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This remarkably ambitious book tells the story of the great social and political catastrophe that enveloped Europe between 1914 and 1945. In a period of almost continuous upheaval, society was transformed by two world wars, the Russian Revolution, the Holocaust, and the rise and fall of the Third Reich. Combining a powerful narrative with profound analysis, acclaimed historian Robert Gellately argues that these tragedies are inextricably linked and that to consider them as discrete events is to misunderstand their genesis and character. Central to the catastrophe, of course, were Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler, and this book makes use of recently opened Russian and German sources to explain how these dictators' pursuit of utopian--and dreadfully flawed--ideals led only to dystopian nightmare. In a groundbreaking work, Gellately makes clear that most comparative studies of the Soviet and Nazi dictatorships are undermined by neglecting the key importance of Lenin in the unfolding drama. Rejecting the myth of the "good" Lenin, the book provides a convincing social-historical account of all three dictatorships and carefully documents their similarities and differences. It traces the escalation of conflicts between Communism and Nazism, and particularly of the role of Hitler's anathema against what he called "Jewish Bolshevism. " The book shows how the vicious rivalry between Stalin and Hitler led inescapably to a war of annihilation and genocide. The reverberations of this gargantuan struggle are felt everywhere to this day.
"All offers of surrender from Leningrad must be rejected," wrote Adolph Hitler on September 29, 1941, at the outset of Operation Barbarossa. "In this struggle for survival, we have no interest in keeping even a proportion of the city's population alive. " During the famed 900-day siege of Leningrad, the German High Command deliberately planned to eradicate the city's population through starvation. Viewing the Slavs as sub-human, Hitler embarked on a vicious program of ethnic cleansing. By the time the siege ended in January 1944, almost a million people had died. Those who survived would be marked permanently by what they endured as the city descended into chaos. InLeningrad, military historian Michael Jones chronicles the human story of this epic siege. Drawing on newly available eyewitness accounts and diaries, he reveals the true horrors of the ordeal-including stories long-suppressed by the Soviets of looting, criminal gangs, and cannibalism. But he also shows the immense psychological resources on which the citizens of Leningrad drew to survive against desperate odds. At the height of the siege, for instance, an extraordinary live performance of Shostakovich's Seventh Symphony profoundly strengthened the city's will to resist. A riveting account of one of the most harrowing sieges of world history,Leningradalso portrays the astonishing power of the human will in the face of even the direst catastrophe.
In this first examination of Lenin's genealogical and political connections to East European Jews, Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern reveals the broad cultural meanings of indisputable evidence that Lenin's maternal grandfather was a Jew. He examines why and how Lenin's Jewish relatives converted to Christianity, explains how Lenin's vision of Russian Marxism shaped his identity, and explores Lenin's treatment of party colleagues of Jewish origin and the Jewish Question in Europe. Petrovsky-Shtern also uncovers the continuous efforts of the Soviet communists to suppress Lenin's Jewishness and the no less persistent attempts of Russian extremists to portray Lenin as a Jew. In this fascinating book, Petrovsky-Shtern expands our understanding not only of Lenin, but also of Russian and Soviet handling of the Jewish Question.
One of the great political strategists of his era, V. I. Lenin continues to attract historical interest, yet his complex personality eludes full understanding. This new edition of Moshe Lewin's classic political biography, including an afterword by the author, suggests new approaches for studying the Marxist visionary and founder of the Soviet state. Lenin's Last Struggle offers invaluable insights into the rise of the Bolshevik party and the Soviet Union, a saga complicated by complex strategic battles among the leaders of Lenin's generation: leaders whose names are universally known, but whose personalities and motivations are even now not sufficiently understood.
In the tradition of John Reed's classic Ten Days That Shook the World, this bestselling account of the collapse of the Soviet Union combines the global vision of the best historical scholarship with the immediacy of eyewitness journalism. "A moving illumination . . . Remnick is the witness for us all. "--Wall Street Journal.
John Lennon-working class hero, rebel with a cause, citizen of the world. He would have been 65 this year. A quarter of a century after his death, the questions remain: what was John Lennon really like, what drove him to the heights of creativity and the depths of despair, and why do his music and message still resonate for millions around the world? Now acclaimed broadcast journalist and author Larry Kane uncovers the mysteries of Lennon's life and implodes the myths surrounding it. Kane definitely has the right credentials for the job. He was the only American reporter who traveled in the Beatles' official entourage to every stop on their history-making first American tours, and he stayed in touch with Lennon until an assassin ended the former Beatle's life. Lennon Revealedis filled with revelations about John Lennon's path from public glory to personal destruction, and ultimately to the inspiring rebirth that defines a triumph of the spirit. Drawing on extensive personal accounts and extraordinary new interviews with more than 50 confidants and experts-most notably, with Yoko Ono-Kane brings the reader closer than ever to the man who, in life and in death, has had a singular impact on humanity. Kane also provides stunning new information about Lennon's relationships with Ono, his childhood soulmate Stuart Sutcliffe, his lover May Pang, and Beatles manager Brian Epstein. The book includes an exclusive DVD featuring the final filmed interview with Lennon and Paul McCartney, conducted by Larry Kane in 1968. Brief clips from this famous interview have appeared in just a few places, including the official documentaryImagine.
This widely adopted text explores key theories and models that frame reading instruction and research. Readers learn why theory matters in designing and implementing high-quality instruction and research; how to critically evaluate the assumptions and beliefs that guide their own work; and what can be gained by looking at reading through multiple theoretical lenses. For each theoretical model, classroom applications are brought to life with engaging vignettes and teacher reflections. Research applications are discussed and illustrated with descriptions of exemplary studies. New to This Edition Current developments in theory, research, and instructional practices. Useful pedagogical features in every chapter framing questions, discussion ideas, and learning activities. Classroom applications give increased attention to English language learners and technology integration. Coverage of additional theories (Third Space Theory) and theorists (Bakhtin and Bourdieu).
Douglas Gresham's experiences growing up as C. S. Lewis's stepson; born in America, going to England at age eight, and dealing with his mother's, and stepfather's, deaths. Includes an afterword, added in 2003.
The lentil has an ancient origin but is now confronted with issues of food security, poverty, water scarcity and the need to find sustainable agricultural systems in a changing climate. A crop primarily grown in the developing world, it is ideally suited to address these issues through its ability to use water efficiently and grow in marginal environments as well as being high in protein and easily digestable. In the last three decades, the global production of lentils has almost tripled due to larger harvest areas but also more importantly to progress in research and productivity. Chapters outline improvements in production, such as water and soil nutrient management, agronomy, mechanization and weed management. Developments in genetics and breeding are discussed alongside improved knowledge of the lentils origin, domestication, morphology and adaptation. The implementation and impact of this new research at the farm level is also addressed as well as the crops post-harvest processing and nutritional value.
Gene therapy was conceived during the early and mid part of the 20th century. At first, it was considered a revolutionary biomedical procedure, which could potentially cure any disease for which the molecular bases were understood. Since then, gene therapy has gone through many stages and has evolved from a nearly unrealistic perspective to a real life application. Clinical efficacy in humans was demonstrated at the beginning of this century after its successful application in small-scale clinical trials to cure severe immunodeficiency in children. However, their successes were overshadowed some time later by the occurrence of vector-related leukaemia in a number of treated children. It is in this context that lentiviral vectors have appeared, with improved efficiency and, possibly, increased biosafety. Very recently, the first clinical trials with lentivectors have been carried out with some success. This Brief firstly defines gene therapy, and places lentivectors within this fascinating therapeutic strategy. Then follows a comprehensive description of the development of retroviral and lentiviral vectors and how to specifically target distinct cell types and tissues. The authors also discuss the application of lentivector gene therapy for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, ending with the application of lentivectors in human gene therapy clinical trials.
Maurizio Federico has assembled a panel of outstanding experimenters to detail all the theoretical and practical aspects of lentivirus vector-based gene transfer. The authors demonstrate lentivirus vector production with methods for recovering appropriate producer cells, for producing and titrating lentivirus-containing supernatants, and for detecting transduced cells. The applications of lentivirus vector engineering to different cell types include coverage of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hippocampal neurons, cardiomyocytes, as well as airway epithelia, corneal cells, and retinal pigment. Also advanced are applications in which genetic material is directly inoculated with lentivirus vectors in such experimental animal models as mouse, rat, and rabbit.
A heartwarming family story set during the Depression that reads like a classic. Everyone's been down on their luck since the Depression hit. But as long as Mary Bayliss Pettigrew has her beloved older brother, Leo, to pull pranks with, even the hardest times can be fun. Then one day, there's a terrible accident, and when Bayliss wakes up afterward, she must face the heartbreaking prospect of life without Leo. And that's when her parents break the news: they're going to be fostering two homeless little girls, and Bayliss can't bear the thought of anyone taking Leo's place. But opening her heart to these weary travelers might just be the key to rebuilding her grieving family. From the Hardcover edition.
This book offers an original interpretation of the achievement of Leo Strauss, stressing how his ideas and followers reshaped the American conservative movement. The conservative movement that reached out to Strauss and his legacy was extremely fluid and lacked a self-confident leadership. Conservative activists and journalists felt a desperate need for academic acceptability, which they thought Strauss and his disciples would furnish. They also became deeply concerned with the problem of 'value relativism', which self-described conservatives thought Strauss had effectively addressed. But until recently, neither Strauss nor his disciples have considered themselves to be 'conservatives'. Contrary to another misconception, Straussians have never wished to convert Americans to ancient political ideals and practices, except in a very selective rhetorical fashion. Strauss and his disciples have been avid champions of American modernity, and 'timeless' values as interpreted by Strauss and his followers often look starkly contemporary.
Leo tumbles out of a tree, gets stuck in a shed, and falls into a pond. When will his luck change?
One hundred years after his death, Tolstoy still inspires controversy with his notoriously complex narrative strategies. This original book explores how and why Tolstoy has mystified interpreters and offers a new look at his most famous works of fiction.
Leon's back. Having survived the sweatshop methods of Miss Hagmeyer, his needle-wielding fourth grade teacher at the Classical School, Leon braces himself for fifth grade. He arrives armed with a backpack full of pens and pencils, binders and notebooks . . . plus a rag doll that's the spitting image of Henry Lumpkin, the bully who has Leon in his sights. If the doll works the way it's supposed to, Leon (and his buddies P. W. and Lily-Matisse) won't have to worry about Lumpkin the Pumpkin! Better still, Leon has a fabulous new teacher, Mr. Sparks, who conducts science experiments using that most miraculous of research materials -- the potato chip. And a good thing, too. Mr. Sparks's lab work will come in handy when Leon is forced to take on Alphonse "The Chippopotamus" Cipollini at the annual Chipapalooza! Chip-Off. Once you've sunk your teeth into Leon and the Champion Chip, the hilarious sequel to Leon and the Spitting Image, you'll never eat potato chips the same way again!
Leon, a fourth grader at the Classical School, tries to outwit the school bully and learn to sew for fanatical teacher Miss Hagmeyer, with unexpected help from his final project--a doll with magical powers.
Leon Battista Alberti was one of the most important humanist scholars of the Italian Renaissance. Active in mid-fifteenth-century Florence, he was an architect, theorist, and author of texts on perspective and painting. Leon Battista Alberti: On Painting is a cardinal work that revolutionized Western art. In this volume, Rocco Sinisgalli presents a new English translation and critical examination of Alberti's seminal text. Dr Sinisgalli reverses the received understanding of the relationship between the Italian and Latin versions of Alberti's treatise by demonstrating that Alberti wrote it first in Italian and then translated it into a polished Latin over the course of several decades. This volume is richly illustrated to help demonstrate how Alberti understood optics and art.
Born Lev Davidovich Bronstein in southern Ukraine, Trotsky was both a world-class intellectual and a man capable of the most narrow-minded ideological dogmatism. He was an effective military strategist and an adept diplomat, who staked the fate of the Bolshevik revolution on the meager foundation of a Europe-wide Communist upheaval. He was a master politician who played his cards badly in the momentous struggle for power against Stalin in the 1920s. And he was an assimilated, indifferent Jew who was among the first to foresee that Hitler's triumph would mean disaster for his fellow European Jews, and that Stalin would attempt to forge an alliance with Hitler if Soviet overtures to the Western democracies failed. Here, Trotsky emerges as a brilliant and brilliantly flawed man. Rubenstein offers us a Trotsky who is mentally acute and impatient with others, one of the finest students of contemporary politics who refused to engage in the nitty-gritty of party organization in the 1920s, when Stalin was maneuvering, inexorably, toward Trotsky's own political oblivion. As Joshua Rubenstein writes in his preface, "Leon Trotsky haunts our historical memory. A preeminent revolutionary figure and a masterful writer, Trotsky led an upheaval that helped to define the contours of twentieth-century politics. " In this lucid and judicious evocation of Trotsky's life, Joshua Rubenstein gives us an interpretation for the twenty-first century.
"Leonard Bernstein is the only long-hair musician who gets mobbed in the streets by women from Boston to Moscow, from Milan to Tel Aviv. A huge success from the night he made his debut, he is often described as a man who started at the top. But Bernstein was a frail, unhappy, maladjusted boy until, by accident, he got his first piano -a battered upright. Years of struggle lay ahead, but this was the beginning . . ." Ewen has written a wonderful biography.
One of the most gifted, celebrated, scrutinized, and criticized musicians in the second half of the twentieth century, Leonard Bernstein made his legendary conducting debut at the New York Philharmonic in 1943, at age 25. A year later, he became a sensation on Broadway with the premiere of On the Town. Throughout the 1950s, his Broadway fame only grew with Wonderful Town, Candide, and West Side Story. And in 1958, the Philharmonic appointed him the first American Music Director of a major symphony orchestra-a signal historical event. He was adored as a quintessential celebrity but one who could do it all-embracing both popular and classical music, a natural with the new medium of television, a born teacher, writer, and speaker, as well as a political and social activist. In 1976, having conducted the Philharmonic for more than one thousand concerts, he took his orchestra on tour to Europe for the last time. All of this played out against the backdrop of post-Second World War New York City as it rose to become the cultural capital of the world-the center of wealth, entertainment, communications, and art-and continued through the chaotic and galvanizing movements of the 1960s that led to its precipitous decline by the mid 1970s. The essays within this book do not simply retell the Bernstein story; instead, Leonard Bernstein's brother, Burton Bernstein, and current New York Philharmonic archivist and historian, Barbara B. Haws, have brought together a distinguished group of contributors to examine Leonard Bernstein's historic relationship with New York City and its celebrated orchestra. Composer John Adams, American historians Paul Boyer and Jonathan Rosenberg, music historians James Keller and Joseph Horowitz, conductor and radio commentator Bill McGlaughlin, musicologist Carol Oja, and music critics Tim Page and Alan Rich have written incisive essays, which are enhanced by personal reminiscences from Burton Bernstein. The result is a telling portrait of Leonard Bernstein, the musician and the man.
Leonard Bernstein was a charismatic and versatile musician-a brilliant conductor who attained international super-star status, and a gifted composer of Broadway musicals (West Side Story), symphonies (Age of Anxiety), choral works (Chichester Psalms), film scores (On the Waterfront), and much more. Bernstein was also an enthusiastic letter writer, and this book is the first to present a wide-ranging selection of his correspondence. The letters have been selected for the insights they offer into the passions of his life-musical and personal-and the extravagant scope of his musical and extra-musical activities. Bernstein's letters tell much about this complex man, his collaborators, his mentors, and others close to him. His galaxy of correspondents encompassed, among others, Aaron Copland,Stephen Sondheim, Jerome Robbins, Thornton Wilder, Boris Pasternak, Bette Davis, Adolph Green, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, and family members including his wife Felicia and his sister Shirley. The majority of these letters have never been published before. They have been carefully chosen to demonstrate the breadth of Bernstein's musical interests, his constant struggle to find the time to compose, his turbulent and complex sexuality, his political activities, and his endless capacity for hard work. Beyond all this, these writings provide a glimpse of the man behind the legends: his humanity, warmth, volatility, intellectual brilliance, wonderful eye for descriptive detail, and humor.
Award-winning biographer Victoria Glendinning draws on her deep knowledge of the twentieth century literary scene, and on her meticulous research into previously untapped sources, to write the first full biography of the extraordinary man who was the "dark star" at the center of the Bloomsbury set, and the definitive portrait of the Woolf marriage. A man of extremes, Leonard Woolf was ferocious and tender, violent and self-restrained, opinionated and nonjudgmental, always an outsider of sorts within the exceptionally intimate, fractious, and sometimes vicious society of brilliant but troubled friends and lovers. He has been portrayed either as Virginia's saintly caretaker or as her oppressor, the substantial range and influence of his own achievements overshadowed by Virginia's fame and the tragedy of her suicide. But Leonard was a pivotal figure of his age, whose fierce intelligence touched the key literary and political events that shaped the early decades of the twentieth century and would resonate into the post-World War II era. Glendinning beautifully evokes Woolf 's coming-of-age in turn-of-the-century London. The scholarship boy from a prosperous Jewish family would cut his own path through the world of the British public school, contending with the lingering anti-Semitism of Imperial Age Britain. Immediately upon entering Trinity College, Cambridge, Woolf became one of an intimate group of vivid personalities who would form the core of the Bloomsbury circle: the flamboyant Lytton Strachey; Toby Stephen, "the Goth," through whom Leonard would meet Stephen's sister Virginia; and Clive Bell. Glendinning brings to life their long nights of intense discussion of literature and the vicissitudes of sex, and charts Leonard's course as he becomes the lifelong friend of John Maynard Keynes and E. M. Forster. She unearths the crucial influence of Woolf 's seven years as a headstrong administrator in colonial Ceylon, where he lost confidence in the imperial mission, deciding to abandon Ceylon in order to marry the psychologically troubled Virginia Stephen. Glendinning limns the true nature of Leonard's devotion to Virginia, revealing through vivid depiction of their unconventional marriage how Leonard supported Virginia through her breakdowns and in her writing. In co-founding with Virginia the Hogarth Press, he provided a secure publisher for Virginia's own boldly experimental works. As the éminence grise of the early Labour Party, working behind the scenes,Woolf became a leading critic of imperialism, and his passionate advocacy of collective security to prevent war underpinned the charter of the League of Nations. After Virginia's death, he continued to forge his own iconoclastic way, engaging in a long and happy relationship with a married woman. Victoria Glendinning'sLeonard Woolfis a major achievement -- a shrewdly perceptive and lively portrait of a complex man of extremes and contradictions in whom passion fought with reason and whose far-reaching influence is long overdue for the full appreciation Glendinning offers in this important book.
Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks are mind-boggling evidence of a fifteenth-century scientific genius standing at the edge of the modern world, basing his ideas on observation and experimentation.
This book is a biography of Leonardo Da Vinci, best known as the Renaissance painter who created the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper" and also made great contributions as a sculptor, architect, engineer and scientist.
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