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While compilers for high-level programming languages are large complex software systems, they have particular characteristics that differentiate them from other software systems. Their functionality is almost completely well-defined - ideally there exist complete precise descriptions of the source and target languages. Additional descriptions of the interfaces to the operating system, programming system and programming environment, and to other compilers and libraries are often available. The book deals with the optimization phase of compilers. In this phase, programs are transformed in order to increase their efficiency. To preserve the semantics of the programs in these transformations, the compiler has to meet the associated applicability conditions. These are checked using static analysis of the programs. In this book the authors systematically describe the analysis and transformation of imperative and functional programs. In addition to a detailed description of important efficiency-improving transformations, the book offers a concise introduction to the necessary concepts and methods, namely to operational semantics, lattices, and fixed-point algorithms. This book is intended for students of computer science. The book is supported throughout with examples, exercises and program fragments.
Your trusted tour guide to macOS Sierra macOS is the engine that runs your Mac, so it's a good idea to know a bit about how it works. Fully updated to cover macOS Sierra, this long-time bestseller is the map you need to navigate Apple's operating system. Whether you're exploring macOS for the first time, looking for shortcuts to speed up common tasks, or trying to fix a common problem, macOS Sierra For Dummies provides easy-to-follow answers to all your questions. Written by Bob 'Dr. Mac' LeVitus, a well-known tech columnist and Mac expert, this hands-on guide offers how-to information on the classic elements that help run Macs as well as timesaving tips on working with all the major changes that come with Sierra. The book begins with a plain-English explanation of the basics of the macOS desktop and goes on to cover everything from finding files faster, making the most of organization and communication tools, getting your Mac on a network, adding music, movies, and books, and so much more. In short: life with your Mac is about to get so much easier and more efficient! Get acquainted with the newest and classic features of macOS Sierra Discover shortcuts for saving time when working on your Mac Learn how popular mobile tools like Siri and Apple Pay are now part of macOS Use the latest creative and productivity tools that come with Sierra Find helpful troubleshooting and safety tips With the help of this bestselling guide, you'll learn not only how to do it, but how to do it better on macOS Sierra.
Features: 1,001 practice questions covering all sections of the test Detailed, step-by-step answers and explanations for every question Free one-year access to all 1,001 practice questions online: Track your progress, see where you need more help, and create customized question sets Study what, where, and when you want Score higher on the ACT Your ACT score is a very important factor in getting into college--and getting the money to pay for college. Improving your score by even a few points can make a big difference in the scholarships and financial aid that you receive. With that in mind, don't waste any time. Get practicing! Online... 1,001 questions modeled after actual ACT questions 300 English questions 295 math questions 200 reading questions 201 science questions 5 writing test questions On-the-go access from your computer, smartphone, or tablet Customizable practice sets for self-directed study 1-year access to all 1,001 practice questions online!
Features: 1,001 practice questions covering all sections of the test Detailed, step-by-step answers and explanations for every question Free one-year access to all 1,001 practice questions online: Track your progress, see where you need more help, and create customized tests Study what, where, and when you want Praxis is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS). This product is not endorsed or approved by ETS. Prepare to perform your best on the Praxis Congratulations on your decision to shape the minds of future generations through education! Taking the Praxis exam is an important step on your journey to becoming a professional educator. Luckily, this comprehensive test-prep guide offers 1,001 practice opportunities to sharpen your skills, pinpoint where you need more help, and give you a competitive edge on exam day. 1,001 practice questions inside give you the real-life practice you need to fully prepare for exam day. Online... 1,001 questions modeled after actual Praxis Core questions 422 math questions 336 reading comprehension questions 211 writing and grammar questions 20 research questions 12 essay questions On-the-go access from your computer, smartphone, or tablet 1-year access to all 1,001 practice questions online!
In-depth information on natural biomaterials and their applications for translational medicine! Undiluted expertise: edited by world-leading experts with contributions from top-notch international scientists, collating experience and cutting-edge knowledge on natural biomaterials from all over the world A must-have on the shelf in every biomaterials lab: graduate and PhD students beginning their career in biomaterials science and experienced researchers and practitioners alike will turn to this comprehensive reference in their daily work Link to clinical practice: chapters on translational research make readers aware of what needs to be considered when a biomaterial leaves the lab to be routinely used
A comprehensive and authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments in stem cell research and its use in toxicology and medicine Presented by internationally recognized investigators in this exciting field of scientific research Provides an insight into the current trends and future directions of research in this rapidly developing new field A valuable and excellent source of authoritative and up-to-date information for researchers, toxicologists, drug industry, risk assessors and regulators in academia, industry and government
Provides comprehensive knowledge on concepts, theoretical methods and state-of-the-art computational techniques for the simulation of self-assembling systems Looks at the field of self-assembly from a theoretical perspective Highlights the importance of theoretical studies and tailored computer simulations to support the design of new self-assembling materials with useful properties Divided into three parts covering the basic principles of self-assembly, methodology, and emerging topics
For the practicing sports medicine physician at the front line of sports cardiology, this comprehensive and authoritative resource provides a centralized source of information which addresses this important topic in an accessible manner. This book recognises the broad role sports physicians play, from liaison between athlete, family, specialist, and coaching staff based on the identification of pathological heart disease, to being first to respond when an athlete collapses. The chapters include basic science of disease and disorders, pathophysiology, diagnosis, the effect or role of exercise, and clinical management guidance. Provides a comprehensive and authoritative overview on all aspects of sports cardiology Addresses cardiac abnormalities confronting Olympic athletes, Paralympic athletes, as well as athletes competing on all other levels of competition Endorsed by the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Written and edited by global thought leaders in sports medicine
Juan I. Padrón and Víctor S. Martín: Catalysis by means of Fe-based Lewis acids; Hiroshi Nakazawa*, Masumi Itazaki: Fe-H Complexes in Catalysis; Kristin Schröder, Kathrin Junge, Bianca Bitterlich, and Matthias Beller: Fe-catalyzed Oxidation Reactions of Olefins, Alkanes and Alcohols: Involvement of Oxo- and Peroxo Complexes; Chi-Ming Che, Cong-Ying Zhou, Ella Lai-Ming Wong: Catalysis by Fe=X Complexes (X=NR, CR2); René Peters, Daniel F. Fischer and Sascha Jautze: Ferrocene and Half Sandwich Complexes as Catalysts with Iron Participation; Markus Jegelka, Bernd Plietker: Catalysis by Means of Complex Ferrates.
This technical book considers the application side of LDA techniques. Starting from the basic theories that are crucial for each LDA user, the main subject of the book is focused on diverse application methods. In details, it deals with universal methodical techniques that have been mostly developed in the last 15 years. The book thus gives for the first time an application reference for LDA users in improving the optical conditions and enhancing the measurement accuracies. It also provides the guidelines for simplifying the measurements and correcting measurement errors as well as for clarifying the application limits and extending the application areas of LDA techniques. Beside the treatments of some traditional optical and flow mechanical features influencing the measurement accuracies, the book shows a broad spectrum of LDA application methods in the manner of measuring the flow turbulence, resolving the secondary flow structures, and quantifying the optical aberrations at measurements of internal flows etc.. Thus, it also supports the further developments of both the hard- and software of LDA instrumentations.
This thesis reveals the utility of pursuing a statistical physics approach in the description of wave interactions in multimode optical systems. To that end, the appropriate Hamiltonian models are derived and their limits of applicability are discussed. The versatility of the framework allows the characterization of ordered and disordered lasers in open and closed cavities in a unified scheme, from standard mode-locking to random lasers. With the use of replica method and Monte Carlo simulations, the models are categorized on the basis of universal properties, and nontrivial predictions of experimental relevance are obtained. In particular, the approach makes it possible to nonperturbatively treat the interplay between disorder and nonlinearity and to envisage novel and fascinating physical phenomena such as glassy random lasers, providing a novel way to experimentally investigate replica symmetry breaking.
This volume provides the important concepts necessary for a physician to participate in a reengineering process, develop decision-making skills based on probability and logic rather than "rules," and to measure and analyze meaningful outcomes of care delivery. This approach has been developed over ten years in a medical student-based program and has been enthusiastically embraced by medical students without backgrounds in engineering or statistics. More specifically, this text will introduce physicians to relevant and available computer software, combined with an in depth knowledge of measurement, variation, and uncertainty. It provides a basis for the transformation of data into information, information into knowledge, and knowledge into wisdom. The first quarter of the book will address understanding and visualizing data, using statistical and graphic analysis. The next quarter addresses the fundamentals of applied statistics, and the application of conditional probability to clinical decision making. The next quarter addresses the four "cornerstones" of modern analytics: regression, classification, association analysis, and clustering. The final section addresses the identification of outliers and their importance in understanding, the assessment of cause and effect and the limitations associated with retrospective data analysis. This toolbox will prepare the interested physician to actively engage in the identification of problem areas, the design of process-based solutions, and the continuous assessment of outcomes of clinical practice. Armed with this toolbox, the reader will be "prepared to make a difference" in the rapidly changing world of healthcare delivery. Measurement and Analysis in Transforming Healthcare Delivery is an excellent resource for general practitioners, health administrators, and all medical professionals interacting with healthcare delivery.
From the point of view of grid integration and operation, this monograph advances the subject of wind energy control from the individual-unit to the wind-farm level. The basic objectives and requirements for successful integration of wind energy with existing power grids are discussed, followed by an overview of the state of the art, proposed solutions and challenges yet to be resolved. At the individual-turbine level, a nonlinear controller based on feedback linearization, uncertainty estimation and gradient-based optimization is shown robustly to control both active and reactive power outputs of variable-speed turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. Heuristic coordination of the output of a wind farm, represented by a single equivalent turbine with energy storage to optimize and smooth the active power output is presented. A generic approximate model of wind turbine control developed using system identification techniques is proposed to advance research and facilitate the treatment of control issues at the wind-farm level. A supervisory wind-farm controller is then introduced with a view to maximizing and regulating active power output under normal operating conditions and unusual contingencies. This helps to make the individual turbines cooperate in such as way that the overall output of the farm accurately tracks a reference and/or is statistically as smooth as possible to improve grid reliability. The text concludes with an overall discussion of the promise of advanced wind-farm control techniques in making wind an economic energy source and beneficial influence on grid performance. The challenges that warrant further research are succinctly enumerated. Control and Operation of Grid-Connected Wind Farms is primarily intended for researchers from a systems and control background wishing to apply their expertise to the area of wind-energy generation. At the same time, coverage of contemporary solutions to fundamental operational problems will benefit power/energy engineers endeavoring to promote wind as a reliable and clean source of electrical power.
Thisbook constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second InternationalConference on Decision Support Systems Technology, ICDSST 2016, held inPlymouth, UK, May 23-25. The theme of the event was "Decision SupportSystems Addressing Sustainability &Societal Challenges", organized by the EURO (Association of EuropeanOperational Research Societies) working group of Decision Support Systems(EWG-DSS). The 15 full papers presented inthis book were selected out of 51 submissions after being carefully reviewed byinternationally experts from the ICDSST 2016 Program Committee and externalinvited reviewers. The selected papers are representative of current andrelevant research activities in various areas of decision supportsystems, such as sustainability and societal challenges; risk management and project portfoliomanagement; business intelligence and knowledge management; and technologies toimprove system usability.
Provides an important framework for data analysts in assessing the quality of data and its potential to provide meaningful insights through analysis Analytics and statistical analysis have become pervasive topics, mainly due to the growing availability of data and analytic tools. Technology, however, fails to deliver insights with added value if the quality of the information it generates is not assured. Information Quality (InfoQ) is a tool developed by the authors to assess the potential of a dataset to achieve a goal of interest, using data analysis. Whether the information quality of a dataset is sufficient is of practical importance at many stages of the data analytics journey, from the pre-data collection stage to the post-data collection and post-analysis stages. It is also critical to various stakeholders: data collection agencies, analysts, data scientists, and management. This book: Explains how to integrate the notions of goal, data, analysis and utility that are the main building blocks of data analysis within any domain. Presents a framework for integrating domain knowledge with data analysis. Provides a combination of both methodological and practical aspects of data analysis. Discusses issues surrounding the implementation and integration of InfoQ in both academic programmes and business / industrial projects. Showcases numerous case studies in a variety of application areas such as education, healthcare, official statistics, risk management and marketing surveys. Presents a review of software tools from the InfoQ perspective along with example datasets on an accompanying website. This book will be beneficial for researchers in academia and in industry, analysts, consultants, and agencies that collect and analyse data as well as undergraduate and postgraduate courses involving data analysis.
This diverse resource on renewableenergy and sustainable technologies highlights the status, state of the art,challenges, advancements and options in areas such as energy recovery systems,turbine ventilators, green composites, biofuels andbio-resources for energy production, wind energy, integrated energy-efficientsystems, thermal energy storage, natural ventilation & day-lightingsystems, and low carbon technologies for building and environmentalapplications. It is designed to serve as a reference book for students,researchers, manufacturers and professionals working in these fields. Theeditors have gathered articles from world-leading experts that clearlyillustrate key areas in renewable energy and sustainability. The distinct roleof these technologies in future endeavors is stressed by taking into accountthe opportunities to contribute with new approaches, methods and directions forbuilding and environmental applications. The in-depth discussion presented inthis book will give readers a clear understanding of every important aspect ofeach technology's applications, optimum configuration, modifications,limitations and their possible improvements.
This book explores robust multimodal cognitiveload measurement with physiological and behavioural modalities, which involve theeye, Galvanic Skin Response, speech, language, pen input, mouse movement andmultimodality fusions. Factors including stress, trust, and environmentalfactors such as illumination are discussed regarding their implications forcognitive load measurement. Furthermore, dynamic workload adjustment andreal-time cognitive load measurement with data streaming are presented in orderto make cognitive load measurement accessible by more widespread applicationsand users. Finally, application examples are reviewed demonstrating thefeasibility of multimodal cognitive load measurement in practical applications. This is thefirst book of its kind to systematically introduce various computationalmethods for automatic and real-time cognitive load measurement and by doing somoves the practical application of cognitive load measurement from the domainof the computer scientist and psychologist to more general end-users, ready forwidespread implementation. Robust Multimodal CognitiveLoad Measurement is intended for researchers and practitioners involved with cognitiveload studies and communities within the computer, cognitive, and socialsciences. The book will especially benefit researchers in areas like behaviouranalysis, social analytics, human-computer interaction (HCI), intelligentinformation processing, and decision support systems.
This book addresses a key issue in today's society: the safer transport of dangerous goods, taking into account people, the environment and economics. In particular, it offers a potential approach to identifying the issues, developing the models, providing the methods and recommending the tools to address the risks and vulnerabilities involved. We believe this can only be achieved by assessing those risks in a comprehensive, quantifiable and integrated manner. Examining both rail and road transportation, the book is divided into three sections, covering: the mature and accepted (by both academia and practitioners) methodology of risk assessment; the vulnerability assessment - a novel approach proposed as a vital complement to risk; guidance and support to build the tools that make methods and equations to yield: the Decision Support Systems. Throughout the book, the authors do not endeavor to provide THE solution. Instead, the book offers insightful food for thought for students, researchers, practitioners and policymakers alike.
This book presents valuable contributions devoted topractical applications of Machine Intelligence and Big Data in various branchesof the industry. All the contributions are extended versions of presentationsdelivered at the Industrial Session the 6th International Conference on PatternRecognition and Machine Intelligence (PREMI 2015) held in Warsaw, Poland atJune 30- July 3, 2015, which passed through a rigorous reviewing process. Thecontributions address real world problems and show innovative solutions used tosolve them. This volume will serve as a bridge between researchers andpractitioners, as well as between different industry branches, which can benefitfrom sharing ideas and results.
This book is a complete treatment of work done to resolve the problems of position-, current-, and shape-control of plasma in tokamak-type (toroidal) devices being studied as a potential means of commercial energy production by nuclear fusion. Modelling and control are both detailed, allowing non-expert readers to understand the control problem. Starting from the magneto-hydro-dynamic equations, all the steps needed for the derivation of plasma state-space models are enumerated with frequent recall of the basic concepts of electromagnetics. The control problem is then described, beginning with the control of current and position--vertical and radial--control and progressing to the more challenging shape control. The solutions proposed vary from simple PIDs to more sophisticated MIMO controllers. The second edition of Magnetic Control of Tokamak Plasmas contains numerous updates and a substantial amount of completely new material covering areas such as: * modelling and control of resistive wall modes--the most important non-axisimmetric mode; * the isoflux approach for shape control; * a general approach for the control of limiter plasmas; * the use of inner vessel coils for vertical stabilization; and * significantly enhanced treatment of plasma-shape control at JET, including experimental results and introducing a method implemented for operation in the presence of current saturations. Whenever possible, coverage of the various topics is rounded out with experimental results obtained on currently existing tokamaks. The book also includes a presentation of the typical actuators and sensors used for control purposes in tokamaks. Some mathematical details are given in the appendices for the interested reader. The ideas formulated in this monograph will be of great practical help to control engineers, academic researchers and graduate students working directly with problems related to the control of nuclear fusion. They will also stimulate control researchers interested more generally in the advanced applications of the discipline. Advances in Industrial Control aims to report and encourage the transfer of technology in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology has an impact on all areas of the control discipline. The series offers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of new work in all aspects of industrial control.
This book begins with an introduction to PBXs (Private Branch Exchanges) and the scene, statistics and involved actors. It discusses confidentiality, integrity and availability threats in PBXs. The author examines the threats and the technical background as well as security and forensics involving PBXs. The purpose of this book is to raise user awareness in regards to security and privacy threats present in PBXs, helping both users and administrators safeguard their systems. The new edition includes a major update and extension to the VoIP sections in addition to updates to forensics.
This handbook discusses early childhood special education (ECSE), with particular focus on evidence-based practices. Coverage spans core intervention areas in ECSE, such as literacy, motor skills, and social development as well as diverse contexts for services, including speech-language pathology, physical therapy, and pediatrics. Contributors offer strategies for planning, implementing, modifying, and adapting interventions to help young learners extend their benefits into the higher grades. Concluding chapters emphasize the importance of research in driving evidence-based practices (EBP). Topics featured in the include: Family-centered practices in early childhood intervention. The application of Response to Intervention (RtI) in young children with identified disabilities. Motor skills acquisition for young children with disabilities. Implementing evidence-based practices in ECSE classrooms. Cultural, ethnic, and linguistic implications for ECSE. The Handbook of Early Childhood Special Education is a must-have resource for researchers, professors, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, clinicians, and practitioners across such disciplines as child and school psychology, early childhood education, clinical social work, speech and physical therapy, developmental psychology, behavior therapy, and public health.
This text records the problems given for thefirst 15 annual undergraduate mathematics competitions, held in March each yearsince 2001 at the University of Toronto. Problems cover areas ofsingle-variable differential and integral calculus, linear algebra, advancedalgebra, analytic geometry, combinatorics, basic group theory, and numbertheory. The problems of the competitions are given in chronological order aspresented to the students. The solutions appear in subsequent chaptersaccording to subject matter. Appendices recall some background material andlist the names of students who did well. The University of TorontoUndergraduate Competition was founded to provide additional competition experience forundergraduates preparing for the Putnamcompetition, and is particularly useful for the freshman or sophomore undergraduate. Lecturers, instructors,and coaches for mathematics competitions will find this presentation useful. Many of the problems are of intermediatedifficulty and relate to the first two years of the undergraduatecurriculum. The problems presented may beparticularly useful for regular class assignments. Moreover, this text contains problems that lie outside the regular syllabus and may interest studentswho are eager to learn beyond the classroom.
Thisvolume summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that producesuccessful symbiotic partnerships involving microorganisms. It begins with abasic introduction to the nature of and mechanistic benefits derived from symbioticassociations. Taking that backgroundknowledge as the starting point, the next sections include chapters that examinerepresentative examples of coevolutionary associations that have developed betweenspecies of microbes, as well as associations between microbes and plants. The authors conclude with a section covering abroad range of associations between microbes and invertebrate animals, in whichthey discuss the spectrum of hosts, with examples ranging from bryozoans andcorals to nematodes, arthropods, and cephalopods. Join the authors on thisjourney of understanding!
This book highlights innovative solutions together withvarious techniques and methods that can help support the manufacturing sectorto excel in economic, social, and environmental terms in networked businessenvironments. The book also furthers understanding of sustainable manufacturingfrom the perspective of value creation in manufacturing networks, bycapitalizing on the outcomes of the European 'Sustainable Value Creation inManufacturing Networks' project. New dynamics and uncertainties in modernmarkets call for innovative solutions in the global manufacturing sector. Whilethe manufacturing sector is traditionally driven by technology, it alsorequires other managerial and organizational solutions in terms of networkgovernance, business models, sustainable solution development for products andservices, performance management portals, etc. , which can provide majorcompetitive advantages for companies. At the same time, the manufacturingindustry is subject to a change process, where business networks play a majorrole in value-creating processes. By far the biggest challenge in this contextis making value creation a sustainable process where economic, social, andenvironmental demands are met. Managing product and service-related businessoperations in manufacturing networks thus brings different challenges thatcannot purely be resolved using traditional methods, and techniques. This book is an outcome of a European project funded by theEuropean Commission, and performed by a dedicated R&D consortium comprisedof some leading Research institutions and Industrial partners.
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