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This three-chapter volume concerns the distributions of certain functionals of Lévy processes. The first chapter, by Makoto Maejima, surveys representations of the main sub-classes of infinitesimal distributions in terms of mappings of certain Lévy processes via stochastic integration. The second chapter, by Lars Nørvang Andersen, Søren Asmussen, Peter W. Glynn and Mats Pihlsgård, concerns Lévy processes reflected at two barriers, where reflection is formulated à la Skorokhod. These processes can be used to model systems with a finite capacity, which is crucial in many real life situations, a most important quantity being the overflow or the loss occurring at the upper barrier. If a process is killed when crossing the boundary, a natural question concerns its lifetime. Deep formulas from fluctuation theory are the key to many classical results, which are reviewed in the third chapter by Frank Aurzada and Thomas Simon. The main part, however, discusses recent advances and developments in the setting where the process is given either by the partial sum of a random walk or the integral of a Lévy process.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Collaboration and Technology, CRIWG 2015, held in Yerevan, Armenia, in September 2015. The 19 revised papers presented together with 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from 28 submissions. CRIWG has been focused on collaboration technology design, development, and evaluation. The background research is influenced by a number of disciplines, such as computer science, management science, informationsystems, engineering, psychology, cognitive sciences, and social sciences.
The volumes of this classic series, now referred to simply as "Zechmeister" after its founder, Laszlo Zechmeister, have appeared under the Springer Imprint ever since the series' inauguration in 1938. The series has featured contributions by seven Nobel laureates: D. H. R. Barton, D. Crowfoot Hodgkin, L. Pauling, K. Alder, O. Diels, P. Karrer, and H. von Euler-Chelpin. The volumes contain contributions on various topics related to the origin, distribution, chemistry, synthesis, biochemistry, function or use of various classes of naturally occurring substances ranging from small molecules to biopolymers. Each contribution is written by a recognized authority in the field and provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the topic in question. Addressed to biologists, technologists, and chemists alike, the series can be used by the expert as a source of information and literature citations and by the non-expert as a means of orientation in a rapidly developing discipline.
This volume is a collection of immunohematology and transfusion medicine cases, comprised of clinical vignettes and antibody panels with questions based on each case, arranged in a workbook format. The cases are based on real patient problems which are typically encountered and covers a number of common issues and challenging problems in blood banking and transfusion practice. Discussion and resolution of each case is provided in a separate answer section, including up-to-date information on pertinent advances in the field. Written by experts in the field, Immunohematology and Transfusion Medicine: A Case Study Approach provides an interactive tool to help make blood banking and transfusion medicine memorable, practical, and relevant to residents and fellows.
This volume explores the ethical questions that arise in the development, creation and use of robots that are capable of semiautonomous or autonomous decision making and human-like action. It examines how ethical and moral theories can and must be applied to address the complex and critical issues of the application of these intelligent robots in society. Coverage first presents fundamental concepts and provides a general overview of ethics, artificial intelligence and robotics. Next, the book studies all principal ethical applications of robots, namely medical, assistive, socialized and war roboethics. It looks at such issues as robotic surgery, children-robot and elderly-robot therapeutical/social interactions and the use of robots, especially autonomous lethal ones, in warfare. In addition, a chapter also considers Japanese roboethics as well as key intercultural and robot legislation issues. Overall, readers are provided with a thorough investigation into the moral responsibility (if any) of autonomous robots when doing harm. This volume will serve as an ideal educational source in engineering and robotics courses as well as an introductory reference for researchers in the field.
This fully updated third edition is devoted to the analysis of various Stochastic Dominance (SD) decision rules. It discusses the pros and cons of each of the alternate SD rules, the application of these rules to various research areas like statistics, agriculture, medicine, measuring income inequality and the poverty level in various countries, and of course, to investment decision-making under uncertainty. The book features changes and additions to the various chapters, and also includes two completely new chapters. One deals with asymptotic SD and the relation between FSD and the maximum geometric mean (MGM) rule (or the maximum growth portfolio). The other new chapter discusses bivariate SD rules where the individual's utility is determined not only by his own wealth, but also by his standing relative to his peer group. Stochastic Dominance: Investment Decision Making under Uncertainty, 3rd Ed. covers the following basic issues: the SD approach, asymptotic SD rules, the mean-variance (MV) approach, as well as the non-expected utility approach. The non-expected utility approach focuses on Regret Theory (RT) and mainly on prospect theory (PT) and its modified version, cumulative prospect theory (CPT) which assumes S-shape preferences. In addition to these issues the book suggests a new stochastic dominance rule called the Markowitz stochastic dominance (MSD) rule corresponding to all reverse-S-shape preferences. It also discusses the concept of the multivariate expected utility and analyzed in more detail the bivariate expected utility case. From the reviews of the second edition: "This book is an economics book about stochastic dominance. . . . is certainly a valuable reference for graduate students interested in decision making under uncertainty. It investigates and compares different approaches and presents many examples. Moreover, empirical studies and experimental results play an important role in this book, which makes it interesting to read. " (Nicole Bäuerle, Mathematical Reviews, Issue 2007 d)
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Automated Deduction in Geometry, ADG 2014, held in Coimbra, Portugal, in July 2014. The 11 revised full papers presented in this volume were carefully selected from 20 submissions. The papers show the trend set of current research in automated reasoning in geometry.
This book summarizes the theoretical and experimental studies confirming the concept of the liquid-crystalline nature of boundary lubrication in synovial joints. It is shown that cholesteric liquid crystals in the synovial liquid play a significant role in the mechanism of intra-articular friction reduction. The results of structural, rheological and tribological research of the creation of artificial synovial liquids containing cholesteric liquid crystals in natural synovial liquids are described. These liquid crystals reproduce the lubrication properties of natural synovia and provide a high chondroprotective efficiency. They were tested in osteoarthritis models and in clinical practice.
This book offers an in-depth study of two well-known models of "avalanche" dynamics, modified minimally by the inclusion of relaxation. Many complex systems respond to continuous inputs of energy by accumulation of stress over time, interrupted by sudden energy releases called avalanches. The first model studied is the viscoelastic interface driven over disorder, which is shown to display the fundamental features of friction. In the mean-field limit, the friction force derived semi-analytically is compatible with laboratory experiments (displaying both velocity weakening and contact aging). In two dimensions, large-scale numerical simulations are in good agreement with the basic features of real earthquakes (Gutenberg-Richter Law, aftershock migration). The second model is a non-Markovian variant of Directed Percolation, in which we observe that the universality class is only partly modified by relaxation, a promising finding with respect to our first model.
This evidence-based book, featuring contributions from world-renowned experts, discusses in detail the functional anatomy of the temporomandibular joint as well as the aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and medicolegal implications of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Despite advances in our understanding of the aetiology of TMD and in developing current treatment rationales, a number of issues remain controversial. These include the extent to which the temporomandibular joint should be a central focus of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment, as well as the role that occlusion and malocclusion play in precipitating TMD symptoms. Indeed, few subjects in dentistry and the specialty of orthodontics are open to as many interpretations or misinterpretations as TMD. This textbook provides clinical orthodontists with essential information and guidance that will assist them in understanding and effectively managing this complex multilayered problem. Throughout, clear clinical guidelines are presented on the basis of current scientific and clinical evidence. TMD and Orthodontics will be a highly valuable chairside resource for orthodontists everywhere.
Written by experienced clinicians and edited by Vanderbilt Program for LGBTI Health faculty, this book contains up-to-date expertise from physicians renowned for their work in LGBT health. This important text fills an informational void about the practical health needs of LGBT patients in both the primary care and specialty settings remains, and serves as a guide for LGBT preventive and specialty medicine that can be utilized within undergraduate medical education, residency training, and medical practice. Beginning with a short review of LGBT populations and health disparities, it largely focuses on the application and implementation of LGBT best practices within all realms of medical care. In addition, the book offers recommendations for the integration of LGBT health into systems-based practice by addressing intake forms and electronic health records, as well as evidence-based emerging concerns in LGBT health. This is a must-have volume for medical students, residents, and practicing physicians from all medical specialties.
Observers no longer need to wonder what they will turn their attention to each night of the year with this updated text of a beloved favorite from Sir Partick Moore. His night-by-night account of the stars is the best possible guide an observer could ask for, and now includes the latest data for the years 2015-2020, preserving and extending Sir Patrick Moore's legacy. This new edition of his classic text makes it easy to see why Sir Patrick Moore was such a helpful guide to generations of budding astronomers, professional and amateur alike. For every night of the year Patrick gives the reader details of interesting objects that can be seen from Earth. It is a book for people with a wide interest in practical astronomy, those who may not have specialized in a specific area of astronomy and wish to expand their knowledge in all areas. Moore updated his book in a second edition in 2005, giving astronomical events through 2010, but a more current version has been desperately lacking. This third edition includes Sir Patrick's original text but revises its time-sensitive material and adds all of the points of interest that change from year to year, such as eclipses, occultations, planetary positions, and so on. Sir Patrick Moore left behind an enormous legacy, including the world's longest-running television series with the same original presenter, the BBC's The Sky at Night, and more than 70 written works. His influence on the world of amateur astronomy was phenomen al, and his knowledge and passion led many to take up observing as a life-long hobby. This book, "The Observer's Year, 366 Nights of the Universe" was, he said, one of his personal favorites. It now features a tribute to Patrick Moore's legacy as well as including what has changed in astronomy since the previous edition ten years ago.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the International Workshop on Interoperability and Open-Source Solutions for the Internet of Things, FP7 OpenIot Project, held in Conjunction with SoftCOM 2014, in Split, Croatia, in September 2014. The 11 revised full papers presented together with the extended abstracts of 2 keynote talks were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers are organized in topical sections on OpenIoT platform, open platforms and standards, and IoT Applications.
Water pricing to achieve conservation in scarce water resources is a major policy challenge. This book provides credible evidence from water pricing experiences in various countries around the world. The book chapters, written by experts in water pricing from various countries, documents the past 10 to 15 years of water pricing experiences in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, France, India, Israel, Italy, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa and Spain. The book includes also several chapters that review innovations in water pricing in various countries, such as new reform mechanisms, achieving social objectives via water pricing, achieving revenue recovery, water use efficiency and customer equity, and charging the poor.
This book presents a collection of expert reviews on different subcellular compartments of the cardiomyocyte, addressing fundamental questions such as how these compartments are assembled during development, how they are changed in and by disease and which signaling pathways have been implicated in these processes so far. As such, it offers the first overview of the cell biology of heart disease of its kind, addressing the needs of cell biology students specializing in vascular and cardiac biology, as well as those of cardiologists and researchers in the field of cell biology.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the Third IAPR TC3 Workshop on Pattern Recognition of Social Signals in Human-Computer-Interaction, MPRSS 2014, held in Stockholm, Sweden, in August 2014, as a satellite event of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition, ICPR 2014. The 14 revised papers presented focus on pattern recognition, machine learning and information fusion methods with applications in social signal processing, including multimodal emotion recognition, user identification, and recognition of human activities.
This book focuses on the new possibilities and approaches to social modeling currently being made possible by an unprecedented variety of datasets generated by our interactions with modern technologies. This area has witnessed a veritable explosion of activity over the last few years, yielding many interesting and useful results. Our aim is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this area of research, merging an extremely heterogeneous array of datasets and models. Social Phenomena: From Data Analysis to Models is divided into two parts. Part I deals with modeling social behavior under normal conditions: How we live, travel, collaborate and interact with each other in our daily lives. Part II deals with societal behavior under exceptional conditions: Protests, armed insurgencies, terrorist attacks, and reactions to infectious diseases. This book offers an overview of one of the most fertile emerging fields bringing together practitioners from scientific communities as diverse as social sciences, physics and computer science. We hope to not only provide an unifying framework to understand and characterize social phenomena, but also to help foster the dialogue between researchers working on similar problems from different fields and perspectives.
This book covers novel research on construction and analysis of optimal cryptographic functions such as almost perfect nonlinear (APN), almost bent (AB), planar and bent functions. These functions have optimal resistance to linear and/or differential attacks, which are the two most powerful attacks on symmetric cryptosystems. Besides cryptographic applications, these functions are significant in many branches of mathematics and information theory including coding theory, combinatorics, commutative algebra, finite geometry, sequence design and quantum information theory. The author analyzes equivalence relations for these functions and develops several new methods for construction of their infinite families. In addition, the book offers solutions to two longstanding open problems, including the problem on characterization of APN and AB functions via Boolean, and the problem on the relation between two classes of bent functions.
Assessment in Art Therapy gives a unique insight into the diverse contemporary practices that constitute assessment in art therapy, providing an overview of the different approaches employed in Britain and the USA today. This professional handbook comprises three parts. 'Sitting Beside' explores the discursive and the relational in art therapy assessments with adults and children in different settings. 'Snapshots from the Field' presents a series of short, practice-based reports which describe art therapists working in private practice, secure settings and community mental health centres. 'A More Distant Calculation' consists of chapters that describe the development and use of different kinds of art-based assessment procedures developed on both sides of the Atlantic, as well as different kinds of research about art therapy assessment. Both students and practitioners alike will benefit from the wealth of experience presented in this book, which demonstrates how art therapists think about assessment; the difficulties that arise in art therapy assessment; and the importance of developing the theory and practice of art therapy assessment, whilst taking into account the changing demands of systems and institutions.
This volume arose from the Third Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems, held in Stockholm on May 2-6, 2012. The proceedings present new analytical developments and numerical methods for solutions of inverse and ill-posed problems, which consistently pose complex challenges to the development of effective numerical methods. The book highlights recent research focusing on reliable numerical techniques for the solution of inverse problems, with relevance to a range of fields including acoustics, electromagnetics, optics, medical imaging, and geophysics.
Astrophysics is often -with some justification - regarded as incomprehensible without the use of higher mathematics. Consequently, many amateur astronomers miss out on some of the most fascinating aspects of the subject. Astrophysics Is Easy! cuts through the difficult mathematics and explains the basics of astrophysics in accessible terms. Using nothing more than plain arithmetic and simple examples, the workings of the universe are outlined in a straightforward yet detailed and easy-to-grasp manner. The original edition of the book was written over eight years ago, and in that time, advances in observational astronomy have led to new and significant changes to the theories of astrophysics. The new theories will be reflected in both the new and expanded chapters. A unique aspect of this book is that, for each topic under discussion, an observing list is included so that observers can actually see for themselves the concepts presented -stars of the spectral sequence, nebulae, galaxies, even black holes. The observing list has been revised and brought up-to-date in the Second Edition.
The book opens with a short introduction to Indian music, in particular classical Hindustani music, followed by a chapter on the role of statistics in computational musicology. The authors then show how to analyze musical structure using Rubato, the music software package for statistical analysis, in particular addressing modeling, melodic similarity and lengths, and entropy analysis; they then show how to analyze musical performance. Finally, they explain how the concept of seminatural composition can help a music composer to obtain the opening line of a raga-based song using Monte Carlo simulation. The book will be of interest to musicians and musicologists, particularly those engaged with Indian music.
Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod-Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass-Guivarc'h theorem about growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata. With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified audience. No prerequisites beyond standard courses in linear and abstract algebra are required. The broad appeal of this textbook extends to a variety of student levels: from advanced high-schoolers to undergraduates and graduate students, including those in search of a Ph. D. thesis who will benefit from the "Further reading and open problems" sections at the end of Chapters 2 -5. The book can also be used for self-study, engaging those beyond t he classroom setting: researchers, instructors, students, virtually anyone who wishes to learn and better understand this important area of mathematics.
A dense sheet of electrons accelerated to close to the speed of light can act as a tuneable mirror that can generate bright bursts of laser-like radiation in the short wavelength range simply via the reflection of a counter-propagating laser pulse. This thesis investigates the generation of such a relativistic electron mirror structure in a series of experiments accompanied by computer simulations. It is shown that such relativistic mirror can indeed be created from the interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with a nanometer-scale, ultrathin foil. The reported work gives a intriguing insight into the complex dynamics of high-intensity laser-nanofoil interactions and constitutes a major step towards the development of a relativistic mirror, which could potentially generate bright burst of X-rays on a micro-scale.
This book is devoted to the fascinating superfamily of plant ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and their variety of transported substrates. It highlights their exciting biological functions, covering aspects ranging from cellular detoxification, through development, to symbiosis and defense. Moreover, it also includes a number of chapters that center on ABC transporters from non-Arabidopsis species. ABC proteins are ubiquitous, membrane-intrinsic transporters that catalyze the primary (ATP-dependent) movement of their substrates through biological membranes. Initially identified as an essential aspect of a vacuolar detoxification process, genetic work in the last decade has revealed an unexpectedly diverse variety of ABC transporter substrates, which include not only xenobiotic conjugates, but also heavy metals, lipids, terpenoids, lignols, alkaloids and organic acids. The discovery that members of the ABCB and ABCG family are involved in the movement of phytohormones has further sparked their exploration and provided a new understanding of the whole family. Accordingly, the trafficking, regulation and structure-function of ABCB-type auxin transporters are especially emphasized in this book.
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