How to Format Footnotes and Endnotes

FOOTNOTES are located at the bottom of a page, with a corresponding indicator like an asterisk, dagger, or number present in the text.

  • Separate the text of the page from that of the footnotes on the bottom by adding a line with three asterisks on it after the text and before the footnotes. Make sure to put spaces between the asterisks (* * *).

NUMBERED FOOTNOTE

  • The footnote indicator in the text should be superscripted, if possible.
  • There must be a space before and after the superscripted number.
  • The number for the footnote at the bottom of the page should not be superscripted.

DAGGER FOOTNOTE

  • The footnote indicator in the text should be replaced with two superscripted asterisks followed by a space.
  • The dagger for the footnote at the bottom of the page should be replaced with two asterisks in regular font followed by a space.

DOUBLE DAGGER FOOTNOTE

  • The footnote indicator in the text should be replaced with three superscripted asterisks followed by a space.
  • The dagger for the footnote at the bottom of the page should be replaced with three asterisks in regular font followed by a space.

ENDNOTES are footnotes located at the end of a chapter or book instead of at the bottom of a page.

  • Treat the endnote heading at the end of a chapter as a subsection (size 14 point and bold).
  • Treat the endnote heading at the end of a book, often titled "Notes," as a chapter (size 16 point and bold).
  • Do not use tabs to format (just single spaces).

TIPS

  • Do not use Word's footer function to create the footnote.
  • If the footnote indicators in the text are already asterisks, superscript them followed by a space.
  • Do not add spaces between the asterisks (other than in the line separating the book text from footnotes) .
  • If the superscripted asterisks are the last characters at the end of a paragraph, do not put a space after them.
  • Often, daggers are not recognized by the OCR and can show up in text as a lower case f, + or t. Double daggers may be a capital H or other random character.
  • If an em-dash precedes or follows a footnote indicator in the text, keep the space between in the indicator and the em-dash.
  • BRF format does not show footnote indicators in superscript. To superscript them, the document must be loaded as an RTF file to a word processor.

Find more detailed instructions about Footnotes and Endnotes in the Proofreading Manual.