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By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, China had become one of the great powers of the modern world. Economically, politically, and militarily, its power and international reach is only exceeded by the United States, the world's one remaining superpower.Its military spending, though dwarfed by the United States, is over $100 billion a year and it is busy developing an aircraft carrier, a stealth fighter jet, and missiles that can shoot down satellites - all in an effort to project its power on a global scale.This is all a far cry from its position at the end of the 19th century, when it was a ramshackle and isolated medieval empire upon whom the European colonial powers could impose their wishes at will. The period from the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 through to the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War ending in 1949 was one of near-constant conflict that saw China emerge as a fledgling new world power. Militarily at least, this is the defining period in Chinese history.This is the period that saw the breakdown of the traditional imperial system of control, under threat from a series of rebellions throughout the 19th century, and the rise of the warlords and civil war in 1911. Despite the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, the country was still riven by internal strife as different factions sought to control the fledgling state, while much of the power in the land was exercised by regional warlords in a constant state of conflict with one another. The 1920s saw the rise of two opposing revolutionary movements, the Kuomintang, led first by Sun Yat-Sen and later Chiang Kai-Shek, and the Chinese Communist Party, one of whose early leaders was Mao Tse-Tung. The Kuomintang managed to gain control of the majority of China by the late 1920s, and started a long running conflict with the Communists at the same time. The late 1920s also saw the first significant Japanese intervention in China, and in 1931 the Japanese took control of the whole of Manchuria. By 1937 this had escalated into out and out conflict with the Chinese, a conflict which would last till the Japanese defeat in World War II in 1945. Even then China had to struggle through four years of painful civil war before the Chinese Communist Party finally established control in 1949.In this new study Philip Jowett traces the complicated military history of China during these pivotal years, describing in detail the conflicts that forge the modern superpower that is China today.
Discover the men behind one of the most exotic military environments of the 20th century. Humiliatingly defeated in the Sino-Japanese War 1894-95 and the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, Imperial China collapsed into revolution in the early 20th century and a republic was proclaimed in 1912. From the death of the first president in 1916 to the rise of the Nationalist Kuomintang government in 1926, the differing regions of this vast country were ruled by endlessly forming, breaking and re-forming alliances of regional generals who ruled as 'warlords'. These warlords acted essentially as local kings and, much like Sengoku-period Japan, a few larger power-blocks emerged, fielding armies hundreds of thousands strong. This book, the first detailed, illustrated guide to do so, studies each great warlord in turn, as well as the organization of their forces which acquired much and very varied weaponry from the west, including the latest French air force bombers. They were also joined by Japanese, White Russian and some Western soldiers of fortune which adds even more color to a fascinating and oft-forgotten period. The fascinating text is illustrated with many rare photographs and detailed uniform plates by Stephen Walsh.
In the face of Soviet invasion in 1939-40, and once again in 1941-44, the armies raised by Finland - a tiny nation of only 4 million people - astonished the world by their effective resistance. At the end of both these campaigns - the Winter War, and the Continuation War - the fiercely patriotic defiance of vastly stronger Soviet forces by Marshal Mannerheim's soldiers won their country a unique prize: although forced to accept harsh terms, Finland was never occupied by the Red Army, and retained its independence. This book explains and illustrates, for the first time in English, the organization, uniforms, equipment and tactics of Finland's defenders.
Some of the most famous Western movies have been set against the background of the Mexican Revolution of the early 20th century. Now, for the first time in English, Osprey offer a concise but fact-packed account of the events, armies, uniforms and weapons of those ten chaotic and bloody years, putting in context such famous but half-understood names as Diaz, Pancho Villa, Zapata, Madero and Huerta. The text is illustrated with many rare and fascinating period photographs, and with eight detailed color plates of orfiristas and Rurales, Maderisitas, Federales, Villistas, Zapatistas,and US volunteers and intervention troops.
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