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Epigenetics is a term in biology referring to heritable traits that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. Epigenetic traits exist on top of or in addition to the traditional molecular basis for inheritance. The "epigenome" is a parallel to the word "genome," and refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell. Cancer and stem cell research have gradually focused attention on these genome modifications. The molecular basis of epigenetics involves modifications to DNA and the chromatin proteins that associate with it. Methylation, for example, can silence a nearby gene and seems to be involved in some cancers.Epigenetics is beginning to form and take shape as a new scientific discipline, which will have a major impact on Medicine and essentially all fields of biology. Increasingly, researchers are unearthing links between epigenetics and a number of diseases.Although in recent years cancer has been the main focus of epigenetics, recent data suggests that epigenetic plays a critical role in psychology and psychopathology. It is being realized that normal behaviors such as maternal care and pathologies such as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's might have an epigenetic basis. It is also becoming clear that nutrition and life experiences have epigenetic consequences.
Goodbye, genetic blueprint. . . . The first book for general readers ?on the game-changing field of epigenetics. The burgeoning new science of epigenetics offers a cornucopia of insights--some comforting, some frightening. For example, the male fetus may be especially vulnerable to certain common chemicals in our environment, in ways that damage not only his own sperm but also the sperm of his sons. And it's epigenetics that causes identical twins to vary widely in their susceptibility to dementia and cancer. But here's the good news: unlike mutations, epigenetic effects are reversible. Indeed, epigenetic engineering is the future of medicine.
Pop culture meets cutting-edge science in this one-volume introduction to the history of science and modern biology."[Weissmann] has emerged in the last three decades as America's most interesting and important essayist. He has achieved this status both epigenetically and through Twitter, word of mouth, so to speak. . . . Much like Susan Sontag, Weissmann likes being a contemporary, and does not feel shackled by tradition. . . . This book is a joy for the heart and instructive for the mind." -ERIC KANDEL, Nobel Laureate and author of In Search of Memory"Only a mind as nimble and well traveled as Gerald Weissmann's could see, never mind make and expound on, the connections between salamanders and Prohibition . . . white blood cells, Hollywood and erectile dysfunction . . . health care reform and Marie Antoinette . . . bacteria, the Equal Rights Amendment and the "Miracle on the Hudson." Better yet, Weissmann does so with wit and insight. A fascinating tour through history, science and pop culture." -MAX GOMEZ, MD, Emmy Award-winning WCBS-TV Medical Correspondent"Erudite energy leaps from this lively commingling of art, culture and science. . . . In each [essay], Weissmann finds links between research and elements of history and pop culture, which play off each other to illuminating effect. So US politician Sarah Palin pops up in a discussion of 'Marie Antoinette syndrome'. . . and the 'meltdown' of the mythical Icarus meets the nuclear version at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan." -NatureEpigenetics, which attempts to explain how our genes respond to our environment, is the latest twist on the historic nature vs. nurture debate. In addressing this and other controversies in contemporary science, Gerald Weissmann taps what he calls "the social network of Western Civilization," including the many neglected women of science: from the martyred Hypatia of Alexandria, the first woman scientist, to the Nobel laureates Marie Curie, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, and Elizabeth Blackburn, among other luminaries in the field. Always instructive and often hilarious, this is a one-volume introduction to modern biology, viewed through the lens of today's mass media and the longer historical tradition of the Scientific Revolution. Whether engaging in the healthcare debate or imagining the future prose styling of the scientific research paper in the age of Twitter, Weissmann proves to be one of our most incisive cultural critics and satirists.Gerald Weissmann is director of the Biotechnology Study Center at the New York University School of Medicine and editor-in-chief of the FASEB Journal. His essays and reviews have appeared in numerous publications worldwide, including the London Review of Books and New York Times Book Review.
Illuminating the processes and patterns that link genotype to phenotype, epigenetics seeks to explain features, characters, and developmental mechanisms that can only be understood in terms of interactions that arise above the level of the gene. With chapters written by leading authorities, this volume offers a broad integrative survey of epigenetics. Approaching this complex subject from a variety of perspectives, it presents a broad, historically grounded view that demonstrates the utility of this approach for understanding complex biological systems in development, disease, and evolution. Chapters cover such topics as morphogenesis and organ formation, conceptual foundations, and cell differentiation, and together demonstrate that the integration of epigenetics into mainstream developmental biology is essential for answering fundamental questions about how phenotypic traits are produced.
Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic processes may play a major role in both cellular and organismal aging. These epigenetic processes include not only DNA methylation and histone modifications, but also extend to many other epigenetic mediators such as the polycomb group proteins, chromosomal position effects, and noncoding RNA. The topics of this book range from fundamental changes in DNA methylation in aging to the most recent research on intervention into epigenetic modifications to modulate the aging process. The major topics of epigenetics and aging covered in this book are: 1) DNA methylation and histone modifications in aging; 2) Other epigenetic processes and aging; 3) Impact of epigenetics on aging; 4) Epigenetics of age-related diseases; 5) Epigenetic interventions and aging: and 6) Future directions in epigenetic aging research. The most studied of epigenetic processes, DNA methylation, has been associated with cellular aging and aging of organisms for many years. It is now apparent that both global and gene-specific alterations occur not only in DNA methylation during aging, but also in several histone alterations. Many epigenetic alterations can have an impact on aging processes such as stem cell aging, control of telomerase, modifications of telomeres, and epigenetic drift can impact the aging process as evident in the recent studies of aging monozygotic twins. Numerous age-related diseases are affected by epigenetic mechanisms. For example, recent studies have shown that DNA methylation is altered in Alzheimer's disease and autoimmunity. Other prevalent diseases that have been associated with age-related epigenetic changes include cancer and diabetes. Paternal age and epigenetic changes appear to have an effect on schizophrenia and epigenetic silencing has been associated with several of the progeroid syndromes of premature aging. Moreover, the impact of dietary or drug intervention into epigenetic processes as they affect normal aging or age-related diseases is becoming increasingly feasible.
A collection of state-of-the-art methods for epigenetic analysis, including recent breakthrough techniques that have great potential in the rapidly expanding field of non-Mendelian genetics. The authors provide techniques for the analysis of chromatin remodeling, such as histone acetylation and methylation. In addition, methods in newly developed and especially promising areas of epigenetics, such as telomere position effects, quantitative epigenetics, and ADP ribosylation are covered. There is also an updated analysis of techniques involving DNA methylation and its role in the modification, as well as the maintenance, of chromatin structure. Of special interest are potentially revolutionary techniques. These include methods for determining changes in native chromatin, methods of microarray analysis applied to epigenetics, and methylation-sensitive single-strand conformation techniques. The methods are suitable not only for studying fundamental biological processes, but also for investigating possible therapeutic interventions and such diseases as cancer.
A writer with a PhD in neurobiology explains why "identical" twins can have different risks for health problems, how the effects of famine can be inherited across generations, and the dynamics of the breeding of hybrid animals. Francis presents an interesting, accessible introduction to epigenetics, a new field that studies how the environment (prenatal, social, and chemical stressors) can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects through regulating genes. He explains how this process offers promise for understanding development and obesity, and treating cancer. Annotation ©2011 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Understanding mechanisms of gene regulation that are independent of the DNA sequence itself - epigenetics - has the potential to overthrow long-held views on central topics in biology, such as the biology of disease or the evolution of species. High throughput technologies reveal epigenetic mechanisms at a genome-wide level, giving rise to epigenomics as a new discipline with a distinct set of research questions and methods. Leading experts from academia, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries explain the role of epigenomics in a wide range of contexts, covering basic chromatin biology, imprinting at a genome-wide level, and epigenomics in disease biology and epidemiology. Details on assays and sequencing technology serve as an up-to-date overview of the available technological tool kit. A reliable guide for newcomers to the field as well as experienced scientists, this is a unique resource for anyone interested in applying the power of twenty-first-century genomics to epigenetic studies.
Epilepsy is a complicated neurological condition with variable manifestations, numerous etiologies, and a diverse range of treatments. It is a chronic disease that, in many cases, can be controlled. However, treatment requires accurate clinical evaluation to allow intelligent treatment choices. Epilepsy has been designed to help clinicians develop these evaluation skills. Expert neurologists have distilled the evidence and combined their experience.
Epilepsy care traditionally focuses on seizures, yet for most epilepsy sufferers, other interictal factors such as mood, cognitive abilities, and treatment adverse effects most influence how they feel and function day to day.Epilepsy and the Interictal State is a practical and comprehensive text that covers quality of life issues, cognition and therapy, adverse effects of epilepsy treatments, mood state and psychiatric co-morbidity and general health aspects of epilepsy. Each chapter employs a standard structure providing background, epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and further practical advice.From an international team of expert editors and contributors, Epilepsy and the Interictal State is a valuable resource for specialist epileptologists and neurologists, as well as for neurosurgeons, neurology nurses, psychiatrists, family physicians and general practitioners.
Epilepsy: The Ultimate Teen Guide dispels the myths, misconceptions, and misunderstandings about epilepsy and the people who have the disorder. It provides factual medical information and advice for teens on how to live a normal life. Stories from teens who have epilepsy show readers they can participate in normal activities. They also offer advice on whether and how to tell friends, dates, teachers, or an employer about the condition. This book concludes with an extensive list of publications, websites, and organizations, as well as an appendix that covers the Americans with Disabilities Act and how it applies to people who have epilepsy.
The most acclaimed European graphic novel of the last ten years, Epileptic is David B.'s story of his brother's battle with epilepsy, but it turns into a penetrating and sometimes lacerating self-examination on the author's part, as he delves into his own complex emotions and his family's troubled history, as well as his own youthful fantasy life. Particularly pointed is his description of the family journey from one attempted cure to another, including acupuncture, spiritualism and macrobiotics. David B.'s drawing is utterly extraordinary, balancing literal representation and expressionist psychological distortion.
Anne Roiphe was not quite seventy years old when her husband of nearly forty years unexpectedly passed away. But it was not until her daughters placed a personal ad in a literary journal that Roiphe began to consider the previously unimagined possibility of a new man. Eloquent and astute, moving between heartbreaking memories of her marriage and the pressing needs of a new day-to-day routine, Epilogue takes us on her journey into the unknown world of life after love.
If you read and loved the #1 New York Times bestseller Hidden Order, enjoy this free bonus chapter.
In this timely supplement to his incomparable reckoning with the contemporary financial world, Dr. Alan Greenspan presents his views on how the economy has changed since he wrote the #1 New York Times bestseller The Age of Turbulence. Covering the subprime mortgage crisis as well as other national and international issues, this Penguin eSpecial offers a front-line view of the global economy from the man who has worked at its heart longer and with greater effect than any other single living figure.
Atlanta Police Department BulletinAll police officers should be aware that the recent increase in crime activity that is running rampant through the city of Atlanta, Georgia, is quickly destroying the holiday spirit of our citizens. As sworn officers of the law, we must do everything we can to save Christmas.Ã¿Detective: Max MaloneAssignment: Protect former flame Angelica North and her nephew, an eyewitness to his mother's murder, from the madman who wants them both dead.
Three short stories: Epiphany, Harmony Ain't Easy, and Relative & Absolute, which examine how bonds are formed between people of differing personalities and experiences.
"Epiphany" is a compilation of inspiring, life-changing moments from both nationally known figures like Dr. Mehmet Oz and Rabbi Shmuley Boteach and ordinary people, including a minister, an elementary school teacher, and a former street urchin in Tanzania.
Focusing on the way bishops in the eleventh century used the ecclesiastical tithe - church taxes - to develop or re-order ties of loyalty and dependence within their dioceses, this book offers a new perspective on episcopacy in medieval Germany and Italy. Using three broad case studies from the dioceses of Mainz, Salzburg and Lucca in Tuscany, John Eldevik places the social dynamics of collecting the church tithe within current debates about religious reform, social change and the so-called 'feudal revolution' in the eleventh century, and analyses a key economic institution, the medieval tithe, as a social and political phenomenon. By examining episcopal churches and their possessions not in institutional terms, but as social networks which bishops were obliged to negotiate and construct over time using legal, historiographical and interpersonal means, this comparative study casts fresh light on the history of early medieval society.
Though best known for The Red Badge of Courage, his classic novel of men at war, in his tragically brief life and career Stephen Crane produced a wealth of stories-among them "The Monster," "The Upturned Face," "The Open Boat," and the title story-that stand among the most acclaimed and enduring in the history of American fiction. This superb volume collects stories of unique power and variety in which impressionistic, hallucinatory, and realistic situations alike are brilliantly conveyed through the cold, sometimes brutal irony of Crane's narrative voice.
She had coolly planned a campaign to settle her difficulties. A trip to the French Riviera. A stranger - an attractive man without strings. One who would welcome an affair with an American girl.The first man she ran into was expatriate Steve Cogswell. Good! Just right, thought Nadine.Until Gerald Silletoe followed her from the States and tried to force her to marry him, using every method from blackmail to mayhem . . .Until Steve's luscious ex-wife, Fay, showed up. And Mart Gunther, his ex-business partner . . .Until Steve was robbed of the money he needed to pay off gambler Constantin Kamiros . . .And until Nadine got into Steve's bed and begged for what she didn't want . . .
Find your most rewarding place in today's economy. Award-winning author, researcher, and analyst Farai Chideya offers a practical guide to the ways in which work in America is changing and how you can navigate today's volatile job market.Since the Great Recession of 2007-2009, America's work landscape has changed dramatically. Many people experienced long-term unemployment that eroded their savings, and the globalized economy means that not just jobs but entire career tracks are created and destroyed in front of our eyes. We're living in an age of rapid disruption where we can barely adjust to one new reality before a new new reality comes along. So how are we supposed to live a rewarding life--working fulfilling, stable jobs that also cover our monthly expenses--in such a chaotic economy? In The Episodic Career, Farai Chideya explores the landscape of employment in America. Profiling the rich, the poor, and people from every strata in between, Chideya seeks to understand the many kinds of work we do--for example, not just job fields, but whether we seek to build institutions or seek social change while earning money. In addition, Chideya provides a self-diagnostic tool to help you find your work/life "sweet spot." You'll see how different types of people have navigated their careers and forged their own paths even in times of hardship. As a young reporter at Newsweek, CNN, and ABC, Chideya realized that her working-class Baltimore childhood and factors like Ivy League education affected how people viewed her, and she takes a frank look at stereotypes, employment discrimination, and how to create healthy workplaces. Ultimately, she asks how we as a country can sustain the American Dream. Knowledge of the workplace is power over your career. The Episodic Career provides the big-picture vision of the world economy, as well as the particulars of salary, family, health, and lifestyle that you need to thrive in a rapidly changing world.
Epistemic Angst offers a completely new solution to the ancient philosophical problem of radical skepticism--the challenge of explaining how it is possible to have knowledge of a world external to us.Duncan Pritchard argues that the key to resolving this puzzle is to realize that it is composed of two logically distinct problems, each requiring its own solution. He then puts forward solutions to both problems. To that end, he offers a new reading of Wittgenstein's account of the structure of rational evaluation and demonstrates how this provides an elegant solution to one aspect of the skeptical problem. Pritchard also revisits the epistemological disjunctivist proposal that he developed in previous work and shows how it can effectively handle the other aspect of the problem. Finally, he argues that these two antiskeptical positions, while superficially in tension with each other, are not only compatible but also mutually supporting.The result is a comprehensive and distinctive resolution to the problem of radical skepticism, one that challenges many assumptions in contemporary epistemology.
In this book the author gives an extended argument that the self-reflective person is committed to belief on authority. Epistemic authority is compatible with autonomy, but epistemic self-reliance is incoherent.