CK-12 Foundation's Advanced Probability and Statistics FlexBook covers the following chapters: An Introduction to Analyzing Statistical Data - Students learn definitions of statistical terminology, and review data, measures of center, and measures of spread. Visualizations of Data - histograms and frequency distributions, common graphs and data plots, and box-and-whisker plots. An Introduction to Probability - events, sample spaces, probability, compound events, the complement of an event, conditional probability, and basic counting rules. Discrete Probability Distribution - random variables, probability distribution for a discrete random variable, mean and standard deviation of discrete random variables and the Binomial Probability Distribution. Normal Distribution - standard normal probability distribution, the density curve of the normal distribution, and applications of the normal distribution. Planning and Conducting an Experiment or Study - surveys, sampling and experimental design. Sampling Distributions and Estimations - sampling distributions and the Central Limit Theorem. Hypothesis Testing - The P-value, testing a proportion hypothesis, testing a mean hypothesis, and testing a hypothesis for dependent and independent samples. Regression and Correlation - scatterplots and linear correlation, Least-Squares regression, inferences about regression, and an introduction to multiple regression. Chi-Square- the Goodness-of-Fit test, test of independence, and testing one variance. Analysis of Variance and the F-Distribution - the F-Distribution and testing two variances, the One-Way ANOVA test, and the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non Parametric Statistics - nonparametric statistics, the rank sum test and rank Correlation, and the Kruskal-Wallis test.
An open source textbook.
An open source textbook.
CK-12 Foundation's Algebra FlexBook is an introduction to algebraic concepts for the high school student. Topics include: Equations & Functions, Real Numbers, Equations of Lines, Solving Systems of Equations & Quadratic Equations.
CK-12 Foundation's Biology 1- Honors FlexBook Covers the following chapters: Foundations of Life Science- scientific investigations, methods, observations, & communication. Chemical Basis of Life- matter, the significance of carbon, lipids, proteins. Cell Structure and Function- prokaryotic, eukaryotic, plant, & animal cell features; structures/ functions of DNA, RNA, protein, cell transport, homeostasis. Photosynthesis- water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic and biotic resources. Cellular Respiration- relation to glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, electron transport chain. Cell Division and Reproduction- cell division, reproduction. Mendelian Genetics- inheritance, sex-linked traits. Molecular Genetics- DNA, RNA, protein synthesis, mutation, regulating gene expression. Human Genetics- human genome, diseases, Biotechnology- DNA technology, gene cloning. History of Life- evolution, macroevolution, extinctions, episodic speciation, response to change. Evolutionary Theory- Darwin's Theory of Evolution, common ancestry and natural selection. Evolution in Populations- genetics of populations, genetic diseases, natural selection. Classification- Taxonomy, scientific classification of organisms. Principles of Ecology- Ecology's relation with energy; ecosystems, the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles. Biomes, Ecosystems and Communities- terrestrial/ aquatic biomes, community interactions. Populations- Analysis of populations and dynamics. Ecology and Human Actions- Balance between humans and the earth addressing natural resources, ecosystems, & biodiversity. The Human Body- systems. Nervous and Endocrine Systems- structures & functions, homeostasis. Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems- structures, functions, & homeostasis. Circulatory and Respiratory Systems- structures and functions. Digestive and Excretory Systems- structures/ functions, food pyramid. Immune System and Disease- Body defenses against pathogens. Reproductive System and Human Development- human reproductive systems, reproductive lifecycle, STDs.
Open source biology textbook from CK-12.
CK-12 Foundation's Single Variable Calculus FlexBook covers the following chapters: Functions, Limits, and Continuity - A review of the basics of functions is given. Students use linear approximations to study the limit process, before a more formal treatment of limits is given. Differentiation - Students explore instantaneous rate of change, and the relationship between continuity and differentiability. The Chain Rule and implicit differentiation are reviewed. Applications of Derivatives - Students gain practice with using the derivatives in related rates problems. Additional topics include The First Derivative Test, The Second Derivative Test, limits at infinity, optimization, and approximation errors. Integration - This chapter includes indefinite integrals calculus, initial value problems, definite integrals, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, integration by substitution, and numerical integration. Applications of Integration - This chapter includes applications of the definite integral, such as calculating areas between two curves, volumes, length of curves, and other real-world applications in physics and statistics. Transcendental Functions - This chapter includes differentiation and integration of logarithmic and exponential functions, exponential growth and decay, derivatives and integrals involving inverse trigonometric functions, and L'Hospital's Rule. Integration Techniques - Students explore integration by substitution, integration by parts, integration by partial fractions, trigonometric integrals, trigonometric substitutions, and improper integrals. Infinite Series - This chapter introduces the study of sequences and infinite series. The properties presented describe the behavior of a sequence or series, including whether a sequence approaches a number or an infinite series adds to a number.
CK-12 Foundation's Chemistry FlexBook Covers the following chapters: The Science of Chemistry- scientific method, history, matter, energy. Chemistry: A Physical Science- measurement, formulas. Chemistry in the Laboratory- qualitative vs. quantitative observation. The Atomic Theory- atomic model from Dalton to Rutherford. The Bohr Model of the Atom- electromagnetic radiation, atomic spectra & Bohr model. Quantum Mechanics Model of the Atom- energy and standing waves, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Schrödinger's equation. Electron Configurations for Atoms- electron spin, Aufbau principle. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table- relation of electron configuration to position on the periodic table. Relationships Between the Elements- chemical families from electron configuration; valence electrons, Lewis dot formulas. Trends on the Periodic Table- periodic trends: atomic size. Ions and the Compounds They Form- ionization, ionic bonding. Writing and Naming Ionic Formulas- predicting charge. Covalent Bonding- nature and naming of covalent bonds. Molecular Architecture- polar molecule, electronic/ molecular models of covalent molecules. Chemical Reactions- mass & mole calculations, reaction types. Mathematics and Chemical Equations- stoichiometry, heat of reaction. The Kinetic Molecular Theory- gas properties, combined and universal gas laws. The Liquid State- phase change. The Solid State- intermolecular forces. Solution Process- solvation, concentration, solubility, colligative properties. Ions in Solution- dissociation, electrolytes, non-electrolytes, ionic/ net-ionic equations. Chemical Kinetics- reaction rate. Chemical Equilibrium- reaction rates, equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle, solubility product constant. Acids and Bases- strength of acids & bases, hydrolysis, pH. Water, pH, and Titration- dissociation of water, acid-base indicators, buffers. Thermodynamics- bond breaking and formation, heat of reaction and formation, Hess' law, entropy, Gibb's free energy. Electrochemistry- oxidation-reduction, electrochemical cells. Nuclear Chemistry- radioactivity, nuclear equations/ energy. Organic Chemistry- hydrocarbons, functional groups.
CK-12 Foundation's Chemistry - Second Edition FlexBook covers the following chapters:Introduction to Chemistry - scientific method, history. Measurement in Chemistry - measurements, formulas. Matter and Energy - matter, energy. The Atomic Theory - atom models, atomic structure, sub-atomic particles. The Bohr Model of the Atom - electromagnetic radiation, atomic spectra. The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom - energy/standing waves, Heisenberg, Schrödinger. The Electron Configuration of Atoms - Aufbau principle, electron configurations. Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table- electron configuration, position on periodic table. Chemical Periodicity - atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity. Ionic Bonds and Formulas - ionization, ionic bonding, ionic compounds. Covalent Bonds and Formulas - nomenclature, electronic/molecular geometries, octet rule, polar molecules. The Mole Concept - formula stoichiometry. Chemical Reactions - balancing equations, reaction types. Stoichiometry - limiting reactant equations, yields, heat of reaction. The Behavior of Gases - molecular structure/properties, combined gas law/universal gas law. Condensed Phases: Solids and Liquids - intermolecular forces of attraction, phase change, phase diagrams. Solutions and Their Behavior - concentration, solubility, colligate properties, dissociation, ions in solution. Chemical Kinetics - reaction rates, factors that affect rates. Chemical Equilibrium - forward/reverse reaction rates, equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle, solubility product constant. Acids-Bases - strong/weak acids and bases, hydrolysis of salts, pHNeutralization - dissociation of water, acid-base indicators, acid-base titration, buffers. Thermochemistry - bond breaking/formation, heat of reaction/formation, Hess' law, entropy, Gibb's free energy. Electrochemistry - oxidation-reduction, electrochemical cells. Nuclear Chemistry - radioactivity, nuclear equations, nuclear energy. Organic Chemistry - straight chain/aromatic hydrocarbons, functional groups. Chemistry Glossary
CK-12 Foundation's Earth Science FlexBook Covers the following chapters: What is Earth Science- scientific method and branches of earth science. Studying Earth's Surface- landforms, map projections and computers/satellites. Earth's Minerals- types, formation, identification , properties and uses. Rocks- rock cycle and types of rocks. Earth's Energy- renewable and nonrenewable resources. Plate Tectonics- Earth's interior, continental drift, seafloor spreading, tectonic movement, plate boundaries, and landforms. Earthquakes- causes, prediction, safety, seismic waves/tsunamis, and rock/mountain building. Volcanoes- formation, landforms and types of magma and eruptions. Weathering and Formation of Soil- mechanical/chemical weathering and soil formation, horizions & climates. Erosion and Deposition- actions of water, wind and gravity. Evidence about the Earth's Past- fossilization and relative/absolute dating. Earth's History- geological time, early history and evolution. Earth's Freshwater- water cycle and lakes, rivers, streams & groundwater. Earth's Oceans- formation, composition, waves/tides, seafloor and ocean life. Earth's Atmosphere- properties, significance, layers, transfer of energy and movement of air. Weather- cloud types, air movement, storms, and forecasting. Climate- factors that affect climate, different climates, and global climate change. Ecosystems and Human Population- role, flow of matter/energy, carbon cycle and effect of human population growth. Human Actions and the Land- erosion and pollution. Human Actions and the Earth's Resources- renewable vs. nonrenewable and conservation & availability. Human Actions and the Earth's Water- usage, distribution, sources, pollution, and protection. Human Action and the Atmosphere- types, causes, effects and reductionObserving and Exploring Space- electromagnetic radiation, telescopes, and current discoveriesEarth, Moon and Sun- properties, motion, tides/eclipses, sun layers and solar activityThe Solar System- motion, formation, inner vs. outer planets, dwarf planets, meteors, asteroids, and comets. Stars, Galaxies and the Universe- constellations, light/energy of stars, classification, evolution, galaxies, dark matter, dark energy, and the Big Bang Theory.
An open source textbook
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