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Conditions such as oxidative stress and hypoxia, which have a generalized impact on the oxygen metabolism, have been implicated in the genesis of kidney disease. This means that deepening our understanding of the pathobiology of oxygen metabolism in such diseases could be a fruitful path towards tangible clinical benefits. Studies in Renal Disorder collects reviews from leading researchers and clinical scientists working in exactly this field, providing an overview of the latest advances. The causal role of impaired oxygen metabolism in kidney disease has numerous clinical implications. It affects our understanding of the therapeutic benefits accruing from anti-hypertensive agents; the way we control hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia; and our use of dietary approaches to the correction of obesity. The defensive mechanisms against oxidative stress, such as the Nrf2-Keap1 system, and hypoxia, such as the PHD-HIF system, have recently been explored in various cells, including kidney cells. These mechanisms include intracellular sensors for oxidative stress and hypoxia. This means that novel approaches targeting these sensors may offer clinical benefits in kidney disease in which oxidative stress and/or hypoxia is a final, common pathway.
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Here is an overview of the specialized formats that Bookshare offers its members with links that go to the Help Center for more information.
- Bookshare Web Reader - a customized reading tool for Bookshare members offering all the features of DAISY with a single click of the "Read Now" link.
- DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) - a digital book file format. DAISY books from Bookshare are DAISY 3.0 text files that work with just about every type of access technology that reads text. Books that contain images will have the download option of ‘DAISY Text with Images’.
- BRF (Braille Refreshable Format) - digital Braille for use with refreshable Braille devices and Braille embossers.
- MP3 (Mpeg audio layer 3) - Provides audio only with no text. These books are created with a text-to-speech engine and spoken by Kendra, a high quality synthetic voice from Ivona. Any device that supports MP3 playback is compatible.
- DAISY Audio - Similar to the Daisy 3.0 option above; however, this option uses MP3 files created with our text-to-speech engine that utilizes Ivona's Kendra voice. This format will work with Daisy Audio compatible players such as Victor Reader Stream and Read2Go.