The aim of this volume is to further develop the relationship between culture and manifold phenomena of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in order to promote further and better understanding how, why, and when these phenomena are manifested themselves across different cultures. Currently, cross-cultural research is one of the most dynamically and rapidly growing areas. At the same time, creativity, inventiveness, innovation, and entrepreneurship are championed in the literature as the critical element that is vital not just for companies, but also for the development of societies. A sizable body of research demonstrates that cultural differences may foster or inhibit creative, inventive, innovative and entrepreneurial activities; and each culture has its own strengths and weaknesses in these regards. Better understanding of cultural diversity in these phenomena can help to build on strengths and overcome weaknesses. Cross-cultural studies in this field represent a comparatively new class of interdisciplinary research. This is a field where cultural, sociological, psychological, historical, economic, management, technology and business studies closely intersect. In this book, a global team of researchers representing Europe, Asia, and the Americas review, analyze, structure, systematize and discuss various concepts, assumptions, speculations, theories, and empirical research which focus on the effect of national cultures on creativity, invention, innovation, and entrepreneurship. They argue that national culture is not only an extremely important determinant of innovation and business development, but also demonstrate that some aspects relating to these phenomena may be universal among all cultures, thereby identifying those factors that may easily be transferred across cultures from those that are unique to their specific context.
Cross-cultural knowledge management, an elusive yet consequential phenomenon, is becoming an increasingly essential factor in organizational practice and policy in the era of globalization. In order to overcome culturally shaped blind spots in conducting research in different settings, this volume highlights how the structuring of roles, interests, and power among different organizational elements, such as teams, departments, and management hierarchies (each comprised of members from different intellectual and professional backgrounds), generates various paradoxes and tensions that bring into play a set of dynamics that have an impact on learning processes. In this context, such questions often arise: How is knowledge shared in the multicultural organization? What problems and issues emerge? How do different mentalities affect people's responses to new knowledge and new ideas? How can knowledge-sharing processes be improved? Under which conditions do ideas generated by units or groups of different cultural traditions have a chance of being heard and implemented? Such questions translate into an investigation of potential managerial dilemmas that occur when different but equally valid choices create tensions in decision making. The authors draw from experiences working with a wide variety of organizations, and insights from such fields as sociology and psychology, to shed new light on the dynamics of knowledge management in the multicultural enterprise. In so doing, they help to identify both obstacles to successful communication and opportunities to inspire creativity and foster collaboration. The authors note that in order to enable organizations to transfer knowledge effectively, mechanisms for dispute settlement, mediation of cultural conflict, and enforcing agreements need to be in place.
"Epistemic governance" refers to the cognitive and knowledge-related paradigms that underlie a social system. In this volume, the authors apply the concept to higher education. In a comprehensive review of recent literature, they define key terms and concepts, arguing that a good, effective and sustainable governance of higher education is not possible unless the epistemic structure and knowledge paradigms of higher education are addressed directly. Effective governance of academic institutions is particularly important, given their essential role in generating and disseminating knowledge. The authors consider the practical and policy implications of the epistemic approach for promoting quality assurance, quality enhancement, and quality management of higher education, and their impact on university administration and academic career development.
Economic integration is one of the most noteworthy issues in international economic policy at the end of the twentieth century. The recent examples of the European Union (EU) and the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) have raised important questions about the economic integration process and the possible establishment of economic unions in other parts of the world. Against the backdrop of the financial crisis in Europe and prospects of increasing integration in Asia, this volume showcases research from an international array of researchers to provide a basic understanding of the current issues, problems, challenges, and opportunities for achieving integration, addressing both empirical and theoretical aspects of such topics as monetary union, social policy reform and social union, public finance and technology policy. The chapters in Part 1 are focused primarily on economic issues, while Part 2 covers on social policy, the welfare state, and political reforms, with a particular emphasis on the European Union. Among the questions addressed: What are the main determinants and implications for socio-economic integration?How can economic policy influence the growth and integration process?Why is innovation important for regional economic development?What has been the policy response so far and what lessons have we learned from it?And finally, what are our action lines for the future?
In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into an integrated analysis, the authors address such questions as: · What special features characterize the innovation system development in small catching-up economies? · What are the causes for innovation success or failure? · How do organizational capabilities and internationalization tendencies relate to company level innovations? · What is the role of human capital and social factors in the innovation process? · How can various policies support innovation in an integrated manner? Drawing from research about Europe, Asia, and Latin America, the authors provide readers with a systemic view of the innovation system development in small catching-up economies. They discuss the unique features of this development and contribute to an in-depth understanding of various determinants and their impacts on the innovation process. The policy implications will offer a set of normative guidelines for enhancing innovation system development.
Over the past several decades, as the pace of globalization has accelerated, operational issues of international coordination have often been overlooked. For example, the global financial crisis that began in 2007 is attributed, in part, to a lack of regulatory oversight. As a result, supranational organizations, such as the G-20, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, have prioritized strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions. Prevailing characteristics of the global economic systems, such as the increasing power of financial institutions, changes in the structure of global production, decline in the authority of nation-states over their national economy, and creation of global institutional setting, e.g., global governance have created the conditions for a naturally evolving process towards enabling national epistemic communities to create institutions that comply with global rules and regulations can control crises. In this context, transfer of technical knowledge from the larger organizations and its global epistemic communities to member communities is becoming a policy tool to "convince" participants in the international system to have similar ideas about which rules will govern their mutual participation. In the realm of finance and banking regulation, the primary focus is on transfer of specialized and procedural knowledge in technical domains (such as accounting procedures, payment systems, and corporate governance principles), thereby promoting institutional learning at national and local levels. In this volume, the authors provide in-depth analysis of initiatives to demonstrate how this type of knowledge generated at the international organization level, is codified into global standards, and disseminated to members, particularly in the developing world, where the legal and regulatory infrastructure is often lacking. They argue that despite the challenges, when a country intends to join the global system, its institutions and economic structures need to move toward the global norms. In so doing, they shed new light on the dynamics of knowledge transfer, financial regulation, economic development, with particular respect to supporting global standards and avoiding future crises.
Family businesses--the predominant form of business organization around the world--can make numerous, critical contributions to the economy and family well-being in both financial and qualitative terms. But dysfunctional family businesses can be difficult to manage, painful experiences at best, and they can destroy family wealth and personal relationships. This book explores the dynamics of family business management, in the context of constantly changing market conditions and the role that knowledge management plays in strategic planning and adaptation. Integrating the literature from family business, entrepreneurship, industrial psychology, and knowledge management, and with illustrative examples from a variety of enterprises, the authors address such topics as: *How family businesses can compete in the new knowledge economy *How to manage a family business when knowledge is its main asset *How to transfer knowledge (and how to keep it alive) through family generations Within this framework, the authors argue that effective resource management--especially intangible resources--is central to enabling a family-run organization to maintain a sustainable competitive advantage over time. They note that families often develop systemic, intuitive, or tacit knowledge that transcends rational decision making and needs to be recognized and nurtured as a distinctive asset. The authors demonstrate that trans-generational value is achieved when the family firm innovates and adapts itself to changing external and internal conditions. This kind of entrepreneurial performance requires dynamic capabilities and processes designed to acquire, exchange, combine and even shed knowledge and practices; and, in turn, dynamic capabilities result from mechanisms of knowledge sharing, collective learning, experience accumulation, and transfer.
New Product Development (NPD) is about the ideation, formulation, and implementation of new and superior solutions in the market. Beyond the obvious need for organizations to innovate in order to compete, embedded in any NPD program are knowledge, technological expertise, and the social networks that convert these capabilities into offerings that create value at every level--for customers, industries, communities, and regions. This volume provides an array of knowledge perspective in NPD across multiple levels of analysis and geographic regions, including Europe, the United States, China, Japan, and India, to explore the dynamics of NPD in today's global environment. Presenting case studies from such industries as ICT services, semiconductors, software development, bio-technology, higher education, and even safety for children's toys, and drawing from a variety of theoretical perspectives, including technology and knowledge management, sociology, economic geography, and organizational behavior, the authors highlight critical success and failure factors in NPD. Among the topics covered: New product development teams, including multi-functional and multi-site teamsDe-localization and off-shoring of tasks and processesIndividual competencies and organizational capabilitiesUniversity-industry interactions, high-tech clusters, and technology transfer Technology policy
Developed and developing economies alike face increased resource scarcity and competitive rivalry. In this context, science and technology appear as an essential source of competitive and sustainable advantage at national and regional levels. However, the key determinant of their efficacy is the quality and quantity of entrepreneurship-enabled innovation that unlocks and captures the benefits of the science enterprise in the form of private, public or hybrid goods. Linking basic and applied research with the market, via technology transfer and commercialization mechanisms, including government-university-industry partnerships and capital investments, constitutes the essential trigger mechanism and driving force of sustainable competitive advantage and prosperity. In this volume, the authors define the terms and principles of knowledge creation, diffusion, and use, and establish a theoretical framework for their study. In particular, they focus on the "Quadruple Helix" model, through which government, academia, industry, and civil society are seen as key actors promoting a democratic approach to innovation through which strategy development and decision making are exposed to feedback from key stakeholders, resulting in socially accountable policies and practices.
Since the pioneering work of Joseph Schumpeter (1942), it has been assumed that innovations typically play a key role in firms' competitiveness. This assumption has been applied to firms in both developed and developing countries. However, the innovative capacities and business environments of firms in developing countries are fundamentally different from those in developed countries. It stands to reason that innovation and competitiveness models based on developed countries may not apply to developing countries. In this volume, Vivienne Wang and Elias G. Carayannis apply both theoretical approaches and empirical analysis to explore the dynamics of innovation in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on R&D in manufacturing firms. In so doing, they present an alternative to Michael Porter's Competitive Advantage Model--a Competitive Position Model that focuses on incremental and adaptive innovations that are more appropriate than radical innovations for developing countries. Their research addresses such questions as: Do innovations advance the competitive positions of manufacturing firms in developing countries? Does the pace of innovation matter, in particular, in socio-economic and socio-political contexts?To what degree can national innovation systems and policies influence development?To what extent do a firm's innovation commitments correlate with the protection of intellectual property rights?What roles do foreign direct investment and relationships with clusters and networks play?The resulting analysis not only challenges traditional theoretical approaches to innovation, but provides suggestions for improving business practice and policymaking.
How have social media in emerging economies evolved differently from the rest of the world? According to studies and anecdotal evidence, innovations in the use of social media tools occur more frequently in emerging economies than they do in developed markets. The aim of this volume is to show that in emerging regions (such as China, India, and South America) where the participation of stakeholders in the circuit of social media is more active (i. e. , greater frequency of contacts and creativity in the elaboration of contents), organizations not only are involved in a set of exchange relations with other social actors but are also embedded in a network of dynamic relationships. The authors utilize social network analysis to determine how entrepreneurs in emerging economies identify their most beneficial social contacts and use those contacts to leverage the resources needed for their enterprises, revealing new insights on the process of business creation and economic development in the networked age.
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