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Using renewable fuels and materials, drinking clean water and food, and breathing safe air are major issues for a sustainable world. This book reviews biodiesel production from microalgae, a promising energy source that does not compete with food production. Several advanced techniques to clean polluted waters, such as electrochemistry, ferrites photocatalysis and low-cost filtration are presented. Chapters also show various living organisms used as bioindicators of toxic metals. Decreasing ecotoxicity of pesticides using suitable surfactants is reviewed. The last chapter evidences new pollutants in urban soils, halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
This book analyses the deep interaction between the world's environmental crises, energy production, conversion and use, and global regulation policies. Bringing together experts from a wide range of scientific fields, it offers the reader a broad scope of knowledge on such topics as: climate change and exhaustion of resources the relationship between basic science and the development of sustainable energy technologies the relationship between global and local environmental policiesthe possible competition between foodstuff production and that of agro-fuels urban adaptation negotiations at the international level financial rules This book invites the reader to consider the multidisciplinary aspects of these urgent energy/environmental issues.
This book deals with water policy in Israel. It offers a detailed examination of the main sources of Israel's water, its principle consumers, the gap between supply and demand, and the complex, contentious work of analyzing and devising the nation's water management and use policies. Water Policy in Israel is arranged in five broad sections: The dynamics of moving from one policy era to another; Supply management; Demand management; The importance of the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea; and Regional and global issues including water conflict and cooperation and climate change.
The book examines applications in two disparate fields linked by the importance of valuing information: public health and space. Researchers in the health field have developed some of the most innovative methodologies for valuing information, used to help determine, for example, the value of diagnostics in informing patient treatment decisions. In the field of space, recent applications of value-of-information methods are critical for informing decisions on investment in satellites that collect data about air quality, fresh water supplies, climate and other natural and environmental resources affecting global health and quality of life.
Timing, racing, combating, struggling and targeting are some actions through which cellular fate could be reflected and evaluated. Interaction between cell territory and environment occur during pre-embryonic, fetal development, and post-natal periods. What the researchers observe as the outcome of telomeres behavior is only the peak of an ice mountain within a stormy ocean. Cellular life depends on programmed behavior of telomeres, capable to surprise the cells. Telomeres provide an introduction to the history of our cells which govern the quality of life and status of health. Telomeres as the cooperative territory are capable of stabilizing the chromosomal territory. The status of telomeres reflects the key information, announcing the real age of individuals, and may be a valuable marker for prognosis and predicting cancer. Telomere territory is characterized with a multi-disciplinary manner. Therefore, this book is aimed to offer a wide range of chapters, hoping to be useful for diverse audiences, including hematologists-oncologists, radiotherapists, surgeons, cancer researchers, and all the sectors who affect the macro- and micro- environmental domains. Finally, telomeres are sensitive, cooperative, and trustable targets. It is worth to state that 'telomeres are messengers of NATURE', let's to know them as they are.
Among the highlights of this book is the use of novel insecticides acting on a specific site in an insect group and are compatible with natural enemies and the environment. One of such approaches is based on disrupting the activity of biochemical sites acting on transcription factors such as the Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) family, anti juvenile hormone (AJH) agents that target JH biosynthetic enzymes, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and bursicon as a target for insect control. Another one is the biotechnology or the genetic approach such as gene silencing (RNA interference) and Bt-crops. Other sections of the book are devoted to the plant's natural products, optical manipulation and the use of nanotechnology for improving insect control methods.
Improved dating methods have increased our ability to more precisely determine the timing and durations of glaciations. Utilizing glacial and loess deposits, we have compared glaciations that occurred in North and South America in order to determine if events are synchronous or not, to explore forcing mechanisms, and to compare glaciations with cold periods of the Marine Oxygen Isotope stages and the loess/paleosol records of China. Stratigraphic sections containing a variety of glacial deposits, some with interbedded volcanics, as well as loess deposits, were used in reconstructing the glacial history. The Late Pleistocene (Brunhes Chron) Last Glacial Maximum is recognized in mountain and continental areas of North America but only in the mountains of South America. Commonly our comparisons indicate roughly synchronous glaciations on the two continents, whereas other glaciations are more elusive and difficult to compare. Although our comparisons are at low resolutions, the results suggest that Milankovitch forcing is most likely the dominant trigger for hemispheric glaciation modified by local factors.
The Ukraine faced two very different kinds of health crises during the twentieth century. First, in the 1930s and 1940s, famine, war and political upheaval caused massive population losses. Previous evaluations of overall losses have given an idea of the scale of these catastrophes but do not distinguish between crisis mortality, birth shortfall and loss through emigration. Based on a painstaking work of reconstitution, this study is the first to provide a detailed estimation of the hecatomb in terms of number of deaths and life expectancy. The famine of 1933 was alone responsible for the deaths of 2.6 million Ukrainians and reduced male and female life expectancies to 7 and 11 years respectively. Once the crises of the 1930s and 1940s were over, the earlier trend in health resumed and mortality declined steadily until the 1960s. At this point, however, a new type of crisis appeared that caused a sustained reversal in the existing trends. Life expectancy for women stopped increasing altogether, while that for men began a relentless year on year regression. Notwithstanding the confusing picture created by the fluctuations of the 1980s and 1990s, the long-term trend is to further deterioration. To understand the factors involved, this study analyses in detail the combined effects of different causes of death at different ages.
The aim of the Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research is to create an overview of the field of Quality of Life (QOL) studies in the early years of the 21st century that can be updated and improved upon as the field evolves and the century unfolds. Social indicators are statistical time series "...used to monitor the social system, helping to identify changes and to guide intervention to alter the course of social change". Examples include unemployment rates, crime rates, estimates of life expectancy, health status indices, school enrollment rates, average achievement scores, election voting rates, and measures of subjective well-being such as satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and with specific domains or aspects of life. This book provides a review of the historical development of the field including the history of QOL in medicine and mental health as well as the research related to quality-of-work-life (QWL) programs. It discusses several of QOL main concepts: happiness, positive psychology, and subjective wellbeing. Relations between spirituality and religiousness and QOL are examined as are the effects of educational attainment on QOL and marketing, and the associations with economic growth. The book goes on to investigate methodological approaches and issues that should be considered in measuring and analysing quality of life from a quantitative perspective. The final chapters are dedicated to research on elements of QOL in a broad range of countries and populations.
"Models of Computation for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems" presents a model of computation for heterogeneous embedded systems called DFCharts. It targets heterogeneous systems by combining finite state machines (FSM) with synchronous dataflow graphs (SDFG). FSMs are connected in the same way as in Argos (a Statecharts variant with purely synchronous semantics) using three operators: synchronous parallel, refinement and hiding. The fourth operator, called asynchronous parallel, is introduced in DFCharts to connect FSMs with SDFGs. In the formal semantics of DFCharts, the operation of an SDFG is represented as an FSM. Using this representation, SDFGs are merged with FSMs so that the behaviour of a complete DFCharts specification can be expressed as a single, flat FSM. This allows system properties to be verified globally. The practical application of DFCharts has been demonstrated by linking it to widely used system-level languages Java, Esterel and SystemC.
Nowadays, chirality is widely accepted as an important factor in molecular recognition processes and the biological activity of many pharmaceutical drugs and agrochemicals; this is confirmed by the continuous need for synthetic methods which lead to single or enriched enantiomers of such compounds. By presenting a review of the various and more recently developed approaches for both metal-transition and organocatalysis, this volume describes the development of "greener" asymmetric reactions which preserve stereoselectivity. The author summarizes the impressive amount of research that has been gathered within this field into three chapters focusing on: i)the search of alternative catalysts, ii) alternative solvents, and iii) alternative synthetic strategies and processes. For each topic, the fundamentals and some valuable applications are discussed.
Population ageing has been going on for many decades, but population shrinking is a rather new phenomenon. The population of Germany, as in many other countries, has passed a plateau and is currently shrinking. Demographic change is a challenge for infrastructure planning due to the longevity of infrastructure capital and the need to match supply and demand in order to ensure cost-efficiency. This book summarises the findings of the INFRADEM project team, a multidisciplinary research group that worked together to estimate the effects of demographic change on infrastructure demand. Economists, engineers and geographers present studies from top-down and bottom-up perspectives, focusing on Germany and two selected regions: Hamburg and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The contributors employed a broad range of methods, including an overlapping-generations model for Germany, regional input-output models, an energy systems model, and a spatial model of the transportation infrastructure.
The volume includes twenty-five research papers presented as gifts to John L. Bell to celebrate his 60th birthday by colleagues, former students, friends and admirers. Like Bell's own work, the contributions cross boundaries into several inter-related fields. The contributions are new work by highly respected figures, several of whom are among the key figures in their fields. Some examples: in foundations of maths and logic (William Lawvere, Peter Aczel, Graham Priest, Giovanni Sambin); analytical philosophy (Michael Dummett, William Demopoulos), philosophy of science (Michael Redhead, Frank Arntzenius), philosophy of mathematics (Michael Hallett, John Mayberry, Daniel Isaacson) and decision theory and foundations of economics (Ken Bimore). Most articles are contributions to current philosophical debates, but contributions also include some new mathematical results, important historical surveys, and a translation by Wilfrid Hodges of a key work of arabic logic.
An accurate quantitative picture of electric field distribution is essential in many electrical and electronic applications. In composite dielectric configurations composed of multiple dielectrics, anomalous or unexpected behavior of electric fields may appear when a solid dielectric is in contact with a conductor or another solid dielectric. The electric field near the contact point may become higher than the original field not only in the surrounding medium but also in the solid dielectric. Theoretically it may become infinitely high, depending on the contact angle. Although these characteristics are very important in a variety of applications, they have been clarified only recently using analytical and numerical calculation methods, and this is the first book to cover these new findings. Electric Fields in Composite Dielectrics and Their Applications describes the fundamental characteristics and practical applications of electric fields in composite dielectrics. The focus is on the field distribution (and the resultant force when appropriate) near points of contact. Applications include insulation design of high-voltage equipment with solid insulating supports, utilization of electrostatic force on dielectric particles in electrophotography and electrorheological fluids, and others. Electric Fields in Composite Dielectrics and Their Applications also explains the calculation methods used to analyze electric fields in composite dielectrics.
The human pancreas has vital roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and digestion and its dysfunction leads to pancreatic disease as diabetes and pancreatitis. Recent researches have highlighted the novel roles of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pancreas and its clinical relevances; its inapprporiate activation leads to pancreatic endocrine and exocrine disease, notably type 2 diabetes. As such, manipulation of the overactive RAS may improve pancreatic islet cell function, cell mass and insulin sensitivity, as well as enhancing the growth and differentiation of pancreatic stem cells. Blockade of the RAS may be protective against pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. The research outcome of current progress on the RAS in the pancreas should provide an alternative approach to preventing and treating, as well as curing pancreatic disease. This book discusses the progress of research on the renin-angiotensin system in the pancreas from the science to the bedside, providing a timely review of this expanding area. It consists of ten interrelated chapters covering subjects as: - Structure, physiology and disease of the pancreas - Biochemistry and physiology of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system - RAS in diabetes, stem cells and pancreatitis This book is of special value to basic and clinical scientists, clinicians, graduate students, as well as novices in this field.
Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems is a comprehensive book describing the basic processes of carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems, their contribution to carbon sequestration and implications for mitigating abrupt climate change. This book provides the information on processes, factors and causes influencing carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. Drawing upon most up-to-date references, this book summarizes the current understanding of carbon sequestration processes in forest ecosystems while identifying knowledge gaps for future research, Thus, this book is a valuable knowledge source for students, scientists, forest managers and policy makers.
The increasing prevalence of morbid obesity has led the World Health Organization to coin the descriptive term "globesity" to reflect the worldwide nature of the problem. Providing health care to these patients, especially when surgery is required, can be extremely challenging owing to the specific needs in respect of logistics, facilities, and professional expertise. Appropriate care has to date often been unachievable and unaffordable outside of established bariatric centers, but such centers themselves usually have insufficient capacity and resources to cope with the demand among the general population. This book therefore provides a wealth of guidance and helpful tips and tricks on how to deal with obese patients within a general surgery setting. Importantly, it highlights the need for global rethinking on public health as regards resource allocation and patterns and standards of care, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes through greater affordability.
This book is not intended as a full detailed report on hypertension and related disorders, but instead focuses on particular issues in hypertension. It looks at emerging recently described forms of hypertension that are frequently encountered in clinical practice (prehypertension, white-coat and masked hypertension, hypertension in the elderly) and discusses novel aspects of target organ disease (for example, cognitive impairment, dementia, and sexual dysfunction), and changing concepts in the management of hypertension and antihypertensive pharmacotherapy. It also looks at specific topics that are rarely discussed in books, including hypertension control in postmenopausal women on hormonal replacement therapy, Ramadan fasting, painful inflammatory disorders, and aldosterone escape. Finally, it examines newer cardiovascular risk factors (for example, uric acid, circadian blood pressure changes, blood pressure variability).
Ultrametric analysis has emerged as an important branch of mathematics in recent years. This book presents, for the first time, a brief survey of the research to date in ultrametric summability theory, which is a fusion of a classical branch of mathematics (summability theory) with a modern branch of analysis (ultrametric analysis). Several mathematicians have contributed to summability theory as well as functional analysis. The book will appeal to both young researchers and more experienced mathematicians who are looking to explore new areas in analysis.
The changing dynamics of business worldwide have led organizations to look beyond traditional managerial practices while at the same time attempting to retain their core competitive advantages. This development has called upon academicians and practitioners alike to reassess the different aspects of business management such as macroeconomic variables, the nature of the market, the changing features of the workplace, the new work ethos, and/or employer-employee exchanges. In this context, the book provides essential insights on industry innovations, academic advances and policy movements with regard to recovering markets in India and around the globe. The individual papers highlight potential avenues that could allow industry to better understand and respond to the global crisis. The book collects research papers presented at the Global Conference on Managing in Recovering Markets (GCMRM), held in March 2014. Seven international and 120 national business schools and management universities were represented at the conference, the first in a series of 13 planned under the GCMRM agenda for 2014-17. The book includes more than 30 research papers chosen from a pool of 118 presented at the conference, all of which have undergone a rigorous blind review process.
This volume comprises research papers presented at the International Conference on Informatics and Communication Technologies for Societal Development (ICICTS 2014) held at Karunya University, India. The content focuses on the recent advancements in image or signal processing, computer vision, communication technologies, soft computing, advanced computing, data mining and knowledge discovery. The primary objective of this volume is to facilitate advancement and application of the knowledge and to promote ideas that solve problems faced by society through cutting-edge technologies. The chapters contain selected articles from academicians, researchers and industry experts in the form of frameworks, models and architectures. Practical approaches, observations and results of research that promotes societal development are also incorporated. This volume will serve as a useful compendium for interested readers and researchers working towards societal development from the technological perspective.
Signal processing may broadly be considered to involve the recovery of information from physical observations. The received signal is usually disturbed by thermal, electrical, atmospheric or intentional interferences. Due to the random nature of the signal, statistical techniques play an important role in analyzing the signal. Statistics is also used in the formulation of the appropriate models to describe the behavior of the system, the development of appropriate techniques for estimation of model parameters and the assessment of the model performances. Statistical signal processing basically refers to the analysis of random signals using appropriate statistical techniques. The main aim of this book is to introduce different signal processing models which have been used in analyzing periodic data, and different statistical and computational issues involved in solving them. We discuss in detail the sinusoidal frequency model which has been used extensively in analyzing periodic data occuring in various fields. We have tried to introduce different associated models and higher dimensional statistical signal processing models which have been further discussed in the literature. Different real data sets have been analyzed to illustrate how different models can be used in practice. Several open problems have been indicated for future research.
This book reviews the emerging studies of synthetic immunology, including the development and regeneration of immune cells, immune organ development and artificial regeneration, and the synthetic approach towards understanding human immune system. Immunology has developed rapidly over the last 50 years through the incorporation of new methods and concepts in cell and molecular biology, genetics, genomics and proteomics. This progress is the result of works by many excellent researchers all over the world. Currently, immunological research has accumulated detailed knowledge on basic mechanisms of immunity and is in the process to change medical practices. Yet, due to the enormous complexity of the immune system, many aspects on the regulation and function of this system remain unknown. Synthetic biology uses gain-of-function rather than loss-of-function approaches. The goals of synthetic biology can be described in a simple phrase "rebuild, alter, and understand," namely, to rebuild minimal functional systems using well-defined parts from nature and then to perturb the system to understand its working principles. Given the richness of accumulated knowledge in molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune system, we now begin adapting the concepts of synthetic biology to immunology. An immune response is a spatiotemporal phenomenon occurring at a given time and at a specialized place in the body. One goal of synthetic immunology is to reconstruct artificial microenvironments for better understanding of an immune response. We hope this yet-to-be-experimental approach of synthetic immunology and the compilation of this book will aid our further understanding of the immune system and future devising the tools to manipulate the immune system for therapy and prevention of the diseases.
This book presents a comprehensive and detailed description of remediation techniques for metal-contaminated soils derived from both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Using a methodical, step-by-step presentation, the book starts by overviewing the origin of toxicants and the correlated comparative extent of contamination to the environment. The legal provisions as proposed or applied in different countries are then discussed to explain the global regulatory situation regarding soil contamination and the extent of consequent concern. The core part of this publication describes the major techniques for in situ or ex situ treatment of the contaminated soil to meet the regulatory limits. Finally, risk evaluation is incorporated, giving special attention to possible impacts during or after implementation of the remediation strategies. The intrusion of metals in soils mostly occurs from various anthropogenic activities, e. g. , agricultural practices, industrial activities, and municipal waste disposal. The volumes of metal-contaminated soil are becoming greater than before and are ever-increasing due to rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, and/or population booms in certain parts of the world. Hence, the options previously proposed, such as isolation of the contaminated site or movement of the contaminated mass to a secure disposal site after excavation, are becoming unsuitable from the economic point of view, and instead, decontamination alternatives are preferred. This book will help readers such as scientists and regulators to understand the details of the remediation techniques available to deal with the soils contaminated by toxic metals.
This book serves as an introduction to targeted genome editing, beginning with the background of this rapidly developing field and methods for generation of engineered nucleases. Applications of genome editing tools are then described in detail, in iPS cells and diverse organisms such as mice, rats, marine invertebrates, fish, frogs, and plants. Tools that are mentioned include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas9, all of which have received much attention in recent years as breakthrough technologies. Genome editing with engineered nucleases allows us to precisely change the target genome of living cells and is a powerful way to control functional genes. It is feasible in almost all organisms ranging from bacteria to plants and animals, as well as in cultured cells such as ES and iPS cells. Various genome modifications have proven successful, including gene knockout and knock-in experiments with targeting vectors and chromosomal editing. Genome editing technologies hold great promise for the future, for example in biomedical research, clinical medicine, and generation of crops and livestock with desirable traits. A wide range of readers will find this book interesting, and with its focus on applications in a variety of organisms and cells, the book will be valuable for life scientists in all fields.
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