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Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement

by William Schwabe Brian A. Jackson Lois M. Davis

Under the American federal system, most law is cast as state statutes and local ordinances; accordingly, most law enforcement is the responsibility of state and local agencies. Federal law and federal law enforcement come into play only where there is rationale for it, consistent with the Constitution. Within this framework, a clear role has been identified for federal support of state and local agencies. This report provides findings of a study of technology in use or needed by law enforcement agencies at the state and local level, for the purpose of informing federal policymakers as they consider technology-related support for these agencies. In addition, it seeks to characterize the obstacles that exist to technology adoption by law enforcement agencies and to characterize the perceived effects of federal assistance programs intended to facilitate the process. The study findings are based on a nationwide Law Enforcement Technology Survey and a similar Forensics Technology Survey (FTS) conducted in late spring and early summer2000, interviews conducted throughout the year, focus groups conducted in autumn 2000, and review of an extensive, largely nonacademic literature. Companion reports: Schwabe, William, Needs and Prospects for Crime-Fighting Technology: The Federal Role in Assisting State and Local Law Enforcement, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1999. Davis, Lois M., William Schwabe, and Ronald Fricker, Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Results from Two Nationwide Surveys, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 2001.

Combating Terrorism: How Prepared Are State and Local Response Organizations?

by Lois M. Davis Paul Steinberg Jennifer E. Pace Louis T. Mariano Sarah K. Cotton

Organizations varied in how they financed these efforts--some increased internal spending or reallocated resources--and in receipt of external funding.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education: A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults

by Lois M. Davis Robert Bozick Jennifer L. Steele Jessica Saunders Jeremy N. V. Miles

After conducting a comprehensive literature search, the authors undertook a meta-analysis to examine the association between correctional education and reductions in recidivism, improvements in employment after release from prison, and other outcomes. The study finds that receiving correctional education while incarcerated reduces inmates' risk of recidivating and may improve their odds of obtaining employment after release from prison.

How Effective Is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here?: The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation

by Lois M. Davis Malcolm V. Williams Jessica Saunders Jennifer L. Steele Jeremy N. V. Miles Robert Bozick Susan Turner Paul S. Steinberg

This report assesses the effectiveness of correctional education programs for both incarcerated adults and juveniles and the cost-effectiveness of adult correctional education. It also provides results of a survey of U. S. state correctional education directors that give an up-to-date picture of what correctional education looks like today. Finally, the authors offer recommendations for improving the field of correctional education moving forward.

Long-Term Effects of Law Enforcement's Post-9/11 Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security

by Lois M. Davis Jeremy M. Wilson Michael Pollard Danielle M. Varda Kevin Ward

In the aftermath of 9/11, many law enforcement agencies (LEAs) shifted more resources toward developing counterterrorism (CT) and homeland security (HS) capabilities. This volume examines the effects the focus on CT and HS has had on law enforcement since 9/11, including organizational changes, funding mechanisms, how the shift has affected traditional crime-prevention efforts, and an assessment of benefits, costs, and future challenges.

Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California

by David E. Mosher Lois M. Davis David R. Howell Preston Niblack Tom Latourrette Lynn A. Karoly

The California Preschool Study examined gaps in school readiness and achievement in the early grades among California children and the potential for high-quality preschool to close those gaps, the use of early care and education (ECE) services and their quality, and the system of publicly funded ECE programs for three- and four-year-olds. This analysis integrates the results from the prior studies and makes recommendations for preschool policy.

Reparable Harm: Assessing and Addressing Disparities Faced by Boys and Men of Color in California : Executive Summary

by Lois M. Davis Dana Schultz M. Rebecca Kilburn

The summary discusses some of the greatest disparities for boys and men of color relative to their white counterparts across specific socioeconomic, health, safety, and school readiness indicators in California and provides information about different strategies for reducing the disparities--including effective programs, practices, and policies--that can begin making an important difference in changing the life course of boys and men of color.

The Role of the United States Postal Service in Public Safety and Security

by Katherine Mack Jeremiah Goulka Michael Pollard Russell Lundberg Lois M. Davis

The United States Postal Service has long held a statutory monopoly to deliver mail to mailboxes (known as the Mailbox Rule). Critics have argued against the Mailbox Rule on anti-monopoly and property rights grounds. But relaxing the Mailbox Rule may affect public safety and security. This study assesses the public safety concerns of relaxing the Mailbox Rule and makes recommendations to address these concerns.

Securing Health: Lessons from Nation-building Operations

by Federico Girosi Lois M. Davis Lee H. Hilborne Seth G. Jones C. Ross Anthony

RAND researchers analyzed the health components of seven post-World War II nation-building efforts conducted after major conflicts--Germany, Japan, Somalia, Haiti, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq--and found that two factors are correlated with successful health outcomes: planning and coordination, and infrastructure and resources.

State and Local Intelligence in the War on Terrorism

by K. Jack Riley Gregory F. Treverton Lois M. Davis Jeremy M. Wilson

Examines how state and local law enforcement agencies conducted and supported counterterrorism intelligence activities after 9/11. The report analyzes data from a 2002 survey of law enforcement preparedness in the context of intelligence, shows how eight local law enforcement agencies handle intelligence operations, and suggests ways that the job of gathering and analyzing intelligence might best be shared among federal, state, and local agencies.

Strategic Appraisal: The Changing Role of Information in Warfare

by Tom Latourrette David R. Howell Barbara Raymond David E. Mosher Lois M. Davis Zalmay Khalilzad

Advances in information technology have led us to rely on easy communication and readily available information--both in our personal lives and in the life of our nation. For the most part, we have rightly welcomed these changes. But information that is readily available is available to friend and foe alike; a system that relies on communication can become useless if its ability to communicate is interfered with or destroyed. Because this reliance is so general, attacks on the information infrastructure can have widespread effects, both for the military and for society. And such attacks can come from a variety of sources, some difficult or impossible to identify. This, the third volume in the Strategic Appraisal series, draws on the expertise of researchers from across RAND to explore the opportunities and vulnerabilities inherent in the increasing reliance on information technology, looking both at its usefulness to the warrior and the need to protect its usefulness for everyone. The Strategic Appraisal series is intended to review, for a broad audience, issues bearing on national security and defense planning.

Understanding the Public Health Implications of Prisoner Reentry in California

by Nancy Nicosia Lois M. Davis Kathryn Pitkin Derose Malcolm V. Williams Paul Steinberg

Examines the health care needs of newly released California prisoners; the communities most affected by reentry and the health care safety net of those communities; the critical roles that health care providers, other social services, and family members play in successful reentry; and the effects of reentry on the children and families of incarcerated individuals. Recommends how to improve access for this population in the current fiscal environment.

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