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This book describes a promising approach to problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, including the measurement problem. The dynamics of ensembles on configuration space is shown here to be a valuable tool for unifying the formalisms of classical and quantum mechanics, for deriving and extending the latter in various ways, and for addressing the quantum measurement problem. A description of physical systems by means of ensembles on configuration space can be introduced at a very fundamental level: the basic building blocks are a configuration space, probabilities, and Hamiltonian equations of motion for the probabilities. The formalism can describe both classical and quantum systems, and their thermodynamics, with the main difference being the choice of ensemble Hamiltonian. Furthermore, there is a natural way of introducing ensemble Hamiltonians that describe the evolution of hybrid systems; i. e. , interacting systems that have distinct classical and quantum sectors, allowing for consistent descriptions of quantum systems interacting with classical measurement devices and quantum matter fields interacting gravitationally with a classical spacetime.
As a young girl, Mary Anning loved to hunt for fossils by the sea. She wondered whether these rock creatures had ever been alive and resolved to learn all she could about what she found. As her discoveries became larger and more unusual, she earned the respect of scientists far and wide and changed the way we study Earth's history forever.
Tracing the story of computing from Babyloniancounting boards to smartphones, this inspiring textbook provides a conciseoverview of the key events in the history of computing, together withdiscussion exercises to stimulate deeper investigation into this fascinatingarea. Features: provides chapter introductions, summaries, key topics, and reviewquestions; includes an introduction to analogue and digital computers, and to thefoundations of computing; examines the contributions of ancient civilisationsto the field of computing; covers the first digital computers, and the earliestcommercial computers, mainframes and minicomputers; describes the earlydevelopment of the integrated circuit and the microprocessor; reviews theemergence of home computers; discusses the creation of the Internet, theinvention of the smartphone, and the rise of social media; presents a shorthistory of telecommunications, programming languages, operating systems,software engineering, artificial intelligence, and databases.
This volume examines the discursive relations between indigenous, colonial and post-colonial legacies of place-naming in Africa in terms of the production of urban space and place. It is conducted by tracing and analysing place-naming processes, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa during colonial times (British, French, Belgian, Portuguese), with a considerable attention to both the pre-colonial and post-colonial situations. By combining in-depth area studies research - some of the contributions are of ethnographic quality - with colonial history, planning history and geography, the authors intend to show that culture matters in research on place names. This volume goes beyond the recent understanding obtained in critical studies of nomenclature, normally based on lists of official names, that place naming reflects the power of political regimes, nationalism, and ideology.
This timely book begins with an overview of shale gasreservoir features such as natural fracture systems, multi-fractured horizontalwells, adsorption/desorption of methane, and non-linear flow within thereservoir. Geomechanical modelling, an aspect of importance in ultra-lowpermeability reservoirs, is also presented in detail. Taking these complex features of shale reservoirs intoaccount, the authors develop a numerical model, which is verified with fielddata using the history matching technique. Based on this model, the pressuretransient and production characteristics of a fractured horizontal well in ashale gas reservoir are analysed with respect to reservoir and fractureproperties. Methods for the estimation of shale properties are also detailed. Minifrac tests, rate transient tests (RTA), and type curve matching are used toestimate the initial pressure, permeability, and fracture half-length. Lastly,future technologies such as the technique of injecting CO2 into shalereservoirs are presented. The book will be of interest to industrial practitioners, aswell as to academics and graduate students in the field of reservoirengineering.
The interactions between the plant, soil and microbes are complex in nature. Events may be antagonistic, mutualistic or synergistic, depending upon the types of microorganisms and their association with the plant and soil in question. Multi-trophic tactics can therefore be employed to nourish plants in various habitats and growth conditions. Understanding the mechanisms of these interactions is thus highly desired in order to utilize the knowledge in an ecofriendly and sustainable way. This holistic approach to crop improvement may not only resolve the upcoming food security issues, but also make the environment greener by reducing the chemical inputs. Plant, soil and microbe, Volume 1: Implications in Crop Science, along with the forthcoming Volume 2: Mechanisms and Molecular Interactions, provide detailed accounts of the exquisite and delicate balance between the three critical components of agronomy. Specifically, these two titles focus on the basis of nutrient exchange between the microorganisms and the host plants, the mechanism of disease protection and the recent molecular details emerged from studying this multi-tropic interaction. Together they aim to provide a solid foundation for the students, teachers, and researchers interested in soil microbiology, plant pathology, ecology and agronomy.
This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.
This book explores the role of cancer stem cells in the diagnosis, treatment, and cure of cancers. This book also tackles novel methodology for cancer stem cell marker identification, cancer stem cell respiration and metabolism, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, and mi-RNA assemble. It also emphasizes the role of Bioinformatics techniques, which provide a novel methodology for modeling cancer outcomes. The authors investigate the difference between cancer stem cells and normal stem cells, along with the concept of targeted cancer stem cell therapy. Although the theoretical explanations of cancer stem cell involvement in leukemia and solid cancers are controversial, there is now little doubt that cancer stem cells exist within otherwise heterogeneous cancer cell population. The brief examines the two leading theories, hierarchical and the stochastic/cancer stem cell model. Researchers, professors and advanced-level students focused on bioengineering and computer science will find this book to be a valuable resource. It is a very good source of critical references for understanding of this problem, and a useful tool for professionals in related fields.
The book provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of map construction algorithms, which use tracking data in the form of trajectories to generate vector maps. The most common trajectory type is GPS-based trajectories. It introduces three emerging algorithmic categories, outlines their general algorithmic ideas, and discusses three representative algorithms in greater detail. To quantify map construction algorithms, the authors include specific datasets and evaluation measures. The datasets, source code of map construction algorithms and evaluation measures are publicly available on http://www. mapconstruction. org. The web site serves as a repository for map construction data and algorithms and researchers can contribute by uploading their own code and benchmark data. Map Construction Algorithms is an excellent resource for professionals working in computational geometry, spatial databases, and GIS. Advanced-level students studying computer science, geography and mathematics will also find this book a useful tool.
Thisfundamental guide on programmatic advertising explains in detail how automated, data-driven advertisingreally works in practice and how the right adoption leads to a competitive advantage foradvertisers, agencies and media. The new way of planning, steering and measuring marketing maystill appear complex and threatening but promising at once to most decision makers. Thiscollaborative compendium combines proven experience and best practice in 22 articleswritten by 45 renowned experts from all around the globe. Among them Dr. Florian Heinemann/Project-A,Peter Würtenberger/Axel-Springer, Deirdre McGlashan/MediaCom, Dr. MarcGrether/Xaxis, Michael Lamb/MediaMath, Carolin Owen/IPG, Stefan Bardega/Zenith,Arun Kumar/Cadreon, Dr. Ralf Strauss/Marketingverband,Jonathan Becher/SAP and many more great minds.
This book details theexperiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterraneanwatershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EUWater Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Experts in rivers,reservoirs, lakes, wetlands and estuaries present 13 chapters defining toolsfor water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. Thecontent of this and the companion volume Experiencesfrom Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring: The EU WaterFramework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (PartII) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA andseveral Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challengesprovided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a usefulguide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European aswell as Non-European river basins.
The easiest, most convenient, delicious, healthy recipes ever With Skinnytaste Fast and Slow, you can get a nutritious, flavor-packed, figure-friendly meal--complete with a flourless chocolate brownie made in a slow cooker--on the table any night of the week. Gina Homolka, founder of the widely adored blog Skinnytaste, shares 140 dishes that come together in a snap--whether in a slow cooker or in the oven or on the stovetop. Favorites include: Slow CookerChicken and Dumpling SoupKorean Beef TacosSpicy Harissa Lamb RaguPeach-Strawberry Crumble Under 30 MinutesZucchini Noodles with Shrimp and FetaPizza-Stuffed Chicken Roll-upsSkillet Pork Chops with Fennel and ShallotsCauliflower "Fried" Rice Each recipe includes nutritional information, which can help you take steps toward weight and health goals, and many dishes are vegetarian, gluten-free, and freezer-friendly--all called out with helpful icons. Gina's practical advice for eating well and 120 color photos round out this indispensable cookbook.
The book provides an extensive introduction to queueing models driven by Lévy-processes as well as a systematic account of the literature on Lévy-driven queues. The objective is to make the reader familiar with the wide set of probabilistic techniques that have been developed over the past decades, including transform-based techniques, martingales, rate-conservation arguments, change-of-measure, importance sampling, and large deviations. On the application side, it demonstrates how Lévy traffic models arise when modelling current queueing-type systems (as communication networks) and includes applications to finance. Queues and Lévy Fluctuation Theory will appeal to postgraduate students and researchers in mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Basic prerequisites are probability theory and stochastic processes.
Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists have shown great promise in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease and alleviation of symptoms. This book addresses various aspects of this class of drugs from their chemical development to their clinical use. Among the many insightful chapters contained in this book, there are three unique reviews that have not previously been published in any format: (1) a history of istradefylline, the first A2A antagonist approved for treatment of Parkinson's Disease, (2) an overview of neuroimaging studies in human death and disease and (3) a study of urate as a possible biomarker and neuroprotectant.
This work introduces a new method for analysing measured signals: nonlinear mode decomposition, or NMD. It justifies NMD mathematically, demonstrates it in several applications and explains in detail how to use it in practice. Scientists often need to be able to analyse time series data that include a complex combination of oscillatory modes of differing origin, usually contaminated by random fluctuations or noise. Furthermore, the basic oscillation frequencies of the modes may vary in time; for example, human blood flow manifests at least six characteristic frequencies, all of which wander in time. NMD allows us to separate these components from each other and from the noise, with immediate potential applications in diagnosis and prognosis. Mat Lab codes for rapid implementation are available from the author. NMD will most likely come to be used in a broad range of applications.
In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book's accompanying website. Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts. The first part addresses basic methods, the design of surveys, distance sampling experiments, field methods and data issues. The second part develops a range of modelling approaches for distance sampling data. The third part describes variations in the basic method; discusses special issues that arise when sampling different taxa (songbirds, seabirds, cetaceans, primates, ungulates, butterflies, and plants); considers advances to deal with failures of the key assumptions; and provides a check-list for those conducting surveys.
Using anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, and the results from studies conducted in space analog environments on Earth and in the actual space environment, this book broadly reviews the various psychosocial issues that affect space travelers. Unlike other books that are more technical in format, this text is targeted for the general public. With the advent of space tourism and the increasing involvement of private enterprise in space, there is now a need to explore the impact of space missions on the human psyche and on the interpersonal relationships of the crewmembers. Separate chapters of the book deal with psychosocial stressors in space and in space analog environments; psychological, psychiatric, interpersonal, and cultural issues pertaining to space missions; positive growth-enhancing aspects of space travel; the crew-ground interaction; space tourism; countermeasures for dealing with space; and unique aspects of a trip to Mars, the outer solar system, and interstellar travel.
This volume presents a collection of papers on number theory emerging from the third iteration of the international Women in Numbers conference, "Women in Numbers - Europe" (WINE), held on October 14-18, 2013 at the CIRM-Luminy mathematical conference center in France. The volume contains contributions covering a wide range of cutting-edge topics in number theory, yet emphasizing those concrete approaches that make it possible for graduate students and postdocs to begin work immediately on research problems even in highly complex subjects.
This abridged and revised edition of the original book (Springer-Wien-New York: 2001) offers the only comprehensive history and documentation of the Vienna Circle based on new sources with an innovative historiographical approach to the study of science. With reference to previously unpublished archival material and more recent literature, it refutes a number of widespread clichés about "neo-positivism" or "logical positivism". Following some insights on the relation between the history of science and the philosophy of science, the book offers an accessible introduction to the complex subject of "the rise of scientific philosophy" in its socio-cultural background and European philosophical networks till the forced migration in the Anglo-Saxon world. The first part of the book focuses on the origins of Logical Empiricism before World War I and the development of the Vienna Circle in "Red Vienna" (with the "Verein Ernst Mach"), its fate during Austro-Fascism (Schlick's murder 1936) and its final expulsion by National-Socialism beginning with the "Anschluß" in 1938. It analyses the dynamics of the Schlick-Circle in the intellectual context of "late enlightenment" including the minutes of the meetings from 1930 on for the first time published and presents an extensive description of the meetings and international Unity of Science conferences between 1929 and 1941. The chapters introduce the leading philosophers of the Schlick Circle (e. g. , Hans Hahn, Otto Neurath, Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank, Felix Kaufmann, Edgar Zilsel) and describe the conflicting interaction between Moritz Schlick and Otto Neurath, the long term communication between Moritz Schlick, Friedrich Waismann and Ludwig Wittgenstein, as well as between the Vienna Circle with Heinrich Gomperz and Karl Popper. In addition, Karl Menger's "Mathematical Colloquium" with Kurt Gödel is presented as a parallel movement. The final chapter of this section describes the demise of the Vienna Circle and the forced exodus of scientists and intellectuals from Austria. The second part of the book includes a bio-bibliographical documentation of the Vienna Circle members and for the first time of the assassination of Moritz Schlick in 1936, followed by an appendix comprising an extensive list of sources and literature.
This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Lightweight Cryptography for Security and Privacy, LightSec 2014, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in September 2014. The 10 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 24 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: efficient implementations and designs; attacks; and protocols.
This book covers the identification and role of endogenous lung stem cells in health and disease, particularly the most recent advances. In addition, it discusses the rapidly growing field of stem cells and cell therapy as it relates to lung biology and disease as well as ex vivo lung bioengineering. Such approaches may provide novel therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. Human pluripotent stem cell differentiation to model the pulmonary epithelium and vasculature is also discussed. World-recognized scientists who specialize in studying both the lung epithelium and pulmonary vasculature contribute the chapters. Topics covered include: stem cell niches in the lung, the role of progenitor cells in fibrosis and asthma, iPSC in modeling lung disease, vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells and circulating fibrocytes in pulmonary vascular remodeling. This volume of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series is essential reading for researchers and clinicians interested in stem cells, lung biology and regenerative medicine. It is also an invaluable resource for advanced students studying cell biology, regenerative medicine and lung physiology.
This book presents a holistic view of the complex and dynamic responses of plants to nanoparticles, the signal transduction mechanisms involved, and the regulation of gene expression. Further, it addresses the phytosynthesis of nanoparticles, the role of nanoparticles in the antioxidant systems of plants and agriculture, the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoparticles on plants, and the application of nanoparticles and nanotubes to mass spectrometry, aiming ultimately at an analysis of the metabolomics of plants. The growing numbers of inventions in the field of nanotechnology are producing novel applications in the fields of biotechnology and agriculture. Nanoparticles have received much attention because of the unique physico-chemical properties of these compounds. In the life sciences, nanoparticles are used as "smart" delivery systems, prompting the Nobel Prize winner P. Ehrlich to refer to these compounds as "magic bullets. " Nanoparticles also play an important role in agriculture as compound fertilizers and nano-pesticides, acting as chemical delivery agents that target molecules to specific cellular organelles in plants. The influence of nanoparticles on plant growth and development, however, remains to be investigated. Lastly, this book reveals the research gaps that must be bridged in the years to come in order to achieve larger goals concerning the applications of nanotechnology in the plants sciences. In the 21st century, nanotechnology has become a rapidly emerging branch of science. In the world of physical sciences, nanotechnological tools have been exploited for a broad range of applications. In recent years, nanoparticles have also proven useful in several branches of the life sciences. In particular, nanotechnology has been employed in drug delivery and related applications in medicine.
This comprehensive volume examines the current state of free radical biology and its impact on otology, laryngology, and head and neck function. The chapters collectively highlight the interrelationship of basic and translational studies in each area, define the challenges to translation, and identify the existing basic issues that demand investigation as well as the opportunities for novel intervention to prevent and treat ENT pathology and impairment. In each chapter, or in some cases pairs of chapters, the author(s) have included or married issues of basic research with translational challenges and research, thus defining the pathway by which new basic insights may lead to interventions to prevent or treat impairment. The final chapter of this book reflects a meeting of all the contributors, culminating in a discussion and "white paper" that identifies the challenges to the field and defines the studies and collaborations that may lead to improved understanding of free radical biology in ENT and, subsequently, new interventions to medically treat ENT pathology.
The uneven geographical distribution of economic activities is a huge challenge worldwide and also for the European Union. In Krugman's New Economic Geography economic systems have a simple spatial structure. This book shows that more sophisticated models should visualise the EU as an evolving trade network with a specific topology and different aggregation levels. At the highest level, economic geography models give a bird eye's view of spatial dynamics. At a medium level, institutions shape the economy and the structure of (financial and labour) markets. At the lowest level, individual decisions interact with the economic, social and institutional environment; the focus is on firms' decision on location and innovation. Such multilevel models exhibit complex dynamic patterns - path dependence, cumulative causation, hysteresis - on a network structure; and specific analytic tools are necessary for studying strategic interaction, heterogeneity and nonlinearities.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed joint proceedings of the Third and Fourth Workshop on Big Data Benchmarking. The third WBDB was held in Xi'an, China, in July 2013 and the Fourth WBDB was held in San José, CA, USA, in October, 2013. The 15 papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 33 presentations. They focus on big data benchmarks; applications and scenarios; tools, systems and surveys.
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