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The aim of the present volume is to explore the consequences of the impact of the EU rules for the internal market (including the proposed Directive on patients' rights) and competition on national health care systems. It will also address how related areas, such as EU public procurement law and WTO law, influence national healthcare organisation and Member State autonomy.
Today, higher education and research institutions are confronted with variable and sometimes contradictory demands from state, industry and society. They have to face growing volatility in education policy, and a research paradigm that sees an accelerating rate of knowledge growth as well as the internationalization of the knowledge process itself. It is vital that academics and policymakers stay abreast of the impact that policy changes have on education and research in tertiary institutions. Based on a sector-specific theory model for the governance of research organizations, this book outlines evidence of the effects of the so-called 'new public management reforms' in the German university and public research sector. The volume aims to shed some light on the differences between the disciplines in input, throughput, profiles of output and the typical conditions of knowledge production, disparities that are currently little understood and are thus not reflected in government policy as ministers implement new governance forms in the research system. It analyzes in detail these new forms, and demonstrates how they affect knowledge production and research performance from the level of research group up to that of the system itself. The authors focus on a set of disciplines that represent the breadth of research divisions in major universities: natural science fields oriented to basic research (astrophysics), two application-oriented fields from the natural sciences (nanoscience and biotechnology), a social science field (economics) and a humanity field (medieval history).
This study in cross-linguistic semantics explores the territory where logic, natural language and typology meet. While we can all understand the semantics of negation in its role of altering truth values, this ambitious book aims to take the reader much further. A unified analysis of the linguistic 'behavior' of negation is hampered by the myriad variations in its syntax and semantics in languages around the world. This is true not just for the expression of negatives, but for their interpretation too. De Swart deploys the framework of bi-directional Optimality Theory to develop a typology of the relationship between syntax and semantics in negation markers and negative indefinites. In this model, syntactic and semantic constraints act in concert to define the grammar of a language. Some languages are 'double negative', some 'negative concord', and others belong to subclasses identified by 'strict negative concord' 'nonstrict negative concord' or 'negative spread'. In addition to the above, the author analyses intermediate cases, and examines complex instances of double negation occurring in negative concord languages. Her OT analysis of the Jespersen cycle brings together typological and diachronic variation. This book's unique combination of theoretical precision and wide empirical coverage make it essential reading for any researcher approaching semantic typology from a logical, linguistic or cognitive perspective.
It's January 1944. On the vast grey waters of the Atlantic the balance of power has shifted. For Rudolf Steiger, ace U-boat commander, there is a new sense of urgency. Dedicated, ruthless, fanatical, he has become a legend in his own time, a symbol of Germany's greatness. But now, he faces a new and deadly enemy.
Informed by her in-depth ethnomusical knowledge, the result of detailed fieldwork, Mans's book is about musical worlds and how we as people inhabit them. The book asserts that an understanding of our musical worlds can be a transformative educational tool that could have a significant role to play in multicultural music and arts education. She explores the way in which musical expression, with its myriad cultural variations, reveals much about identity and cultural norms, and shows how particular musical sounds are aesthetically related to these norms. The author goes further to suggest that similar systems can be detected across cultures, while each world remains colored by a distinctive soundscape. Mans also looks at the way each cultural soundscape is a symbolic manifestation of a society's collective cognition, sorting musical behavior and sounds into clusters and patterns that fulfill each society's requirements. She probes the fact that in today's globalized and mobile world, as people move from one society to another, cross-cultural acts and hybrids result in a number of new aesthetics. Finally, in addition to three personal narratives by musicians from different continents, the author has invited scholars from diverse specializations and locations to comment on different sections of the book, opening up a critical dialogue with voices from different parts of the globe. Musical categorization, identity, values, aesthetic evaluation, creativity, curriculum, assessment and teacher education are some of the issues tackled in this manner.
Though considerable research literature is now available on China-India relations, most of it still follows a conventional narrative, viewing the relationship through the narrow conflictual prism limited to South Asia than in the new, larger perspective, especially in the context of emerging East Asian dynamics. This book offers comprehensive analyses of some of these issues in papers addressing two broad themes. One, significant trends in the relationship between China and India on a range of issues, including economic development models, their military strategies, and the boundary dispute; and two, how others are responding to the rise of India and China and their impact on East Asia. Together, the chapters constitute a comprehensive study on both China-India relations and their concurrent rise, including a variety of perspectives and methodologies. Written by some of the top experts on the subject from India, China, Japan, and Taiwan and covering a broad range of issues, the book will generate considerable interest in understanding this relatively neglected dimension of today's East Asia.
This book deals with the carrier's liability for deck cargo in the Nordic countries and England as state parties of the Hague-Visby Rules. The comparative method serves to illustrate two widely differing methods of dealing with, first, the exclusion of certain deck cargo from the scope of the Hague-Visby Rules and, second, where not excluded, the Rules failure to include a special deck cargo liability regime. Various solutions similar to the English or Nordic approach, or a combination of the two, have also been adopted in a large number of other jurisdictions. Taking into consideration the massive quantities of cargo that are carried on deck today, the subject is more topical than ever. The complexity of the problem stems from the way in which the deck has, over the years, gradually become a common place to stow cargo. When the Hague Rules were introduced in 1924, deck stowage was an absolute exception due to the great risks involved. As such, the topic must first be looked at in the context of the shipping realities in which the Hague Rules were drafted and then in terms of today's shipping realities. The comparative analysis leading up to the author's conclusions and general remarks for future legislation consists of two parts, the first dealing with the situations in which the carrier is permitted to stow cargo on deck, and the second with the carrier's liability for deck cargo where he has stowed cargo on deck with, or as the case may be, without such permission.
There are several unique features of this book on the spiritual well-being of Chinese older adults. First, based on qualitative methodology, a conceptual model of spiritual well-being was proposed. Besides, through a Delphi study, different dimensions of spiritual well-being were identified. Conceptually, such effort is important because there is a general lack of well-articulated models of spiritual well-being for Chinese people. Although Western models can be "transplanted" to Chinese contexts, indigenous concepts are needed. As such, this is a pioneer conceptual contribution. Second, the author developed and validated the Spiritual Scale for Chinese Elders. In view of the lack of related measurement tools in the field, this is a pioneer attempt which is important for social work education, research and practice. Third, a Spiritual Enhancement Group for Chinese Elders was developed and its effectiveness was evaluated. In contrast to ordinary elderly programs, this program was based on solid theoretical grounds. In addition, process evaluation and outcome evaluation were conducted. The intervention program is a beautiful link between theory and practice whereas the evaluation is a good outgrowth of practice. The present project is especially valuable because evidence-based practice is at its infancy in different Chinese communities.
This book explores concrete situations in which judges are faced with a legislature and an executive that consciously and systematically discard the ideals of the rule of law. It revolves around three basic questions: What happen when states become oppressive and the judiciary contributes to the oppression? How can we, from a legal point of view, evaluate the actions of judges who contribute to oppression? And, thirdly, how can we understand their participation from a moral point of view and support their inclination to resist?
Social media such as instant messaging (IM), social networking sites (SNS), blogs and microblogs are an integral part of adolescents' lives in China. Anecdotal evidence reported in the news has suggested that the increasing popularity of social media could make adolescents more vulnerable to being addicted. This exploratory study proposes the concept of "social media addiction" and examines (a) whether social media addiction exists among adolescents in urban China and, if so, who the addicts are, what their symptoms are and to what extent they are addicted; (b) whether sociopsychological traits (e. g. , need for affiliation, impression management, narcissism and leisure boredom) can predict social media addiction among adolescents; (c) what gratifications are obtained by adolescents from their use of social media and whether these gratifications can predict social media addiction and (d) to what degree social media addiction influences adolescents' academic performance and social capital. This study employed quantitative questionnaire surveys among adolescents as the main research method, supplemented by qualitative pre-survey focus groups among adolescents and post-survey in-depth interviews among parents and teachers. Questionnaire surveys were conducted based on a multi-stage cluster sampling of seven middle schools in five urban Chinese cities: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Xiamen. The final sample consisted of 1,549 adolescents, of whom 90% had used social media. Using Young's classic definition of Internet addiction, 15. 6% of participants were classified as social media addicts. The addicted adolescents were often self-absorbed, bored with their leisure time, and good at using manipulation through social media for impression management. Addicts experienced four major social media addiction symptoms: preoccupation, adverse consequences, alleviation of negative emotions and loss of interest in social activities. The seven social media gratifications identified in this study can be categorized into social, information and entertainment gratifications. Among these, entertainment gratifications had the most power to predict social media addiction, while information gratifications were the least likely to lead to addiction. Furthermore, these gratifications were found to be powerful mediators between the adolescents' sociopsychological traits and social media addiction. Finally, the results also indicated that social media addiction and its symptoms had a significant negative impact on adolescents' academic performance and social capital.
Seeing the restrictions of former studies in Comparative Literature and aiming to amend these deficiencies, the author of this book mainly discusses the major theoretical significance and academic value of the Variation Theory in the whole process of the development of Comparative Literature in the world. In China the seminal comparative study of literature among different cultures can be dated back to ancient China, while the founding of comparative literature as a distinct academic discipline has to be largely owing to the influence of the West. The modern Chinese study of comparative literature formed its uniqueness under Western influence. The direct influence of the translation of western theories into China is remarkable. However, in the course of translation and reception of Western theories, Chinese comparatists and intellectuals have been encountering various problems, and solving them with an alternative method accordingly different from the traditional methods proposed by the French School and the American School. Therefore, in this book, modern Chinese study of comparative literature is put in a historical context with regard to the theoretical issue of the discipline in China through the entire 20th century. At present, many scholars in China and in other countries agree that, with the influence study proposed by the French School and the study of analogy advocated by the American School, the entire theoretical system of Comparative Literature is well built. However, when the comparative study of literature between East and West is concerned, the theory of Comparative Literature is far from perfect. It is not only because many problems still exist, but there are significant defects in their theoretical bases respectively. Many researches have proven that even with the influence study and the study of analogy, we still can not solve many problems in the practice of studies in comparative literature. This does not mean that we have no respect for the contributions of the French School and the American School; we just want to attach importance to literary variations, which is a phenomenon that has long been neglected. The purpose of putting forward the Variation Theory in Comparative Literature is to provide new perspectives, new methods and new theory to the study of comparative literature, which may be a major breakthrough in the international arena of Comparative Literature. The neglect of literary variation is mainly because all the previous theories about comparative literature start off in search of similarities but not differences. Accordingly, in 1990s heterogeneity as a premise of comparability was put forward. And later, the variation theory was further advanced. It is not only the important phenomenon in literary communication, but also the most valuable research object in Comparative Literature. Still, it will be an important path to cultural innovation. The Variation Theory may make up the major flaws of theories by both French school and the American School since it focus on heterogeneity and variability in cross-cultural literary events, especially the ones of inter-civilization which will be a new course for comparative literature. Throughout the history of literature and the history of literary communication, collisions between different civilizations have always been producing new literary events which make the heterogeneity of different civilizations and variability traceable. The higher stage of literary communication may mean dialogue and blend between different cultures. The overarching concerns of this book include different levels of variation in literary communication and the studies of different objects. The introduction begins with a literature review of major achievements made by the French School and the American School with pointing out what they have neglected. The body of the book is divided into three parts. In the first part, Chapter 1 deals with the major contributions of influence study and its weaknesses. The origination of comparative literature i...
Like all industrialized countries, China has encountered increasing problems with land contamination in recent years. Abandoned mining and manufacturing sites and obsolete industrial complexes, while also creating new polluting industrial enterprises, represent impending environmental threats. More importantly, a number of social and economic problems have developed and must be dealt with, in some cases urgently. Contaminated land laws and regulations have been established and have evolved in the US and UK and many other jurisdictions over the past few decades. These regimes have substantially influenced the relevant legislation in the context of numerous Asian and European countries and will inevitably benefit similar legislative efforts in China. This book is the first monograph that focuses on how China can learn from the US and UK with respect to contaminated land legislation and comprehensively illustrates how contaminated land law could be created in China. It will be of interest to academics and practitioners in environmental law in China, as well as the US and UK.
Today, climate change is among the most hotly-debated topics. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), one of the three financial mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol open to developing and developed countries, was devised to assist in mitigation of global warming. This book discusses what China should do to make full use of the CDM to promote sustainable development and to meet the challenge of climate change from a legal perspective. The findings lead to the conclusion that the CDM has limitations in promoting sustainable development in China, and thus should be regarded only as a complementary instrument in combating climate change. Legal strategies for improving the implementation of CDM projects under the legal framework in China are thus put forward, and some proposals for China to meet the challenge of climate change in the post-2012 era are made. This book offers new insights to academics and policymakers both in the public and private sector. It is intended for legal practitioners and researchers on carbon trading as well as policymakers interested in the role of developing countries in climate change law. In addition, it is of interest to stakeholders of CDM projects.
Evidence-Based Practice in Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Perspectives, Protocols, Problems and Potential in Ayurvedaby Francesco Chiappelli Manisha Harish Ramchandani Sanjeev Rastogi Ram Harsh Singh
This book investigates the ways in which the evidence base is influencing complementary and alternative medicine in general and Ayurveda and allied health practices in particular. The latter have traditionally been prevalent in Asia and are now increasingly attracting interest worldwide. The book is divided into four sections, the first of which examines issues related to acquisition and evaluation of the evidence base. Evidence-based approaches to Ayurvedic diagnosis and therapy are then examined, with a special focus on management of cardiovascular and rheumatological diseases, dental care, and rejuvenating treatments. The final section explores further the challenges of applying evidence-based practice in contemporary and alternative medicine and Ayurveda with a focus upon the issues requiring urgent attention in ongoing decade. The same involves encompassing areas such as Ayurvedic pharmaceutics, practice, education and research within an evidence-based perspective.
What does really matter for daily leadership? How would a good and effective manager be characterized? Daniel F. Pinnow describes in a very illustrative way the essentials of collaborating with people in the business environment. This standard reference book exists as a 4th edition in German and is also available in Chinese. It provides a comprehensive and easy-to-understand overview over the most important leadership approaches in theory and practice. The credo of the author is: Leadership is an art of creating a world where others would love to join in.
This book discusses legality, one of the four main principles of criminal law, and is divided into six parts, according to the scientific understanding of this key concept. Chapter 1 explores the relation between legality and the general theory of criminal law in the context of the structure and development of legality in human society. This chapter also outlines the four secondary principles of legality and describes them in general terms. Chapters 2-5 discuss in detail each of the four secondary principles (Legitimate Sources of the Criminal Norm; Applicability of the Criminal Norm in Time; Applicability of the Criminal Norm in Place; and Interpretation of the Criminal Norm). Finally, Chapter 6 rounds out the discussion by addressing the problem of the conflict of laws.
The book quantifies the impact of in-port ships' greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution in adjacent cities, and evaluates the feasibility of implementing shore-side electricity facilities in Europe to reduce the unwanted social and environmental effects of ships at berth. The book also discusses the potential of future "green" ports and the use of shore side electricity as a means of achieving them. Individual chapters focus on the economic and social costs of in-port ships' emissions by illustrating current environmental policies to mitigate air emissions and the available abatement measures for in-port emissions. It also discusses the external cost of vessel emissions in ports as well as the impacts on air quality and human health. Examining the expected barriers to the implementation of shore- side electricity facilities, it proposes policies to accelerate the implementation of relevant mitigation measures.
This updated third edition of a successful book is a description of both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic antiepileptic drug (AED) interactions, including details of the magnitude and mechanism of interactions, and also of drug combinations that are not associated with interactions and therefore can be coprescribed without undue concern. Presented in alphabetical order and by drug class, drug interactions that occur between AEDs and also between AEDs and non-AEDs are described in three sections: Drug interactions between AEDs; Drug interactions between AEDs and non-AED Drugs: Interactions affecting AEDs; Drug interactions between AEDs and non-AED Drugs: Interactions affected by AEDs. Antiepileptic Drug Interactions: A Clinical Guide, 3rd Edition with its clear, concise and unambiguous content will allow physicians and allied health professionals to make more rational choices when AED polytherapy regimens are indicated. There is always a choice and avoiding highly interacting drugs and choosing drug combinations that are minimally interacting or do not interact should be the goal in treating patients with epilepsy. This book provides all the necessary information so as to allow this goal to be achieved and, if necessary, to aid effective management of AED interactions.
This book develops a theoretical and empirical argument about the disintegration of security communities, and the subsequent breakdown of stable peace among nations, through a process of norm degeneration. It draws together two key bodies of contemporary IR literature - norms and security communities - and brings their combined insights to bear on the empirical phenomenon of disintegration. The investigation of normative change in IR is becoming increasingly popular. Most studies, however, focus on its progressive connotation. The possibility of a weakening or even disappearance of an established peaceful normative order, by contrast, tends to be often either neglected or implicitly assumed. Normative Change and Security Community Disintegration: Undoing Peace advances the contemporary body of research on the important role of norms and ideas by analytically extending recent Constructivist arguments about international norm degeneration to the regional level and by applying them to a particular type of regional order - a security community.
Thiswork presents link prediction similarity measures for social networks that exploitthe degree distribution of the networks. In the context of link prediction indense networks, the text proposes similarity measures based on Markov inequalitydegree thresholding (MIDTs), which only consider nodes whose degree is above a thresholdfor a possible link. Also presented are similarity measures based on cliques(CNC, AAC, RAC), which assign extra weight between nodes sharing a greater numberof cliques. Additionally, a locally adaptive (LA) similarity measure isproposed that assigns different weights to common nodes based on the degreedistribution of the local neighborhood and the degree distribution of thenetwork. In the context of link prediction in dense networks, the textintroduces a novel two-phase framework that adds edges to the sparse graph toforma boost graph.
Thisbook is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from thephilosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can -and can't - achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. Theauthor then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimentaldesign, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is tohelp young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of theirtalents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections onplanning research, on presenting one's findings in writing, as well as onethics and the responsibilities of scientists.
Thisbook focuseson animal laws and animal welfare in major jurisdictions in the world,including the more developed legal regimes for animal protection of the US, UK,Australia, the EU and Israel, and the regulatory regimes still developing inChina, South Africa, and Brazil. It offers in-depth analyses and discussions oftopical and important issues in animal laws and animal welfare, and provides acomprehensive and comparative snapshot of some of the most important countriesin the world in terms of animal population and worsening animal cruelty. Amongthe issues discussed are international law topics that relate to animals,including thelatest WTO ruling on seal products and the EU ban, the Blackfish story and USlaw for cetaceans, the wildlife trafficking and crimes related to Africa andChina, and historical and current animal protection laws in the UK andAustralia. Bringing together the disciplines of animal law and animal welfarescience as well as ethics and criminology with contributions from some of the mostprominent animal welfare scientists and animal law scholars in the world, the book considers the strengths and failings ofexisting animal protection law in different parts of the world. In doing so itdraws more attention to animal protection as a moral and legal imperative andto crimes against animals as a serious crime.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are obligate root symbionts that impact plant growth, productivity and competitiveness. The book integrates key information about AMF concepts, structures and functions, and the new classification of Glomeromycota, including topics about AMF history and evolution, AMF families, genus and species description, as well as a compilation about several protocols to assess AMF and how to identify them. The focus is to provide readers enough information about AMF.
This book addresses the critical knowledge gaps of mergers involving higher education institutions. It is based on a comparative research project (spring 2013-spring 2015) investigating the phenomena of mergers involving higher education institutions across the Nordic countries - Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The study involved close to 30 scholars from the region, and aimed at shedding critical light on, and providing novel contributions around, the following key aspects: Conceptual and theoretical approaches - strengths and limitations - towards the study of the phenomena of mergers in higher education; Historical developments, leading to significant structural changes in the domestic higher education landscape, and, in turn, how mergers have been used as a policy/institutional mechanism to foster adaptation to a new external environment at the local, national, regional and international levels; The complex dynamics inherent to merger processes by undertaking an in-depth investigation of a series of selected case studies, with a particular focus on the "black-box" associated with the implementation process; The implications of the findings as regards future policy and strategic endeavours, theory development and future research agenda.
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