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Over the last 25 years life expectancy at age 50 in the U.S. has been rising but at a slower pace than in many other high-income countries such as Japan and Australia. This difference is particularly notable given that the U.S. spends more on health care than any other nation. Concerned about this divergence the National Institute on Aging asked the National Research Council to examine evidence on its possible causes. According to Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries the nation's history of heavy smoking is a major reason why lifespans in the U.S. fall short of those in many other high-income nations. Evidence suggests that current obesity levels play a substantial part as well. The book reports that lack of universal access to health care in the U.S. also has increased mortality and reduced life expectancy though this is a less significant factor for those over age 65 because of Medicare access. For the main causes of death at older ages -- cancer and cardiovascular disease -- available indicators do not suggest that the U.S. health care system is failing to prevent deaths that would be averted elsewhere. In fact cancer detection and survival appear to be better in the U.S. than in most other high-income nations and survival rates following a heart attack also are favorable. Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries identifies many gaps in research. For instance while lung cancer deaths are a reliable marker of the damage from smoking no clear-cut marker exists for obesity physical inactivity social integration or other risks considered in this book. Moreover evaluation of these risk factors is based on observational studies which -- unlike randomized controlled trials -- are subject to many biases.
A report from the International Monetary Fund.
This volume approaches the problem of characterizing and classifying emotions from the perspectives of neurophysiology, psychology, social psychology and philosophical psychology and discuss the difficulties that arise in classifying, assessing and determining the emotions.
In Explaining Hitler, Ron Rosenbaum investigates the meanings and motivations people have attached to Hitler and his crimes against humanity. What does Hitler tell us about the nature of evil? In often dramatic encounters, Rosenbaum confronts historians, scholars, filmmakers, and deniers as he skeptically analyzes the key strains of Hitler interpretation. A balanced and thoughtful overview of a subject both frightening and profound, this is an extraordinary quest, an expedition into the war zone of Hitler theories, #147;a provocative work of cultural history that is as compelling as it is thoughtful, as readable as it is smart" (New York Times). First published in 1998 to rave reviews, Explaining Hitler became a New York Times-bestseller. This new edition is an update of that classic and a critically important contribution to the study of the twentieth century's darkest moment.
Documents a variety of authors' takes on the reasons behinds Hitler's actions.
This book contributes to emerging debates in political science and sociology on institutional change. Its introductory essay proposes a new framework for analyzing incremental change that is grounded in a power-distributional view of institutions and that emphasizes ongoing struggles within but also over prevailing institutional arrangements. Five empirical essays then bring the general theory to life by evaluating its causal propositions in the context of sustained analyses of specific instances of incremental change. These essays range widely across substantive topics and across times and places, including cases from the United States, Africa, Latin America, and Asia. The book closes with a chapter reflecting on the possibilities for productive exchange in the analysis of change among scholars associated with different theoretical approaches to institutions.
This bestselling teacher resource and widely adopted text demonstrates the 'whats,' 'whys,' and 'how-tos' of explicit reading instruction for struggling K 8 learners. The book describes 23 skills and strategies associated with vocabulary, comprehension, word recognition, and fluency. Ways to explain each skill or strategy are illustrated in real-world examples that teachers can use as starting points for their own lessons. Retaining the straight-talking style that made the prior edition so popular, the second edition has been revised and updated to reflect reader feedback and the latest research. New to This Edition Incorporates important new research on vocabulary and comprehension. Stronger emphasis on embedding instruction in authentic reading experiences. A chapter on teaching "big-picture" ideas about strategy use. Revised teaching examples are even more thorough and teacher friendly
An expanded and revised edition of the author's critically acclaimed volume Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. In twenty-six succinct chapters, Jon Elster provides an account of the nature of explanation in the social sciences. He offers an overview of key explanatory mechanisms in the social sciences, relying on hundreds of examples and drawing on a large variety of sources - psychology, behavioral economics, biology, political science, historical writings, philosophy and fiction. Written in accessible and jargon-free language, Elster aims at accuracy and clarity while eschewing formal models. In a provocative conclusion, Elster defends the centrality of qualitative social sciences in a two-front war against soft (literary) and hard (mathematical) forms of obscurantism.
Explanation and Progress in Security Studies: Bridging Theoretical Divides in International Relationsby Fred Chernoff
Explanation and Progress in Security Studies asks why Security Studies, as a central area of International Relations, has not experienced scientific progress in the way natural sciences have#151;and answers by arguing that the underlying reason is that scholars in Security Studies have advanced a range of different notions of "explanation" or different criteria of "explanatory superiority" to show that their positions are better than rival positions. To demonstrate this, the author engages in in-depth content analysis of the generally recognized exemplars of explanation and explanatory superiority in three of the core debates in the disciplines: Why do states pursue policies of nuclear proliferation? Why do states choose to form the alliances they do? And why do liberal democratic states behave the way they do toward other liberal democracies? The book reveals that authors in the debates that have shown the most progress use similar criteria in arguing for and against the key explanations. In the nuclear proliferation debate, there is wide divergence in the criteria the most visible authors use, and there is wide divergence in the explanations offered. In the alliance formation/balance-of-power debate, there is some overlap of criteria the most important authors use, and there has been some limited movement toward consensus. In the democratic peace debate there has been much more overlap of criteria the most prominent authors use, and there is agreement on both some positive and negative conclusions.
In the four decades since Imre Lakatos declared mathematics a "quasi-empirical science," increasing attention has been paid to the process of proof and argumentation in the field -- a development paralleled by the rise of computer technology and the mounting interest in the logical underpinnings of mathematics. Explanantion and Proof in Mathematics assembles perspectives from mathematics education and from the philosophy and history of mathematics to strengthen mutual awareness and share recent findings and advances in their interrelated fields. With examples ranging from the geometrists of the 17th century and ancient Chinese algorithms to cognitive psychology and current educational practice, contributors explore the role of refutation in generating proofs, the varied links between experiment and deduction, the use of diagrammatic thinking in addition to pure logic, and the uses of proof in mathematics education (including a critique of "authoritative" versus "authoritarian" teaching styles). A sampling of the coverage: The conjoint origins of proof and theoretical physics in ancient Greece. Proof as bearers of mathematical knowledge. Bridging knowing and proving in mathematical reasoning. The role of mathematics in long-term cognitive development of reasoning. Proof as experiment in the work of Wittgenstein. Relationships between mathematical proof, problem-solving, and explanation. Explanation and Proof in Mathematics is certain to attract a wide range of readers, including mathematicians, mathematics education professionals, researchers, students, and philosophers and historians of mathematics.
In Aristotle's teleological view of the world, natural things come to be and are present for the sake of some function or end (for example, wings are present in birds for the sake of flying). Whereas much of recent scholarship has focused on uncovering the (meta-)physical underpinnings of Aristotle's teleology and its contrasts with his notions of chance and necessity, this book examines Aristotle's use of the theory of natural teleology in producing explanations of natural phenomena. Close analyses of Aristotle's natural treatises and his Posterior Analytics show what methods are used for the discovery of functions or ends that figure in teleological explanations, how these explanations are structured, and how well they work in making sense of phenomena. The book will be valuable for all who are interested in Aristotle's natural science, his philosophy of science, and his biology.
Have we always "sworn like sailors"? Has creative cursing developed because we can't just slug people when they make us angry? And if such verbal aggression is universal, why is it that some languages (Japanese, for instance) supposedly do not contain any nasty words? Throughout the twentieth century there seems to have been a dramatic escalation in the use and acceptance of offensive language in English, both verbally and in print. Today it seems almost commonplace to hear the "f" word in casual conversation, and even on television. Just how have we become such a bunch of cursers and what does it tell us about our language and ourselves?InExpletive Deleted,linguist Ruth Wajnryb offers an entertaining yet thoroughly researched, lighthearted look at this development, seeking to reveal the etymologies of various terms and discover how what was once considered unfit-for-company argot has become standard fare. Wajnryb steps outside the confines of English in her search for answers, exploring whether offensive words in English are mirrored in other languages and examining cultural differences in the usage of dirty words. For instance, why is it that in some languages you can get away with intimating that a person and his camel are more than just good friends, while pouring scorn on a mother's morals guarantees you a seat on the next flight out?An amusing and idiosyncratic look at the power of words to shock, offend, insult, amuse, exaggerate, let off steam, establish relationships, and communicate deep-felt emotions,Expletive Deletedis a must-read for anyone who loves language -- or has ever stubbed a toe.
The secrets of successful ISO9000 implementation Thousands of companies worldwide are reaping the benefits from adopting the ISO9000 family of quality management standards. However, there are many conflicting opinions about ISO9000s best practice approach. Some companies have delayed adopting ISO9000, or have chosen not to undertake implementation at all. This might be because of a lack of time and resources to investigate it properly, or because of misunderstandings about the way it works. So, how do we know who and what to believe? In Exploding the Myths Surrounding ISO9000, Andrew W Nichols debunks many of the common misconceptions about ISO9001 and describes the many advantages it brings. Drawing on more than 25 years of hands-on experience, Andy gives clear, practical and up-to-date advice on how to implement a Quality Management System to maximum effect. Full of real-life examples, this book enables you to read and interpret the ISO9000 documentation. With the advice in this book, you can foster an effective ISO9000 system that brings increased efficiencies, reduces waste and fuels growth in sales as you better understand and meet the needs of your customers. About the author Andrew W Nichols has more than 25 years of experience of management systems, in both the UK and the USA. As a trainer, he has delivered hundreds of ISO9000 related courses to audiences ranging from shop-floor personnel to CEOs of Fortune 500 companies. He has also led and contributed to the development of best in class training courses for a number of international standards. Andy is a regular contributor to the well-known Elsmar Cove internet forum for management systems. Read this unique book and make ISO9000 work for you.
Before smartphones, back even before the Internet and personal computer, a misfit group of technophiles, blind teenagers, hippies, and outlaws figured out how to hack the world's largest machine: the telephone system. Starting with Alexander Graham Bell's revolutionary "harmonic telegraph," by the middle of the twentieth century the phone system had grown into something extraordinary, a web of cutting-edge switching machines and human operators that linked together millions of people like never before. But the network had a billion-dollar flaw, and once people discovered it, things would never be the same. Exploding the Phone tells this story in full for the first time. It traces the birth of long-distance communication and the telephone, the rise of AT&T's monopoly, the creation of the sophisticated machines that made it all work, and the discovery of Ma Bell's Achilles' heel. Phil Lapsley expertly weaves together the clandestine underground of "phone phreaks" who turned the network into their electronic playground, the mobsters who exploited its flaws to avoid the feds, the explosion of telephone hacking in the counterculture, and the war between the phreaks, the phone company, and the FBI. The product of extensive original research,Exploding the Phone is a ground-breaking, captivating book.
September is the worst month for heat in Southern California, and LAPD lieutenant Luis Mendoza is feeling the burn as the sweltering temperatures raise tempers and violence. Heading the list is the bizarre murder of a young French girl - which eventually leads Mendoza to Paris. An old man smothered in his hospital bed; a polite holdup artist nicknamed Baby Face; a Hollywood matron who disappears while visiting a sick friend and the grisly murder of a family who has just moved from Wisconsin keep the skilful Mendoza and his force pounding the scorching pavements in a crime wave that, like the heat, offers no sign of relief.
Exploitation of Fungi: Symposium of the British Mycological Society Held at the University of Manchester September 2005by G. D. Robson G. M. Gadd
The fungi are a highly diverse kingdom of eukaryotic microbes. Recent advances in molecular genetics, together with the release of whole genome sequences of an increasing number of fungi, are facilitating their exploitation and commercialisation. Fungi have the ability to secrete large quantities of proteins of commercial value, and their complex secondary metabolic pathways produce a diverse range of bioactive compounds which have had a major impact in the pharmaceuticals market. In addition, the fungi themselves are increasingly being developed as alternatives to conventional chemically-based pest control strategies, and as bioremediation agents capable of transforming pollutants in the soil environment. With chapters written by international experts, this volume highlights current and future biological, biochemical, and molecular exploitation of the fungi in biotechnology. It will have broad appeal, not only to mycologists and microbiologists, but also to biomedical scientists, biotechnologists, environmental and molecular scientists, plant pathologists and geneticists.
Christopher Columbus was not the first to discover the Americas, but his voyages led to European exploration of the New World. Rich in resources and natural beauty, the Americas were irresistible to gold-hungry conquistadors. The newcomers gave little thought to those who had called the lands their home, and exploration soon came to signify conquest. The New World -- and the lives of its inhabitants -- would be changed forever.
One of the great works of American exploration literature, this account of a scientific expedition forced to survive famine, attacks, mutiny, and some of the most dangerous rapids known to man remains as fresh and exciting today as it was in 1874. The Exploration of the Colorado River and Its Canyons, recently ranked number four on Adventure magazine's list of top 100 classics, is legendary pioneer John Wesley Powell's first-person account of his crew's unprecedented odyssey along the Green and Colorado Rivers and through the Grand Canyon. A bold foray into the heart of the American West's final frontier, the expedition was achieved without benefit of modern river-running equipment, supplies, or a firm sense of the region's perilous topography and the attitudes of the native inhabitants towards whites.
THEMES: Each Student Book includes six units, each organised around a universal theme relevant to students' lives. These themes foster meaningful connections to artworks across time and place. Elements and principles are embedded throughout each unit to ensure continual application and understanding. STRANDS: Each unit theme is organised into three teaching and learning strands that explore specific aspects of the unit theme. Each strand includes two concept lessons -- each with a studio -- and an extended Studio Exploration with hands-on, cumulative reinforcement of the two previous concept lessons.
Explorations in Diversity: Examining Privilege and Oppression In A Multicultural Society (Second Edition)by Sharon K. Anderson Valerie A. Middleton
This unique text features personal accounts from mental health professionals, professors and students facing issues of privilege and oppression in our diverse society. In this collection of articles, writers discuss discoveries and experiences about their own privileges and oppression, and ultimately, the compassion they've developed for individuals confronted with discrimination. Each essay will inspire you to reflect on your own encounters with privilege and oppression, while discussion questions at the end of each story provide an opportunity to process these issues on a personal level. By studying these revealing stories of insight and understanding, you'll learn how to recognize, examine, and finally, come to terms with your own privileges and discrimination -- allowing you to become a stronger, more acute, and more effective practitioner of the helping professions.