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The Scud missile was developed as the centerpiece of Soviet plans to fight nuclear war in the heart of Europe. However, it was never used in its intended role and has instead become a symbol of the changing nature of warfare in the aftermath of the Cold War. Saddam Hussein's Iraqi armed forces were almost helpless in the face of the Coalition forces in the 1991 Gulf War; the only weapon that Iraq could use to injure the Coalition forces was its arsenal of Scud missiles. This book explores the development and variants of the missile and its launch systems, its proliferation outside of the West, and its role in conflicts around the world.
Field fortifications and tunnel systems are typically thought of as defensive and active protective measures, but the VC/NVA also employed them offensively. It was common for extensive field works to be constructed to support assaults and sieges on US fire-support bases and remote camps. Their tactics reflected attempts to counter the massive firepower they faced: when directly engaging the enemy they employed "hugging" tactics (moving in and remaining closely engaged, even intermingling units, to prevent the enemy from bringing his artillery and close air support to bear). Their field works included defended villages, base camps, fortified complexes, hilltop defenses, trench systems, individual fighting positions, crew-served weapon positions, bunkers, caches, and extensive tunnel systems. Camouflage and deceptive measures, and the employment of obstacles and booby traps went hand-in-hand with such field works. This book examines these unique fortifications.