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The Cost of Being Landlocked: Logistics, Costs, and Supply Chain Reliability

by Gaël Raballand Jean-François Marteau Jean-François Arvis

'The Cost of Being Landlocked' proposes a new analytical framework to interpret and model the constraints faced by logistics chains on international trade corridors. The plight of landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) has naturally received special attention for decades, leading to a specific set of development priorities based upon the concept of dependence on the transit state. Therefore, the standard approach used to tackle the cost of being landlocked has been predominantly aimed at developing regional transport infrastructure and ensuring freedom of transit through regional conventions. But without sufficient attention given to the performance of logistics service delivery to traders, the standard approach is unable to address key bottleneck concerns and the factors that contribute to the cost of being landlocked. Consequently, the impact of massive investment on trade corridors could not materialize to its full extent. Based on extensive data collection in several regions of the world, this book argues that although landlocked developing countries do face high logistics costs, these costs are not a result of poor road infrastructure, since transport prices largely depend on trucking market structure and implementation of transit processes. This book suggests that high logistics costs in LLDCs are a result of low logistics reliability and predictability, which stem from rent-seeking and governance issues. 'The Cost of Being Landlocked' will serve as a useful guide for policy makers, supervisory authorities, and development agencies.

Rural Road Investment Efficiency: Lessons from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Uganda

by Carly Petracco Patricia Macchi Gaël Raballand

The development aid community has placed a great deal of emphasis on the need for rural mobility in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Thus far, most development partners and governments in SSA have relied on two overarching assumptions when dispensing transport aid-that most households in rural areas in Africa are not connected to markets and therefore need a road passable for a truck, and that roads with high levels of service are crucial in order to achieve high economic impact. Based on data collection from various sources in three SSA countries, 'Rural Road Investment Efficiency' demonstrates that from a cost-benefit perspective, the additional cost of extending an all-weather road two more kilometers to the farmer's door outweigh the benefits in most cases. 'Rural Road Investment Efficiency' seeks to enhance the effectiveness of aid allocated for rural transport in SSA and calls into question the need for full implementation of all benchmarks set forth in the Rural Access Index (RAI) in SSA. This book will be an essential reference for government supervisory authorities and infrastructure experts throughout the region.

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