. We examine how this intermittent statistical behavior intertwines itself with what appears to be the organized activity of social groups. The book is structured as answers to a sequence of questions such as: How are decisions reached in elections and boardrooms? How is the stability of a society undermined by zealots and committed minorities and how is that stability re-established? Can we learn to answer such questions about human behavior by studying the way flocks of birds retain their formation when eluding a predator? These questions and others are answered using a generic model of a complex dynamic network--one whose global behavior is determined by a symmetric interaction among individuals based on social imitation. The complexity of the network is manifest in time series resulting from self-organized critical dynamics that have divergent first and second moments, are non-stationary, non-ergodic and non-Poisson. How phase transitions in the network dynamics influence such activity as decision making is a fascinating story and provides a context for introducing many of the mathematical ideas necessary for understanding complex networks in general. The decision making model (DMM) is selected to emphasize that there are features of complex webs that supersede specific mechanisms and need to be understood from a general perspective. This insightful overview of recent tools and their uses may serve as an introduction and curriculum guide in related courses.
This book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures. The application contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research. Innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations are presented. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 16th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance held in December 2012 at HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany and the 17th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance at Tohoku University in March 2013.
This book is dedicated to the analysis and design of analog CMOS nonlinear function synthesizer structures, based on original superior-order approximation functions. A variety of analog function synthesizer structures are discussed, based on accurate approximation functions. Readers will be enabled to implement numerous circuit functions with applications in analog signal processing, including exponential, Gaussian or hyperbolic functions. Generalizing the methods for obtaining these particular functions, the author analyzes superior-order approximation functions, which represent the core for developing CMOS analog nonlinear function synthesizers.
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