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The origins of Islam have been the subject of increasing controversy in recent years. The traditional view, which presents Islam as a self-consciously distinct religion tied to the life and revelations of the prophet Muhammad in western Arabia, has since the 1970s been challenged by historians engaged in critical study of the Muslim sources. In Muhammad and the Believers, the eminent historian Fred Donner offers a lucid and original vision of how Islam first evolved. He argues that the origins of Islam lie in what we may call the "Believers' movement" begun by the prophet Muhammadâe"a movement of religious reform emphasizing strict monotheism and righteous behavior in conformity with God's revealed law. The Believers' movement thus included righteous Christians and Jews in its early years, because like the Qur'anic Believers, Christians and Jews were monotheists and agreed to live righteously in obedience to their revealed law. The conviction that Muslims constituted a separate religious community, utterly distinct from Christians and Jews, emerged a century later, when the leaders of the Believers' movement decided that only those who saw the Qur'an as the final revelation of the One God and Muhammad as the final prophet, qualified as Believers. This separated them decisively from monotheists who adhered to the Gospels or Torah.
In a meticulous quest for the historical Muhammad, Armstrong first traces the West's long history of hostility toward Islam, which it has stigmatized as a "religion of the sword." This sympathetic, engrossing biography portrays Muhammad (ca. 570-632) as a passionate, complex, fallible human being--a charismatic leader possessed of political as well as spiritual gifts, and a prophet whose monotheistic vision intuitively answered the deepest longings of his people. Armstrong (The Gospel According to Woman) refutes the Western image of Muhammad as an impostor who used religion as a means to power, an attitude encapsulated in a psychotic dream episode in Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses. Denying that Islam preaches total intransigence, she finds in the Prophet's teachings a theology of peace and tolerance. The "holy war" urged by the Koran, in Armstrong's reading, alludes to each Muslim's duty to fight for a just, decent society. She draws significant parallels between the spiritual aspirations of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Muhammad was born in 570 CE, and over the following sixty years built a thriving spiritual community, laying the foundations of a religion that changed the course of world history. There is more historical data on his life than on that of the founder of any other major faith, and yet his story is little known. Karen Armstrong's immaculately researched new biography of Muhammad will enable readers to understand the true origins and spirituality of a faith that is all too often misrepresented as cruel, intolerant, and inherently violent. An acclaimed authority on religious and spiritual issues, Armstrong offers a balanced, in-depth portrait, revealing the man at the heart of Islam by dismantling centuries of misconceptions. Armstrong demonstrates that Muhammad's life--a pivot point in history--has genuine relevance to the global crises we face today.
In his probing study of the role of death rites in the making of Islamic society, Leor Halevi imaginatively plays prescriptive texts against material culture and advances new ways of interpreting highly contested sources. His original research reveals that religious scholars of the early Islamic period produced codes of funerary law not only to define the handling of a Muslim corpse but also to transform everyday urban practices. Relying on oral traditions, these scholars established new social patterns in the cities of Arabia, Mesopotamia, and the eastern Mediterranean. They distinguished Islamic rites from Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian rites and changed the way men and women interacted publicly and privately. In each chapter Halevi explores a different layer of human interaction, following the movement of the corpse from the deathbed to the grave. In the process he analyzes the real and imaginary relationships between husbands and wives, prayer leaders and mourners, and even dreamers and the dead. He describes how Muslims wailed for the deceased, prepared corpses for burial, marched in funerary processions, and prayed for the dead, highlighting the specific economic and political factors involved in these rituals as well as key religious and sexual divisions. Offering a unique perspective on the making of Islamic social and religious ideals during this early period, Halevi forges a fascinating link between the development of funerary rites and the efforts of an emerging religion to carve out its own, distinct identity. Muhammad's Grave is a groundbreaking history of the rise of Islam and the roots of contemporary Muslim attitudes toward the body and society.
In a lifetime of exploration, writing, and passionate political activism, John Muir made himself America's most eloquent spokesman for the mystery and majesty of the wilderness. A crucial figure in the creation of our national parks system and a visionary prophet of environmental awareness, he was also a master of natural description who evoked with unique power and intimacy the untrammeled landscapes of the American West. Nature Writings collects his most significant and best-loved works in a single volume. The Story of My Boyhood and Youth (1913) is Muir's account of growing up by the sea in Scotland, of coming to America with his family at age eleven, and of his early fascination with the natural world. My First Summer in the Sierra (1911) is his famous account of the spiritual awakening he experienced when, 1869, he first encountered the mountains and valleys of central California. The Mountains of California (1894) draws on half a lifetime of exploration of the high Sierra country to celebrate and evoke the region's lakes, forests, flowers, and animals in a masterpiece of observation and poetic description. Also included are the widely popular "Stickeen" (1909), Muir's affectionate story of an adventure with a dog in Alaska, and a rich selection of essays - including "Yosemite Glaciers", "God's First Temples", "Snow-Storm on Mount Shasta", "The American Forests", and the late appeal "Save the Redwoods" - highlighting various aspects of his career: his exploration of what became Yosemite and Yellowstone national parks and the Grand Canyon, his successful crusades to preserve the wilderness, his early walking tour to Florida, and the Alaska journey of 1879.
As this book is read or sung to its traditional melody and with appropriate actions, parents, teachers or children--especially children--may easily extend the ideas suggested within the text.
In the San Diego suburb of Fairbrook, past Applewood Drive and up First Street, lies Mulberry Park, a peaceful haven for locals from all walks of life. And at the center of its lush green lawn grows a massive mulberry tree--tall enough to take a most precious wish as high as it can go, and to open a few hearts along the way. . .Each day after work, Claire Harper drives to Mulberry Park and jogs for miles, hoping to find a respite from her sadness. It's futile, until the evening a letter falls from its hiding place in a nearby tree. Inside the bright pink envelope emblazoned with the words "To God From Analisa," is a note written by a seven-year-old girl, urging God to look after her parents in Heaven and help those she loves on Earth. On impulse, Claire writes back, hoping to preserve Analisa's innocent belief in answered prayers--even if Claire lost her own faith. . .Gradually, Analisa's letters draw Claire out of her cocoon and into the companionship of other Mulberry Park regulars--all, in their own way, in need of comfort. As friendships grow, each will discover just how far one simple letter can reach. . . "An uplifting story about one little girl's unflinching faith and how she extends an open and loving hand to the broken people around her, bringing them close to each other and back into God's gentle embrace." --Cathy Lamb, author of Henry's Sisters
He needed me. For nearly twenty years, those three words dictated the life of Lillian Manville. Quiet, unassuming, and overweight, Lillian did anything and everything to please her husband, the illustrious self-made billionaire James Manville. Since the tender age of seventeen, she had obeyed this powerful older man's every command and in return she received a life beyond her wildest dreams. Elaborate mansions. Trips around the world. The finest jewels and the most luxurious fashions. Whatever I wanted, he gave me long before I knew I wanted it. But when Jimmie dies suddenly in a plane crash, Lillian's pampered life comes to an abrupt halt. She learns that Jimmie has bequeathed all of his riches to his devious siblings, Atlanta and Ray. All, that is, except an old farmhouse in small-town Calburn, Virginia. Although Lillian is devastated by Jimmie's death and apparent betrayal, she soon discovers a well of secrets connected to Jimmie's past that originate in Calburn and to a long-ago tragedy concerning a group of boys hailed as the "Golden Six." Uncovering those secrets, Lillian thinks, will help her to better understand the man she loved and mysteriously lost. What Lillian doesn't foresee is how her unexpected circumstances quickly transform her. She loses weight, changes her name to avoid further harassment from the press, and, with the help of Matthew Longacre, a kind, handsome local man, begins to renovate the farmhouse and establish friendships with Calburn's quirky townspeople. In time she develops her own thriving business and an inner strength she never knew existed. But, though Lillian's new life seems as strong as the mulberry tree firmly planted outside her farmhouse, there remain secrets and lies that threaten to uproot the past she cherished and the future she will fight to protect.
Three never-before-collected short stories from #1 New York Times bestselling author Michael Connelly In "Cahoots," a backroom poker game turns deadly when a cheater is exposed. In "Mulholland Dive," a man who deciphers the hidden codes of accident scenes investigates a fatality off L. A. 's most fabled roadway. In "Two-Bagger," an obsessed cop tails an ex-con he believes is about to carry out a contract killing. Together these gripping, unforgettable stories show that Michael Connelly "knows the workings of the LAPD and the streets of the City of Angels like he knows his own name" (Boston Globe). [Word count: 14,054]
Mulk Raj Anand (1905-2004) was an Indian English writer of world repute. His first ten books were from London. He has over 22 books of fiction and a large number of publications on art, education and culture, and thousands of letters.
Cal, Harlan, and Buddy grow up together in a small Virginia town in the years before the second World War. United by age, proximity, and temperament, they get into--and out of--all the trouble that boys manage to find. They even earn a nickname from a local restaurateur who gives the boys their first jobs and plenty of friendly advice. "Uncle" Vic calls them the Mulligans, because they always seem to find a way through a thicket of trouble--family problems, girls, college, war--to success. Cal and Harlan and Buddy have been blessed with second chances.Now it's 1959, and police lieutenant Buddy receives an early-morning phone call: his friend Harlan, a store owner, has been shot in a break-in. Cal, now a preacher, meets Buddy at the hospital, and together, as professionals and as friends, they begin to unravel what might have happened to Harlan.
Multi-Agent Machine Learning: A Reinforcement Learning Approach is a framework to understanding different methods and approaches in multi-agent machine learning. It also provides cohesive coverage of the latest advances in multi-agent differential games and presents applications in game theory and robotics. * Framework for understanding a variety of methods and approaches in multi-agent machine learning. * Discusses methods of reinforcement learning such as a number of forms of multi-agent Q-learning * Applicable to research professors and graduate students studying electrical and computer engineering, computer science, and mechanical and aerospace engineering
With the devastating complication of cancer cells becoming simultaneously resistant to many structurally and mechanistically unrelated drugs, the efficacy of chemotherapeutic management of cancer often becomes severely limited. In Multi-Drug Resistance in Cancer, leading researchers in the field provide comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of multidrug resistance mechanisms, from over-expression of ATP-binding cassette drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated proteins, and breast cancer resistance protein, to the drug ratio-dependent antagonism and the paradigm of cancer stem cells. The extensive volume also includes strategies to overcome multidrug resistance, from the development of compounds that inhibit drug transporter function to the modulation of transporter expression, as well as techniques for detection and imaging of drug transporters, methods for investigation of drug resistance in animal models, and strategies to evaluate the efficacy of resistance reversal agents. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series, this work provides the kind of detailed description and implementation advice that is crucial for getting optimal results. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Multi-Drug Resistance in Cancer offers a state-of-art collection of reviews and methods for both basic and clinician investigators who are interested in the vital study of cancer multi-drug resistance mechanisms and reversal strategies.
Summarizes cutting-edge physical layer technologies for multi-mode wireless RF transceivers.Includes original contributions from distinguished researchers and professionals.Covers cutting-edge physical layer technologies for multi-mode wireless RF transceivers.Contributors are all leading researchers and professionals in this field.
The bestselling authors of The Multi-Orgasmic Man show you and your partner how to: Experience intense multiple whole-body orgasms Pleasure each other profoundly Use sexuality for health and healing Deepen your love and spiritual relationship Couples will discover simple step-by-step techniques for a level of sexual pleasure, intimacy, and healing they may not have known was possible. This fully illustrated guide will inspire couples to make love all night-and make love last a lifetime.
This is the first comprehensive introduction to multiagent systems and contemporary distributed artificial intelligence that is suitable as a textbook.
Today's leaders in higher education are focused on creating multicultural campuses. However, most higher education and student affairs professionals receive limited training for understanding the complexity of multicultural issues. If multiculturalism is to flourish on college campuses, education professionals must develop the sensitivity and awareness in affirming relevant multicultural issues and develop the skills needed to offer meaningful services to all their students. Multicultural Competence in Student Affairs is a unique resource that offers student affairs practitioners and faculty a guide that features a model of core competencies that embraces the broad scope of multicultural issues including race, class, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, and abilities.
MULTICULTURAL DYNAMICS AND THE ENDS OF HISTORY provides a strikingly original reading of key texts in the philosophy of history by Kant, Hegel, and Marx, as well as strong arguments for why these texts are still relevant to understanding history today. Réal Fillion offers a critical exposition of the theses of these three authors on the dynamics and the ends of history, in order to provide an answer to the question: "Where are we headed?" Grounding his answer in the twin observations that the world is becoming increasingly multicultural and increasingly unified, Fillion reasserts the task of the speculative philosophy of history as it had been understood by German philosophy: the articulation and understanding the historical process as a developmental whole. Fillion's interpretation engages many recent strands of social and political thought in order to provide a new understanding of current events, and possible futures, grounded in the understanding of the dynamics of the past and the present provided by Kant, Hegel, and Marx. The result is a rich and timely answer to the question of where our world is headed today.
"Multicultural Gender Roles continues to advance multidimensional identity models. Each data-informed chapter introduces genuine reflections and accountings that lead to a proposed process model highlighting the complexities of negotiating gender roles, rules, and responsibilities for ethnic minority individuals." --Patricia Arredondo, President, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago Campus"This book is a must-read for counselors and educators seeking to have a full understanding of the people they work with."--Edward A. Delgado-Romero, PhD, Professor, The University of Georgia"This extraordinary book presents vivid narratives of the challenges African American, Latina/o, Asian and Asian American women and men face in constructing their gender roles. The Multicultural Gender Role Model is groundbreaking." --Nancy Boyd-Franklin, PhD, Professor II - Distinguished Professor, Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Rutgers UniversityPractical applications for mental health professionals and educators in helping clients and students understand and construct their roles within their schools, families, and communitiesEdited by Dr. Marie Miville--a recognized authority on multicultural issues in counseling and psychology--Multicultural Gender Roles provides mental health professionals, educators, and students entering these fields with a solid research grounding on how people of color can reframe their gender roles in today's world.Featuring personal experiences and stories based on interviews with over sixty individuals from various racial-ethnic backgrounds, Multicultural Gender Roles explores:Gender role construction among men and women of colorLatino and Latina gender rolesGender roles among Asian/Asian American men and womenGender roles among African American men and womenNegotiating multicultural gender rolesUtilizing current theory and new research, Multicultural Gender Roles provides practical applications for mental health professionals and educators working with diverse populations.
This book is a sequel to the author's earlier volume entitled, Literacy Instruction in Multicultural Settings. In addition to extensive updating of earlier material, this book extends the content coverage to include issues of power, attitudes, and systemic change through the application of discourse theory and critical theory. In doing so, however, the author has tried to maintain the brevity, stylistic clarity, and classroom focus of the earlier volume. Key features of this important new book include: *Teaching Flexibility. Although written with the classroom needs of pre-service teachers in mind, theory and research are treated in sufficient depth to make the book suitable for graduate courses and for teacher study groups. *Issues Organization. Each chapter is organized around familiar issues that characterize schools and classrooms with diverse student populations and explores these issues through new lenses that most teachers have not previously encountered. *Social Constructivist Perspective. Critical theory, discourse theory, and historical perspective are introduced in order to sensitize readers to the need to recognize negative, socially sustained patterns that hamper literacy achievement and replace them with positive patterns. To this end each chapter asks students to maintain a running list of negative patterns along with alternative positive patterns.
Both highly informative and entertaining, Multicultural Manners gives readers the understanding they need, the perfect words to say, and the correct behavior to use in a wide range of cross-cultural situations. This incisive and award-winning guide to etiquette features completely updated etiquette guidelines with special emphasis on post-September 11 culture clashes as well as a brand-new section that demystifies unfamiliar cultures in the news. Norine Dresser identifies key cross-cultural hot spots and suggests methods that foster respect for diversity. Readers will discover the dos and don'ts of successful business and social interaction, detailed tips on avoiding embarrassment in a variety of social settings, amusing firsthand accounts of cultural gaffes, a breakdown of customs, religions, languages, and ethnicities for seventy different countries, and appropriate etiquette for innumerable settings.
Exemplary contemporary literature that blends the uniqueness and commonalities of all cultures.
A text for pre-service teachers, also useful for staff development with experienced teachers and administrators. Provides a knowledge base for teaching multiculturally, and gives a wealth of activities that provide learning opportunities for diverse students. Part I details how to infuse multicultural concepts across the curriculum, and Part II tells how to break down stereotypes, explore linguistic diversity, and celebrate multiculturalism throughout the year. Part III discusses problems and issues in multicultural teaching. Includes some 50 pages of recommended readings and resources.
In this pioneering volume, Brode makes a compelling case that Disney's consistently positive presentation of "difference"--whether it be race, gender, sexual orientation, ideology, or spirituality--provided the key paradigm for an eventual emergence of multiculturalism in our society. Using examples from dozens of films and TV programs, Brode demonstrates that Disney entertainment has consistently portrayed Native Americans, African Americans, women, gays, individual acceptance of one's sexual orientation, and alternatives to Judeo-Christian religious values in a highly positive light. Assuming a contrarian stance, Brode refutes the overwhelming body of "serious" criticism that dismisses Disney entertainment as racist and sexist. Instead, he reveals through close textual analysis how Disney introduced audiences to such politically correct principles as mainstream feminism. In so doing, Brode challenges the popular perception of Disney fare as a bland diet of programming that people around the world either uncritically deem acceptable for their children or angrily revile as reactionary pabulum for the masses. Providing a long overdue and thoroughly detailed alternative, Brode makes a highly convincing argument that with an unwavering commitment to racial diversity and sexual difference, coupled with a vast global popularity, Disney entertainment enabled those successive generations of impressionable youth who experienced it to create today's aura of multiculturalism and our politically correct value system.
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