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The inability of cancer drugs to destroy metastatic tumors is the major reason why cancer therapy fails. Even though the process of drug design has become exceedingly sophisticated in recent years, there is not a single drug available that is 100% effective against metastatic cancer. Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and somatic/genetic differences in tumors, even those from tissue of origin. Although it is a generally accepted fact that the majority of cancers arise from a single precursor cell, it is naïve to consider that tumor is a collection of genetically identical cells. Genetic instability and accumulation of mutations are important hallmarks of cancer cells. This means that dividing cancer cells are able to acquire genetic and epigenetic changes that will favor their malignant phenotype. In view of this, it is fair to say that the cells in a given tumor may be similar but not identical. Therefore, when treated with a drug, the sensitive cells in a tumor succumb to the toxic effects of the drug, and resistant cells continue to survive and multiply. The tumor, which re-grows from these residual resistant cells, is not sensitive to the original drug.
Select your format based upon: 1) how you want to read your book, and 2) compatibility with your reading tool. To learn more about using Bookshare with your device, visit the Help Center.
Here is an overview of the specialized formats that Bookshare offers its members with links that go to the Help Center for more information.
- Bookshare Web Reader - a customized reading tool for Bookshare members offering all the features of DAISY with a single click of the "Read Now" link.
- DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) - a digital book file format. DAISY books from Bookshare are DAISY 3.0 text files that work with just about every type of access technology that reads text. Books that contain images will have the download option of ‘DAISY Text with Images’.
- BRF (Braille Refreshable Format) - digital Braille for use with refreshable Braille devices and Braille embossers.
- MP3 (Mpeg audio layer 3) - Provides audio only with no text. These books are created with a text-to-speech engine and spoken by Kendra, a high quality synthetic voice from Ivona. Any device that supports MP3 playback is compatible.
- DAISY Audio - Similar to the Daisy 3.0 option above; however, this option uses MP3 files created with our text-to-speech engine that utilizes Ivonas Kendra voice. This format will work with Daisy Audio compatible players such as Victor Reader Stream and Read2Go.