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Many countries have implemented policies to increase the number and quality of scientific researchers as a means to foster innovation and spur economic development and progress. To that end, grounded in a view of women as a rich, yet underutilized knowledge and labor resource, a great deal of recent attention has focused on encouraging women to pursue education and careers in science -- even in countries with longstanding dominant patriarchal regimes. Yet, overall, science remains an area in which girls and women are persistently disadvantaged. This book addresses that situation. It bridges the gap between individual- and societal-level perspectives on women in science in a search for systematic solutions to the challenge of building an inclusive and productive scientific workforce capable of creating the innovation needed for economic growth and societal wellbeing. This book examines both the role of gender as an organizing principle of social life and the relative position of women scientists within national and international labor markets. Weaving together and engaging research on globalization, the social organization of science, and gendered societal relations as key social forces, this book addresses critical issues affecting women's contributions and participation in science. Also, while considering women's representation in science as a whole, examinations of women in the chemical sciences, computing, mathematics and statistics are offered as examples to provide insights into how differing disciplinary cultures, functional tasks and socio-historical conditions can affect the advancement of women in science relative to important variations in educational and occupational realities. Edited by three social scientists recognized for their expertise in science and technology policy, education, workforce participation, and stratification, this book includes contributions from an intellectually diverse group of international scholars and analysts and features compelling cases and initiatives from around the world, with implications for research, industry practice, education and policy development.
This volume identifies, discusses and addresses the wide array of ethical issues that have emerged for engineers due to the rise of a global economy. To date, there has been no systematic treatment of the particular challenges globalization poses for engineering ethics standards and education. This volume concentrates on precisely this challenge. Scholars and practitioners from diverse national and professional backgrounds discuss the ethical issues emerging from the inherent symbiotic relationship between the engineering profession and globalization. Through their discussions a deeper and more complete understanding of the precise ways in which globalization impacts the formulation and justification of ethical standards in engineering as well as the curriculum and pedagogy of engineering ethics education emerges. The world today is witnessing an unprecedented demand for engineers and other science and technology professionals with advanced degrees due to both the off-shoring of western jobs and the rapid development of non-Western countries. The current flow of technology and professionals is from the West to the rest of the world. Professional practices followed by Western (or Western-trained) engineers are often based on presuppositions which can be in fundamental disagreement with the viewpoints of non-Westerners. A successful engineering solution cannot be simply technically sound, but also must account for cultural, social and religious constraints. For these reasons, existing Western standards cannot simply be exported to other countries. Divided into two parts, Part I of the volume provides an overview of particular dimensions of globalization and the criteria that an adequate engineering ethics framework must satisfy in a globalized world. Part II of the volume considers pedagogical challenges and aims in engineering ethics education that is global in character.
John K. DeLaski, M. D. practiced medicine in the Penobscot Bay region of Maine and, in addition, was a naturalist with keen powers of observation. His study of the landscape led to the conclusion that a thick glacier had overtopped the highest hills, flooded all of Penobscot Bay, extended far to the east and west and probably was part of a greater continental glacier. He published these very critical field observations and inferences in numerous articles in local newspapers and magazines, and in the American Journal of Science in 1864. His work put him on the "team" of Benjamin Silliman, James D. Dana and Louis Agassiz as an advocate for glaciation as the regional land shaping force opposed to that of the Biblical Deluge, a major scientific conflict of the day both in North America and Europe. He remained a shadowy player, in the background, but clearly contributed critical observations to the argument through personal interactions with Agassiz and other prominent naturalists. They incorporated DeLaski's observations into their own presentations, often without giving him credit. John DeLaski's summary work, a 400 page handwritten manuscript for the book, "The Ancient Great Glacier of North America", was dated 1869. He died in 1874 and the book was not published. The historic significance of DeLaski's unpublished book is based upon its startling contribution to one of the major scientific questions of the day of whether the surficial geology of northern U. S. and Canada was caused by the actions of the Biblical Flood or by continental glaciation. If published, this would have been the first book on this continent, at least, to present a holistic discussion of the controversy in which he presented his critical observations of the surficial geology in Maine, southern New England and New Brunswick, Canada and concluded that these depositional and erosional features must be of glacial origin. DeLaski then incorporated other evidence into the book for glaciation reported by others from the region during a decade or two, and from the mid and far west and Canada to advocate that the entire region was covered by an ice sheet that was at least 5,000 feet and probably much thicker over interior northern U. S. and Canada and which terminated along a glacial margin which extended from southern new England as far westward along the courses of the Ohio, and Missouri Rivers. All this was done while most "naturalists" still advocated the Biblical Flood to explain the major components of the surficial geology in North America and abroad. DeLaski's book containing his critical observations of clearly so many landscape features of glacial origin, if published would have been a pivotal document that would have strongly supported those arguing for glaciations in the glaciations vs. flood international argument.
This book presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of female contraception. It offers an extensive overview of contraception types, including oral, injectable, emergency, and various cervical barrier contraceptives, as well as behavioral and sterilization methods, and discusses the clinical effectiveness, advantages, disadvantages, side effects, and mechanisms of action of each method. Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition includes coverage of chewable contraceptives, new progestins, new quadraphasic OCP regimen, Nexplanon, which is replacing the Implanon contraceptive implant, and new methods of tubal sterilization. There is also a new chapter devoted to current controversies. Each chapter also includes counseling tips that answer common questions many clinicians and patients have about contraception. The advances in contraception technologies are interplayed with practical advice on choosing the most effective and appropriate contraception for patients, from those who are young and healthy to those with serious medical diseases. The Handbook of Contraception, Second Edition, is an incomparable reference for obstetricians, gynecologists, and primary care physicians.
The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. "Who cares?" you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not exist, and semiconductor chips could not be made. . . the list goes on and on.
This book provides a comprehensive guide to procuring, utilizing and monetizing intellectual property rights, tailored for readers in the high-tech consumer electronics and software industries, as well as technology startups Numerous, real examples, case studies and scenarios are incorporated throughout the book to illustrate the topics discussed Readers will learn what to consider throughout the various creative phases of a product's lifespan from initial research and development initiatives through post-production Readers will gain an understanding of the intellectual property protections afforded to U. S. corporations, methods to pro-actively reduce potential problems, and guidelines for future considerations to reduce legal spending, prevent IP theft, and allow for greater profitability from corporate innovation and inventiveness.
This unique text provides a comprehensive yet concise review of the various environmental factors and lifestyle choices which impact male fertility, with special emphasis on the mechanisms that contribute to decreased sperm production and impaired function. Internationally recognized scientists and clinicians, leaders in the field of infertility, gather their insights and discuss how to prevent, address and cure male infertility caused by factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, medication and drug use, obesity, dietary and exercise habits, sexually transmitted infections, psychological stress and occupational exposure to chemicals and radiation. Written in an easy to follow, informal yet scientific style, Male Infertility offers invaluable clinical guidelines for physicians and infertility experts and new data and research of great interest to basic scientists, andrologists and embryologists.
Molecular Diagnostics: 12 Tests That Changed Everything focuses on specific laboratory tests and emphasizes how the availability of these tests has altered how clinicians treat their patients. Presented as a standard outline, each chapter focuses on a specific molecular test and provides background on the test and its clinical applications. Continuing with some discussion on how the test is done, interpreted, and used clinically, each chapter then concludes with a discussion of how that test has changed the way medicine is practiced with respect to the disease or condition in question. Authored by renowned experts in the field, Molecular Diagnostics: 12 Tests That Changed Everything is a valuable resource for pathologists, pathology residents, laboratory directors, development personnel, lab medicine fellows and those working in the broad area of oncology, infectious disease and genetics.
The coastal ocean comprises the semi-enclosed seas on the continental shelf, including estuaries and extending to the shelf break. This region is the focus of many serious concerns, including coastal inundation by tides, storm surges, or sea level change; fisheries and aquaculture management; water quality; harmful algal blooms; planning of facilities (e. g. , power stations); port development and maintenance; and oil spills. This book addresses modeling and simulation of the transport, evolution, and fate of particles (physical and biological) in the coastal ocean. It is the first to summarize the state of the art in this field and direct it toward diverse applications, for example in measuring and monitoring sediment motion, oil spills, and larval ecology. This is an invaluable textbook and reference work for advanced students and researchers in oceanography, geophysical fluid dynamics, marine and civil engineering, computational science, and environmental science.
Just as children are not little adults, the discipline of paediatric surgery is not equivalent to surgery for adults. Differences in anatomy, diseases affecting children and the appropriate therapies make the surgical care of children confusing and tense. Even within paediatric care, the extensive changes children undergo as they develop from neonates to adolescents causes different care to be required at different stages. Full-size texts are available for comprehensive review of paediatric surgery when one has the luxury to sit and study at a desk, but no pocket-sized guide specific to paediatric surgery is available. This book will fulfil the need for rapid, clear, concise guidance in the immediate bedside evaluation and treatment of children suffering surgical disease. It will provide assistance to surgical and paediatric providers alike; anyone who has a hand in the urgent care of children requiring a surgeon. The book is also a convenient focused board review guide for trainees and active practitioners taking board examinations. The editors are busy paediatric surgeons at a teaching hospital, performing operations on children every day, as well as training students and residents. The contributors are drawn from the broad spectrum of paediatric specialists encompassing the disciplines necessary to staff a tertiary children's hospital.
This manual provides laboratory-based learning experiences in perceptually and psychosocially linked exercise assessment, prescription, and programming. The primary pedagogic outcome is the ability to use applied theory and practice in perceptual and psychosocial exercise assessment and program design to promote the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle, enhancing overall health fitness. Perceptual and psychosocial variables are presented in individual, stand-alone laboratory modules that can supplement existing curricula such as exercise and sport psychology, exercise physiology, exercise testing and prescription, and exercise training and conditioning. In addition, the complete modular set has a conceptual flow that allows its presentation as an entire, laboratory-based course. The laboratory modules are divided into three primary units: assessment (theoretical constructs, scales and procedures, tests), prescription (self-regulation, performance), and program evaluation. The manual uses a unique format in which case studies are embedded in the conceptual flow of each lab module facilitating translation of laboratory results to real-world application. The manual concludes with a discussion of perceptually and psychosocially linked exercise prescription and programming applications in public health, such as program monitoring and adherence.
Conversion of biomass into chemicals and biofuels is an active research and development area as trends move to replace traditional fossil fuels with renewable resources. By integrating processing methods with microwave and ultrasound irradiation into biorefineries, the time-scale of many operations can be greatly reduced while the efficiency of the reactions can be remarkably increased so that process intensification can be achieved. "Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Microwave" and "Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound" are two independent volumes in the Biofuels and Biorefineries series that take different, but complementary approaches for the pretreatment and chemical transformation of biomass into chemicals and biofuels. The volume "Microwave" provides current research advances and prospects in theoretical and practical aspects of microwave irradiation including properties, effects and temperature monitoring, design of chemical reactors, synergistic effects on combining microwave, ultrasound, hydrodynamic cavitation and high-shear mixing into processes, chemical and catalytic conversion of lignin into chemicals, pyrolysis and gasification, syngas production from wastes, platform chemicals, algal biodiesel, cellulose-based nanocomposites, lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment, green chemistry metrics and energy consumption and techno-economic analysis for a catalytic pyrolysis facility that processes pellets into aromatics. Each of the 12 chapters has been peer-reviewed and edited to improve both the quality of the text and the scope and coverage of the topics. Both volumes "Microwave" and "Ultrasound" are references designed for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering and include introductory chapters to highlight present concepts of the fundamental technologies and their application. Dr. Zhen Fang is Professor in Bioenergy, Leader and founder of biomass group, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and is also adjunct Professor of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China. Dr. Richard L Smith, Jr. is Professor of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Tohoku University, Japan. Dr. Xinhua Qi is Professor of Environmental Science, Nankai University, China.
Ann Weems offers in this collection a poignant rendering of her own personal psalms of lament. She draws from the rich heritage of the Psalms to give voice to the grief and anguish she has felt over the death of her son. Her words, now in this easy-to-read large-print edition, will deeply move anyone who has mourned the loss of a loved one. Copyright © Libri GmbH. All rights reserved.
This revised edition covers all aspects of public health informatics and discusses the creation and management of an information technology infrastructure that is essential in linking state and local organizations in their efforts to gather data for the surveillance and prevention. Public health officials will have to understand basic principles of information resource management in order to make the appropriate technology choices that will guide the future of their organizations. Public health continues to be at the forefront of modern medicine, given the importance of implementing a population-based health approach and to addressing chronic health conditions. This book provides informatics principles and examples of practice in a public health context. In doing so, it clarifies the ways in which newer information technologies will improve individual and community health status. This book's primary purpose is to consolidate key information and promote a strategic approach to information systems and development, making it a resource for use by faculty and students of public health, as well as the practicing public health professional. Chapter highlights include: The Governmental and Legislative Context of Informatics; Assessing the Value of Information Systems; Ethics, Information Technology, and Public Health; and Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. Review questions are featured at the end of every chapter. Aside from its use for public health professionals, the book will be used by schools of public health, clinical and public health nurses and students, schools of social work, allied health, and environmental sciences.
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