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This book is an insightful and detailed analysis of Canadian labour relations policy at the beginning of the 20th century, and of the formulation of distinctive features which still characterize it today. The development and reception of this policy are explained as a product of ideological and economic forces. These include the impact of international unionism on the Canadian working class, the emergence of scientific management in business ideology, and the special role of the state in economic development and the mediation of class relationships.The ideas and career of Mackenzie King, including his 'new liberalism,' and his activities in regard to the Department of Labour are examined, revealing how he moulded Canada's official position in the relations between capital and labour. With a focus on King's intellectual qualities in an international context, the author brings out another dimension, portraying him as Canada's first practising social scientist.The book examines implementation of policy through an analysis of the work of the Department of Labour through detailed case studies of government interventions in industrial disputes. The initial acceptance of the labour relations policy by the labour movement is explained and its repudiation in 1911 is examined against a background of setbacks which reflected its practical limits as much as its philosophical orientation. The result is a study which moves beyond a particular concern with labour policy to illuminate the contours of Canadian life in a crucial period of national development.
These vigorous lectures deal with some of the many ways in which the question of structure in poetry (here synonymous with the whole range of artistic creation in words) can be discussed. Criticism has never been, Professor Clare argues, a single discipline, but a collection of more and less distinct conceptual "languages," within any one of which a literary problem takes on a special solution. The Alexander Lectures for 1952.
Pembroke. August 4, 1914. On a verandah in town four young people anxiously await news that will change irrevocably the course of their lives. A fifth arrives, out of breath, with the latest bulletin from the telegraph office. War has been declared – and it is their war. At the age of ninety, Grace Craig looks back to her youth and tells the story of the impact of the Great War on her family and friends. Letters from the young men on the Western Front are interwoven with her own memories of the war. Her brother Basil, youngest officer in the No. 1 Canadian Tunnelling Company, fights underground driving mineshafts deep below the tortured earth of no man's land; later, as an observer in the Royal Flying Corps, he flies above the enemy lines amidst the bursting shells. His older brother Ramsey, a lieutenant in the 38th Battalion, fights in the constant mud on the ground, and must lead his men 'over the top' in the face of enemy fire. At home their sister knits socks and scarves, packs boxes to be sent overseas, serves vast quantities of apple pie and ice cream in the canteen at nearby Camp Petawa, and leads the assembled troops in stirring war songs. In November 1916 she braves the U boats and the North Atlantic to spend time with her brothers while they are on leave in England. Divided by danger and distance, letters alone allowed contact. The soldiers yearned for everyday news of home; and in Pembroke one waited for, and kept forever, those precious scraps of paper from beyond the sea. But This is Our War is a moving, absorbing document of young Canadians at war.
Collected in this volume are selections from addresses by His Excellency, General Georges P. Vanier, one of the most eminent public figures of Canada. His broad interests and deep involvement in all aspects of Canadian life are reflected in these speeches. A life-long concern with the importance of the family is evident in his opening talk at the Canadian Conference on the Family in 1964: "...the best and surest way of developing generous and idealistic hearts, of giving the community men and women who are well-balanced and conscious of their responsibilities to their country, is to protect the family, for the family...is capable of giving to the universe the human beings who are prepared to put justice and truth before their own personal interests." From this conference emerged the Vanier Institute of the Family.Closely allied to the Governor-General's dedication to the family was his interest in the youth of the country. During his time of office he strove continually to bring Canadians to a fuller realization of the importance of their young people: "Tell me the character of a nation's young people and I will tell you the future of the nation."The book also includes the core of the Governor General's statements on education, reflections that have special meaning for every teacher and educator in Canada. His views on public life and on the democratic ideal, and his great desire for better understanding between English and French Canadians and for the essential unity of the Canadian nation, also hold a place of prominence in these excerpts.The final section of the book is devoted to his intense concern for the spiritual side of man's existence, for the ideals and values that set man apart and allow him to hope for a better world.Dr Wilder Penfield, head of the Vanier Institute of the Family, who was a close friend of the Governor General, and Claude Ryan, editor of Le Devoir, have written forewords for the volume.
In 1928 Miss Cowan published in the series "University of Toronto Studies, History and Economics" her first work on population movements: British Emigration to British North America, 1783-1837. This study has remained a standard reference on its subject and for some time has been available for purchase only through second-hand channels. In the intervening years Miss Cowan maintained an active interest in this field of history; for the present volume she has revised the earlier study in the light of her own and others' investigations and has expanded her discussion to include another quarter-century.The book is an attempt to give students and general readers something of the story of the outpouring of British subjects who peopled British North America in the years before Confederation. Economic dislocations coincident with the Napoleonic Wars and the industrial and agricultural revolutions were causing a vast uprooting of population. At the same time, the beginning of political and humanitarian reform brought a demand for assistance in poor relief, for land, labour and other improvements at home and for government aid in emigrating to the colonies. The author describes the various policies of governments on emigration, the activities of timber, mercantile and land companies which became greatly interested in the flow of population overseas, and the efforts of individual and societies to held the needy who took part in this epic movement.
J.A. Corry, one of Canada's outstanding political scientists, in the Alan B. Plaunt Lectures for 1963 has contributed a brilliant and provocative analysis of the changed world in which politics and students of politics must operate today. He suggests first that political studies can no longer be confined to the frame long held adequate. The eighteenth-century view of man as essentially rational suited an age of individualism and liberal optimism but is inadequate for politics in our mass society: here theology has something to contribute. Political science has in the past confined its attention to the operation of governments and political parties but has not for this age taken enough account of the influence of the social structure as a whole on political behaviour: here is where sociology may speak. With this background Principal Corry talks of the difficulties of understanding our present-day political ideas and theories hitherto usually relied on for the purpose. He goes on to look at some aspects of the collectivist, mass society we live in today and to consider how far these may be producing new dimensions in political behaviour.There is abroad today a mood of disenchantment and frustration because politics has disappointed us but ironically this mood may endanger such recovery of control as is open to us. Effective power is being gathered into relatively few hands. In this society where will the individual find confidence and self-reliance and a sense of responsibility? We face a dilemma in "the end of ideology," in the slipping of convictions about what can be achieved through politics, and this affects both governments, politicians and individuals. Answers to the many questions about human nature and society which this dilemma presents are not easy to find, but must be sought. The skill and power with which Principal Corry has marshalled the questions ensure our attention and concern.
Completely revised and enlarged edition (1951) of a book which has become a standard work on comparative government. This edition brings up to date the material on institutions and practices of government in Britain, the United States, and Canada, and analyses more fully the relationship of democratic institutions and practices to the essentials of the democratic creed.
The monolithic nature of the communist movement during the Stalinist period overlay pluralist tendencies. These were suppressed in the 1920s, though they were to re-emerge after Stalin's death.The history of the Communist Youth International is revealed in this volume as an important example of the 'autonomist' tendencies in the communist movement after the First World War. The experience of the CYI also demonstrates that differences between Leninist and Stalinist eras were of degree, rather than of kind. Under Lenin, organizational principles and practices were introduced that gave to the new communist movement a distinct, authoritarian cast.Cornell considers the relevance, in the development of radical movements among the young, of such qualities as untempered idealism, a predisposition to embrace the most radical alternatives for social change, and a self-assertiveness or rebelliousness directed against traditional adult teachings. He shows how these qualities were to lead, after the First World War (and more recently), to conflicts between radical, ideologically orthodox youth and more pragmatic adult party leaders. In introducing their new kind of radicalism, the young communists of Europe in 1919 considered themselves to be the most revolutionary element among revolutionaries – the highest form of 'revolutionary vanguard.' Moscow did not agree.
The career of Sidney Earle Smith, Dean of Law, Dalhousie University (1929-34), President of the University of Manitoba (1934-44), President of the University of Toronto (1945-59), had a variety of backgrounds which were significant in determining his impressive achievement in Canada's humanistic tradition. He was reared in the vigorous landscape and living of the Maritimes, rigorously trained in the discipline of the law whose traditions he always enjoyed and respected, challenged and stimulated by very different but equally significant administrative problems as president first of a struggling western university (Manitoba), and then of the largest and most complex in Canada (Toronto), and finally was caught up in the compelling swirl of international politics from the office of Secretary of State for External Affairs. At every stage of these activities Sidney Smith made an indelible impression on his associates. One of these, who knew him intimately in the work of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is the author of this short but revealing biography.Mr. Corbett has carefully and vividly sketched in the backgrounds of his subject's story, has woven into the account with ingenious informality reminiscences of the man and his work by a goodly company of his colleagues, and has brought out his personality, style, methods, beliefs in a persuasive atmosphere of personal warmth and strong academic conviction. This is a book of lively charm to read, and also a valuable recording of a public servant who "left a mark upon his time and his country that the passage of the years will further illuminate." Its initial appearance in the year of the opening of Sidney Smith Hall, built to house the Faculty of Arts whose interests he had always served with sturdy devotion, is a happy association.
History ended, according to Hegel according to Kojève, with the establishment and proliferation in Europe of states organized along Napoleonic lines: rational, bureaucratic, homogenous, atheist. This state lives in some tension with the popular slogan that helped give it birth: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. But there is now also totalitarianism – the only new kind of regime, according to Arendt, created since the national state. Man is now in charge of nature, technology, and society; much of political life has become a gavotte elaborating the meaning of the Napoleonic model.This interpretation, however opposed it seems to common sense, has been influential, particularly in France where the course of existentialism is unintelligible without taking it into account. Professor Cooper argues that it is inherently plausible and examines the arguments of Hegel and Kojève to reveal its consistency and explanatory power. And he applies it to more contemporary events – the experience of the atomic bomb, the Gulag system of extermination, and the growth of multinational corporations.The work concludes by pulling together the presuppositions and theories of the totalitarian system, the Hegelian version of the Napoleonic state, and our contemporary technological society. Overall, the reader will find here a complete and challenging presentation of how the modern world understands its collective life.
Influenced by Kojève's interpretation of Hegel as well as his direct political experience of the second world war, Maurice Merleau-Ponty abandoned the religious and philosophical position he had assumed in the 1930s and turned to Marxism. This is the first critical study of the French philosopher's political ideas and the context in which they evolved. In its origin and its development, Merleau-Ponty's political thought expressed a subtle dialectic between ongoing political events and the apparent truths of Marx's analysis. With the onset of the cold war, the discovery of the Soviet concentration camps, the repression of Eastern Europe, the Algerian crisis, and the founding of the Fifth Republic, Merleau-Ponty began to take a critical look at Marx's ideas of the genesis of humanism in the light of these disturbing political realities. His reconsideration of the basis of Marxism and his conclusion that it had lost contact with history led to a fundamental reorientation of his attitudes. No longer sympathetic to the use of violence to end violence, he criticized Sartre's external justification of communist violence as 'magical' and advocated instead a new liberalism combining parliamentary democracy with an awareness of the social problems of industrial capitalism.Barry Cooper's study of this important contemporary thinker gives context for an understanding of Merleau- Ponty's politics and, in so doing, brings together the complex issues and ideas that have shaped modern European political and philosophical thought.
John W. Dafoe was a dominant figure in western Canadian political history during the first half of the twentieth century. As editor of the Winnipeg Free Press from 1901 to 1944, he gained an international reputation for his perceptive analysis of the issues facing Canada and the world. He was at the centre of almost every major political development of his time: he advised prime ministers, was deeply involved in organizing the Progressive party, and was a member of the crucial Rowell-Sirois Commission on federal-provincial relations. His influence was enormous, and at the time of his death he was widely regarded as the nation's most distinguished editor. This book is a study at close quarters of Dafoe, the man of politics. It focuses on the Dafoe who read and studied and the Dafoe who observed men and events; on Dafoe in his centre of operation and at the Free Press and Dafoe moving watchfully about the country and abroad when critical decisions were in the making; on the ideas confided in letters to friends and the ideas delivered in public speeches; on contributions made to conferences and commissions and advice given to political figures. The book is not intended as a complete biography of Dafoe in all his aspects, but it is even less an abstract treatise in the field of political theory. It is the biography of a political mind. The impression is of a mind recalled to its full vigour, for no prejudgments have been made about it and no restraints upon it. Ramsay Cook treats his subject with candour, but also with understanding and a sense of humour. He has ordered his material with extraordinary skill, so that his book is enjoyable reading as well as a valuable source of information about a distinguished Canadian and a momentous period in Canadian history.
Browning's lyrics are favourite choices for anthologies but are rarely examined closely. This is the first full-length study of the lyrics, and includes detailed analyses of such well-known poems as Love Among the Ruins, Two in the Campagna, A Serenade at the Villa, A Toccata of Galuppi's, By the Fireside, and James Lee's Wife. Eleanor Cook explores Browning's use of repeated images and themes in the lyrics, examines these patterns in other poems and in his letters, and analyses their growth and change in all his work. She demonstrates how the lyrics may be linked with Browning's other work and shows something of his essential artistic unity. His imaginary is found to be more consistent and complex than is usually assumed.Students of Browning will find this work stimulating and instructive, while lovers of Browning will read it with pure pleasure. The reader will return to many of the poems with a rciher sense of their continuing vitality. In an earlier form this study was awarded the first A.S.P. Woodhouse Prize by the University of Toronto.
Medieval Monasticism is a bibliography meant as a guide to medieval monasticism, giving direction to the most important works in the subject and is prepared by an expert in the field, Dr. Constable. The bibliography has three aims: it meant to aid students who are relatively new to the area of study, to guide more advanced readers in a subject where they have had little formal training, and to assist new libraries in forming a basic collection in the subject presented.
Laure Conan was the first woman novelist in French Canada and the first writer in all Canada to attempt a roman d'analyse. As she refused to have her true identity revealed, the author of the preface to her book, Abbé H.-R. Casgrain, made a point of confirming that it was indeed a woman hiding behind the pen-name. Her daring in writing a psychological novel was 'forgiven' because she was a woman, and her anticipating the trend towards this type of novel was attributed to 'that intuition natural to her sex.' In Angéline de Montbrun, Laure Conan broke with what has been called the 'collective romanticism' of nineteenth-century French-Canadian land, with the rural myth, the exhortative tone, and the vast canvas. These concerns are basically absent in her work. Further, she eschewed the details of adventure and intrigue, the wooden, predictable characters, and the transparent intricacies of romantic love in favour of writing about the inner turmoil of an individual, live character, a young woman caught in a complex web of human appetites, aspirations, and relationships. Because of the novel's realism, one of the most persistent topics of discussion about Laure Conan has been whether or not Angéline de Montbrun is autobiographical. Recent studies indicate it may be. In any case, Angéline was the most complex character in Canadian fiction to 1882 and for some time to come. Traditionally, Angéline de Montbrun was regarded as a novel of Christian renunciation, and Angéline as the most holy of heroines. For a long time no one went too deeply into the relationships between the characters, but in 1961 Jean Le Moyne bluntly stated that 'the lovers in the novel are not Maurice Darville and Angéline, but M. de Montbrun and his daughter.' Since then there has been a proliferation of interpretations and psychological studies of the novel, and there is no going back to the simpler view of it.
It is a commonly held view among historians of Greek literature that with the advent of Euripides the tragic structure, even the tragic outlook of Greek drama suffered a breakdown from which it never recovered. While there is much truth in this opinion, it has tended to put too much emphasis on "Euripides the destroyer" rather than "Euripides the creator." In this study the author's main purpose is to redress the balance and to discuss the structure and techniques of Euripidean drama in relation to its new and richly varied themes.The consistent dramatic form evolved by Aeschylus and Sophocles had grown out of their conception of tragedy as the resultant of the tension between the individual will and the universal order suggested in myth. For Euripides, who never fully accepted myth as the real basis of tragedy, alternate ways of using the traditional material became necessary, and the playwright continually changed his dramatic structure to suit the particular tragic idea he was seeking to express. Viewed in this way, Euripides' dramatic technique may be seen in positive as well as negative terms—as something other than the breakdown of structural technique and mythological insight under the overwhelming force of his ideas. Professor Conacher offers here a new view of Euripides as the first Greek dramatist properly to understand the world of myth, and so, in a sense, to stand a bit outside it. He shows how Euripides, far from being an impatient or incompetent craftsman, used traditional mth as a basis for inventing new forms in which to cast his perceptions of the sources of human tragedy. All the extant Euripidean drama is examined in this book; the result is an intelligent guide to the plays for all students of dramatic literature, as well as a convincing defence of Euripides the creator.
Child neglect has been characterized over the past century as a problem of deficient care of children by mothers. A complex and punitive child welfare system has emerged, based on a view that the children of these mothers require legally sanctioned rescue by those better suited to care for them. Karen Swift challenges both the accepted view of child neglect and the present official response to it. Beginning from a critical theoretical perspective, she argues that our usual perceptions of neglect hide and distort important social realities. This distorted perception only serves to reproduce the conditions of poverty, marginalization, and violence in which these families live. The current child welfare system, far from rescuing neglected children, helps instead to ensure the continuation of their problems, and the outcome is especially dramatic and damaging in Aboriginal communities. Swift explores the historical, organizational, and professional dimensions within which child neglect becomes a visible social reality. Also examined are relations of class, race, and gender embedded in our usual understanding of child neglect. The discussion shows how these relations are continually reproduced through ordinary, everyday work practices of social workers and others who deal with mothers accused of child neglect. The 'good parent' model, through which help and authority are apparently merged, continually indicates that the mothers are unworthy of help. Their own experience disappears as they are faced with procedures designed to examine their present suitability for the job of parenting. The same procedures produce children as actually being helped through the exertion of state authority over their parents – but most of the help provided children is theoretical, and some of it is quite damaging. Swift also looks at both current and alternative notions of helping families. Finally, she argues that each of us can help to transform oppressive social realities.
In the energy sector of Canadian economic and political life, power has a double meaning. It is quintessentially about the generation of power and physical energy. However, it is also about political power, the energy of the economy, and thus the overall governance of Canada. Power Switch offers a critical examination of the changing nature of energy regulatory governance, with a particular focus on Canada in the larger contexts of the George W. Bush administration's aggressive energy policies and within North American energy markets.Focusing on the key institutions and complex regimes of regulation, Bruce Doern and Monica Gattinger look at specific regulatory bodies such as the National Energy Board, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, and the Ontario Energy Board. They also examine the complex systems of rule making that develop as traditional energy regulation interacts and often collides with environmental and climate change regulation, such as the Kyoto Protocol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Power Switch is one of the first accounts in many years of Canada's overall energy regulatory system.
In a series of landmark decisions since 1990, Canadian courts have shaped a distinctive approach to the regulation of obscenity, hate literature, and child pornography. Missing from the debate, however, has been any attempt to determine whether the legal status quo can be justified by reference to a framework of moral/political principles. The Hateful and the Obscene is intended to fill that gap. L.W. Sumner brings philosophical depth and theoretical rigour to some of the most important and difficult questions concerning free expression. Building on a framework set out by J.S. Mill – that a legal restriction of expression is justified only when the expression in question is harmful to others and when the benefits of the restriction will exceed its costs – Sumner shows how the Canadian courts have replicated Mill's framework in their interpretation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Hateful and the Obscene is a compelling interpretation of freedom of expression that combines serious philosophical thought with a focus on Canadian law, thus maintaining the breadth to deal with both obscenity and hate literature.
Business leaders need to embrace sustainability in order to ensure the lasting success of their organizations. Co-authors Suhas Apte and Jagdish Sheth bring their expertise from practice and from academic to illustrate how business leaders can embed sustainability in a truly holistic and transformative way. Through an examination of such companies as Walmart, AT&T, IKEA and the Tata Group, Apte and Sheth have developed a proven and actionable framework rooted in the real world success of these companies. The case studies reveal how business leaders proactively engage, energize and promote market sustainability to all of their stakeholders including customers, employees, suppliers, investors and the government. The Sustainability Edge enables companies to critically engage their stakeholders and influence them to accept sustainability as part of their core mission.
Naamiwan’s Drum follows the story of a famous Ojibwe medicine man, his gifted grandson, and remarkable water drum. This drum, and forty other artefacts, were given away by a Canadian museum to an American Anishinaabe group that had no family or community connections to the collection. Many years passed before the drum was returned to the family and only of the artefacts were ever returned to the museum.Maureen Matthews takes us through this astonishing set of events from multiple perspectives, exploring community and museum viewpoints, visiting the ceremonial group leader in Wisconsin, and finally looking back from the point of view of the drum. The book contains a powerful Anishinaabe interpretive perspective on repatriation and on anthropology itself. Containing fourteen beautiful colour illustrations, Naamiwan’s Drum is a compelling account of repatriation as well as a cautionary tale for museum professionals.
Geriatric psychiatry is a relatively young discipline within the field of North American psychiatry. The development of a workforce to meet the needs of an aging population has been identified as an urgent priority, but there is still much we don’t know about fulfilling the mental health needs of older adults. For Mark J. Rapoport, geriatric psychiatrists must assess and treat patients today in face of the limitations of what we know, but also be armed with enthusiasm to create novel ways of impacting on the quality of life of older patients with mental illness. The chapters in this book include case scenarios, concise point-form summaries of diagnostic and treatment approaches, up-to-date evidence syntheses, discussions of controversies, and a series of practical and thought-provoking questions and answers. Geriatric Psychiatry is a succinct and advanced review of geriatric psychiatry that will help clinicians improve the psychiatric care of an aging population.
Holidays are a key to helping us understand the transformation of national, regional, community and ethnic identities. In Celebrating Canada, Matthew Hayday and Raymond Blake situate Canada in an international context as they examine the history and evolution of our national and provincial holidays and annual celebrations. The contributors to this volume examine such holidays as Dominion Day, Victoria Day, Quebec’s Fête Nationale and Canadian Thanksgiving, among many others. They also examine how Canadians celebrate the national days of other countries (like the Fourth of July) and how Dominion Day was observed in the United Kingdom. Drawing heavily on primary source research, and theories of nationalism, identities and invented traditions, the essays in this collection deepen our understanding of how these holidays have influenced the evolution of Canadian identities.
The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921-22 was one of the most dramatic events in the history of the treatment of disease. Insulin was a wonder-drug with ability to bring patients back from the very brink of death, and it was no surprise that in 1923 the Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to its discoverers, the Canadian research team of Banting, Best, Collip, and Macleod. In this engaging and award-winning account, historian Michael Bliss recounts the fascinating story behind the discovery of insulin – a story as much filled with fiery confrontation and intense competition as medical dedication and scientific genius. Originally published in 1982 and updated in 1996, The Discovery of Insulin has won the City of Toronto Book Award, the Jason Hannah Medal of the Royal Society of Canada, and the William H. Welch Medal of the American Association for the History of Medicine.
Charlie James (1867–1937) was a premier carver and painter from the Kwakwaka'wakw First Nation of British Columbia. Also known by his ceremonial name Yakuglas, he was hawker a prolific artist and activist during a period of severe oppression for First Nations people in Canada. Yakuglas’ Legacy examines the life of Charlie James. During the early part of his career James created works primarily for ritual use within Kwakwaka'wakw society. However, in the 1920s, his art found a broader audience as he produced more miniatures and paintings. Through a balanced reading of the historical period and James’ artistic production, Ronald W. Hawker argues that James’ shift to contemporary art forms allowed the artist to make a critical statement about the vitality of Kwakwaka'wakw culture. Yakuglas’ Legacy, aided by the inclusion of 123 colour illustrations, is at once a beautiful and poignant book about the impact of the Canadian project on Aboriginal people and their artistic response.
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