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The E-Vision 2002 Conference, held in May 2002, was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy as a step toward implementing a key recommendation of the Bush administration's National Energy Policy. It gathered 150 of the nation's leading energy experts to discuss ways of reducing the country's energy intensity. This volume and the additional volume enclosed on CD-ROM contain the presentations and discussions that took place at the conference, including the identification of goals and the means to achieve them. It is a key work for those involved in implementing the National Energy Policy.
If policies aimed at large reductions of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are enacted, more carbon capture and storage will be needed. RAND researchers explored the ability of the industrial base supporting the transportation and sequestration of CO2 to expand, assessing the industrial base for transportation and injection of CO2 for both geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery.
Policymakers have become increasingly concerned in recent years about the possibility of future maritime terrorist attacks. Though the historical occurrence of such attacks has been limited, recognition that maritime vessels and facilities may be particularly vulnerable to terrorism has galvanized concerns. In addition, some plausible maritime attacks could have very significant consequences, in the form of mass casualties, severe property damage, and attendant disruption of commerce. Understanding the nature of maritime terrorism risk requires an investigation of threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences associated with potential attacks, as grounded both by relevant historical data and by intelligence on the capabilities and intentions of known terrorist groups. These risks also provide the context for understanding government institutions that will respond to future attacks, and particularly so with regard to the U.S. civil justice system. In principle, civil liability operates to redistribute the harms associated with legally redressable claims, so that related costs are borne by the parties responsible for having caused them. In connection with maritime terrorism, civil liability creates the prospect that independent commercial defendants will be held responsible for damages caused by terrorist attacks. This book explores risks and U.S. civil liability rules as they may apply in the context of these types of attacks.
Biomass is an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant.
Large U.S. coal reserves and viable technology make promising a domesticindustry producing liquid fuels from coal. Weighing benefits, costs, andenvironmental issues, a productive and robust U.S. strategy is to promote alimited amount of early commercial experience in coal-to-liquids productionand to prepare the foundation for managing associated greenhouse-gasemissions, both in a way that reduces uncertainties and builds futurecapabilities.
U.S. railroads have improved their productivity, but increasing freight volume threatens performance-degrading capacity constraints. This report describes the current state of railroad capacity and performance for freight transportation. The public consequences of private investment decisions justify a public role in addressing concerns about railroads, but better data and analysis are needed to inform transportation policy-making.
In this report, RAND researchers assess the potential future production levels, production costs, greenhouse gases, and other environmental implications of synthetic crude oil from oil sands and fuels produced via coal liquefaction relative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. The findings indicate the potential cost-competitiveness of these alternative fuels and potential economic-environmental trade-offs from their deployment.
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