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The development aid community has placed a great deal of emphasis on the need for rural mobility in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Thus far, most development partners and governments in SSA have relied on two overarching assumptions when dispensing transport aid-that most households in rural areas in Africa are not connected to markets and therefore need a road passable for a truck, and that roads with high levels of service are crucial in order to achieve high economic impact. Based on data collection from various sources in three SSA countries, 'Rural Road Investment Efficiency' demonstrates that from a cost-benefit perspective, the additional cost of extending an all-weather road two more kilometers to the farmer's door outweigh the benefits in most cases. 'Rural Road Investment Efficiency' seeks to enhance the effectiveness of aid allocated for rural transport in SSA and calls into question the need for full implementation of all benchmarks set forth in the Rural Access Index (RAI) in SSA. This book will be an essential reference for government supervisory authorities and infrastructure experts throughout the region.
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Here is an overview of the specialized formats that Bookshare offers its members with links that go to the Help Center for more information.
- Bookshare Web Reader - a customized reading tool for Bookshare members offering all the features of DAISY with a single click of the "Read Now" link.
- DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) - a digital book file format. DAISY books from Bookshare are DAISY 3.0 text files that work with just about every type of access technology that reads text. Books that contain images will have the download option of ‘DAISY Text with Images’.
- BRF (Braille Refreshable Format) - digital Braille for use with refreshable Braille devices and Braille embossers.
- MP3 (Mpeg audio layer 3) - Provides audio only with no text. These books are created with a text-to-speech engine and spoken by Kendra, a high quality synthetic voice from Ivona. Any device that supports MP3 playback is compatible.
- DAISY Audio - Similar to the Daisy 3.0 option above; however, this option uses MP3 files created with our text-to-speech engine that utilizes Ivona's Kendra voice. This format will work with Daisy Audio compatible players such as Victor Reader Stream and Read2Go.