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This book gives a comprehensive overview of our present understanding of the Earth's cryosphere, its changes and their consequences for mean sea level changes. Since the middle of the 19th century there has been an increase of sea level height by 20-25 cm. Some 8-10 cm of this is due to net losses from glaciers, the remainder being due to mass losses from land ice and thermal expansion of the oceans. The mean sea level rise is slowly accelerating; at present it is some 3 mm/year. Recent space observations made by the GRACE satellite combined with ocean temperature and volume measurements have enabled the separate contributions to sea level rise from melting ice and from thermal expansion to be better estimated. The estimation of mean sea level change is complicated by changes in land level due to tectonic effects and to ongoing changes following the latest major glaciation. The book gives an up-to-date survey of our present knowledge of this crucial subject.
The Partition of British India in 1947 resulted in the establishment of the independent states of India and Pakistan and the end of the British Raj. The decision to divide British India along religious lines led to widespread upheaval and communal violence in the period leading up to and following the official day of independence, 15 August 1947. In this book, Daniel Marston provides a unique examination of the role of the Indian army in post-World War II India. He draws upon extensive research into primary source documents and interviews with veterans of the events of 1947 to provide fresh insight into the vital part that the Indian Army played in preserving law and order in the region. This rigorous book fills a significant gap in the historiography of the British in India and will be invaluable to those studying the British Empire and South Asia more generally.
This self-contained and accessible book provides a thorough introduction to the basic physical and mathematical principles required in studying the scattering and absorption of light and other electromagnetic radiation by particles and particle groups. For the first time the theories of electromagnetic scattering, radiative transfer, and weak localization are combined into a unified, consistent branch of physical optics directly based on the Maxwell equations. A particular focus is given to key aspects such as time and ensemble averaging at different scales, ergodicity, and the physical nature of measurements afforded by actual photopolarimeters. Featuring over 120 end-of-chapter exercises, with hints and solutions provided, this clear, one-stop resource is ideal for self-study or classroom use, and will be invaluable to both graduate students and researchers in remote sensing, physical and biomedical optics, optical communications, optical particle characterization, atmospheric physics, and astrophysics.
This volume provides a detailed analysis of language contact in North Africa and explores the historical presence of the languages used in the region, including the different varieties of Arabic and Berber as well as European languages. Using a wide range of data sets, it provides a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms of language contact under classical diglossia and societal bilingualism, examining multiple cases of oral and written code-switching. It also describes contact-induced lexical and structural change in such situations and discusses the possible appearance of new varieties within the context of diglossia. Examples from past diglossic situations are examined, including the situation in Muslim Spain and the Maltese Islands. An analysis of the current situation of Arabic vernaculars, not only in the Maghreb but also in other Arabic-speaking areas, is also presented. This book will appeal to anyone interested in language contact, the Arabic language, and North Africa.
In a thoroughly revised second edition that incorporates the major changes made in the procedures and practice of the Inter-American Court since the original publication of this book, Jo M. Pasqualucci provides a comprehensive critique that is at once scholarly yet practical. She analyzes all aspects of the Court's advisory jurisdiction, contentious jurisdiction, and provisional measures orders through 2011. She also compares the practice and procedure of the Inter-American Court with that of the European Court of Human Rights, the Permanent Court of Justice, and the United Nations Human Rights Committee. She evaluates changes in the Rules of Procedure of the Inter-American Court that entered into force on January 1, 2010, and which substantially change the role of the Inter-American Commission in contentious cases before the Court. She also evaluates the challenges and means of State compliance with the Court's innovative reparations orders. Featuring revisions to every chapter to address the numerous new judgments, provisional measures, and orders adopted by the Court, this book will provide an important and updated resource for scholars, practitioners, and students of international human rights law.
Exploring Language in a Multilingual Context: Variation, Interaction and Ideology in Language Documentationby Bettina Migge Isabelle Léglise
Proposing a new methodological approach to documenting languages spoken in multilingual societies, this book retraces the investigation of one unique linguistic space, the Creole varieties referred to as Takitaki in multilingual French Guiana. It illustrates how interactional sociolinguistic, anthropological linguistic, discourse analytical and quantitative sociolinguistic approaches can be integrated with structural approaches to language in order to resolve rarely discussed questions systematically (what are the outlines of the community, who is a rightful speaker, what speech should be documented) that frequently crop up in projects of language documentation in multilingual contexts. The authors argue that comprehensively documenting complex linguistic phenomena requires taking into account the views of all local social actors (native and non native speakers, institutions, linguists, non-speakers etc. ), applying a range of complementary data collection and analysis methods and putting issues of ideology, variation, language contact and interaction centre stage. This book will be welcomed by researchers in sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, fieldwork studies, language documentation and language variation and change.
Gravity surveys have a huge range of applications, indicating density variations in the subsurface and identifying man-made structures, local changes of rock type or even deep-seated structures at the crust/mantle boundary. This important one-stop book combines an introductory manual of practical procedures with a full explanation of analysis techniques, enabling students, geophysicists, geologists and engineers to understand the methodology, applications and limitations of a gravity survey. Filled with examples from a wide variety of acquisition problems, the book instructs students in avoiding common mistakes and misconceptions. It explores the increasing near-surface geophysical applications being opened up by improvements in instrumentation and provides more advance-level material as a useful introduction to potential theory. This is a key text for graduate students of geophysics and for professionals using gravity surveys, from civil engineers and archaeologists to oil and mineral prospectors and geophysicists seeking to learn more about the Earth's deep interior.
Astronomy is an observational science, renewed and even revolutionized by new developments in instrumentation. With the resulting growth of multiwavelength investigation as an engine of discovery, it is increasingly important for astronomers to understand the underlying physical principles and operational characteristics for a broad range of instruments. This comprehensive text is ideal for graduate students, active researchers and instrument developers. It is a thorough review of how astronomers obtain their data, covering current approaches to astronomical measurements from radio to gamma rays. The focus is on current technology rather than the history of the field, allowing each topic to be discussed in depth. Areas covered include telescopes, detectors, photometry, spectroscopy, adaptive optics and high-contrast imaging, millimeter-wave and radio receivers, radio and optical/infrared interferometry, and X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, all at a level that bridges the gap between the basic principles of optics and the subject's abundant specialist literature. Color versions of figures and solutions to selected problems are available online at www. cambridge. org/9780521762298.
A sequel to Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 1996, edited by Thomas W. Hertel), this new volume presents the technical aspects of the Global Trade Analysis Program's global dynamic framework (GDyn) and its applications within important global policy issues. The book covers a diverse set of topics including trade reform, growth, investment, technology, demographic change, and the environment. Environmental issues are particularly well-suited for analysis with GDyn, and this volume covers its uses with climate change, resource use, and technological progress in agriculture. Other applications presented in the book focus on integration issues such as rules governing foreign investment, e-commerce regulations, trade in services, harmonization of technical standards, sanitary and photo-sanitary regulations, streamlining of customs procedures, and demographic change and migration.
Translating laboratory discoveries into successful therapeutics can be difficult. Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases. It introduces the reader to the key concepts underpinning trials in the neurosciences. This volume tackles the challenges of developing therapies for neurologic disorders from measurement of agents in the nervous system to the progression of clinical signs and symptoms through illustrating specific study designs and their applications to different therapeutic areas. Clinical Trials in Neurology covers key issues in Phase I, II and III clinical trials, as well as post-marketing safety surveillance. Topics addressed include regulatory and implementation issues, outcome measures and common problems in drug development. Written by a multidisciplinary team, this comprehensive guide is essential reading for neurologists, psychiatrists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, statisticians and clinical researchers in the pharmaceutical industry.
To what extent do courts in Latin America protect individual rights and limit governments? This volume answers these fundamental questions by bringing together today's leading scholars of judicial politics. Drawing on examples from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Bolivia, the authors demonstrate that there is widespread variation in the performance of Latin America's constitutional courts. In accounting for this variation, the contributors push forward ongoing debates about what motivates judges; whether institutions, partisan politics, and public support shape interbranch relations; and the importance of judicial attitudes and legal culture. The authors deploy a range of methods, including qualitative case studies, paired country comparisons, statistical analysis, and game theory.
Membrane Structural Biology brings together a physicochemical analysis of the membrane with the latest structural biology on membrane lipids and proteins to offer an exciting portrayal of biomembranes. Written with remarkable clarity, this text appears at a time when membranes have moved back into the scientific spotlight and will provide a unique foundation for advanced students and working scientists. The structure, function and biogenesis of membrane lipids and proteins are examined, bioinformatics and computational approaches to membrane components are introduced, and the high-resolution structures that are giving new insights into the vital roles membranes play are discussed. The many correlations between membrane research and human health are discussed and key themes for future work in this area are identified. Membrane structural biology is poised to answer many basic and applied questions and this cutting-edge text will provide a solid grounding for all those working in this field.
Tender offers, exchange offers and consent solicitations in connection with debt securities are important instruments of corporate restructurings, corporate rescues, recapitalisations and other types of liability management of public and private companies. Although tender offers for shares, stocks and other equity securities are covered by a vast literature on public mergers, takeovers and acquisitions, the literature on liability management transactions for debt securities is scarce. Law and Practice of Liability Management rectifies this by providing a systematic treatise of the law relating to this significant aspect of the global capital market. It guides students and professionals through the complex legal and regulatory requirements applicable to these transactions, the increasing regulatory interest by the world's leading financial regulatory authorities, and recent innovations in the structuring, legal techniques and execution of the relevant transactions in international capital markets.
Why and how did Islam become such a political force in so many Muslim-majority countries? In this book, Jocelyne Cesari investigates the relationship between modernization, politics, and Islam in Muslim-majority countries such as Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, Tunisia, and Turkey - countries that were founded by secular rulers and have since undergone secularized politics. Cesari argues that nation-building processes in these states have not created liberal democracies in the Western mold, but have instead spurred the politicization of Islam by turning it into a modern national ideology. Looking closely at examples of Islamic dominance in political modernization - for example, nationalization of Islamic institutions and personnel under state ministries; reliance on Islamic references in political discourse, religiously motivated social unrest, or violence; and internationalization of Islam-aligned political movements or conflicts - this study provides a unique overview of the historical and political developments from the end of World War II to the Arab Spring that have made Islam the dominant force in the construction of the modern states, and discusses Islam's impact on emerging democracies in the contemporary Middle East.
This groundbreaking history traces the development of Germany's black community, from its origins in colonial Africa to its decimation by the Nazis during World War II. Robbie Aitken and Eve Rosenhaft follow the careers of Africans arriving from the colonies, examining why and where they settled, their working lives and their political activities, and giving unprecedented attention to gender, sexuality and the challenges of 'mixed marriage'. Addressing the networks through which individuals constituted community, Aitken and Rosenhaft explore the ways in which these relationships spread beyond ties of kinship and birthplace to constitute communities as 'black'. The study also follows a number of its protagonists to France and back to Africa, providing new insights into the roots of Francophone black consciousness and postcolonial memory. Including an in-depth account of the impact of Nazism and its aftermath, this book offers a fresh critical perspective on narratives of 'race' in German history.
What are the real risks posed by a volcanic eruption near a city - what is fact and what is myth? How have volcanic eruptions affected cities in the past, and how can we learn from these events? Why do communities continue to develop in such locations, despite the obvious threat? In this fascinating book, Grant Heiken explores global examples of cities at risk from volcanoes, from Italy, the US, Mexico, Ecuador, The Philippines, Japan and New Zealand, providing historical and contemporary eruption case studies to illustrate volcanic hazards, and cities' efforts to respond to them, both good and poor. He shows that truly successful volcanic hazard mitigation cannot be accomplished without collaboration between experts in geology and natural hazards, public health, medicine, city and infrastructure planning, and civil protection. This is a topical and engaging read for anyone interested in the history and future activity of these dangerous neighbors.
This comprehensive summary of the state of the art and the ideas behind the reaction engineering approach (REA) to drying processes is an ideal resource for researchers, academics and industry practitioners. Starting with the formulation, modelling and applications of the lumped-REA, it goes on to detail the use of the REA to describe local evaporation and condensation, and its coupling with equations of conservation of heat and mass transfer, called the spatial-REA, to model non-equilibrium multiphase drying. Finally, it summarises other established drying models, discussing their features, limitations and comparisons with the REA. Application examples featured throughout help fine-tune the models and implement them for process design and the evaluation of existing drying processes and product quality during drying. Further uses of the principles of REA are demonstrated, including computational fluid dynamics-based modelling, and further expanded to model other simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes.
The second edition of Early Childhood Curriculum provides a comprehensive and lively introduction to curriculum theories, approaches and issues in early childhood settings. Drawing on contemporary research and case studies, the book employs a cultural-historical framework to illustrate a variety of approaches to early childhood education. In this new edition there is an up-to-date coverage of national curriculum documents, including the Early Years Framework and Te Whariki, a glossary of key terms and learning intentions at the beginning of each chapter. There is also an updated companion website at www. cambridge. edu. au/academic/earlychildhood. In each chapter, hypothetical transcripts and real-world examples help bring theory to life. The book explores specific domain areas, including science and mathematics; literacy and language; information and communication technology; the arts; and health and well-being. Early Childhood Curriculum equips pre-service teachers with the practical skills and tools to promote young children's learning. It is an essential resource for pre-service teachers and practitioners alike.
Jonathan Swift lived through a period of turbulence and innovation in the evolution of the book. His publications, perhaps more than those of any other single author, illustrate the range of developments that transformed print culture during the early Enlightenment. Swift was a prolific author and a frequent visitor at the printing house, and he wrote as critic and satirist about the nature of text. The shifting moods of irony, complicity and indignation that characterise his dealings with the book trade add a layer of complexity to the bibliographic record of his published works. The essays collected here offer the first comprehensive, integrated survey of that record. They shed new light on the politics of the eighteenth-century book trade, on Swift's innovations as a maker of books, on the habits and opinions revealed by his commentary on printed texts and on the re-shaping of the Swiftian book after his death.
Fatigue can have a major impact on an individual's performance and wellbeing, yet is poorly understood, even within the scientific community. There is no developed theory of its origins or functions, and different types of fatigue (mental, physical, sleepiness) are routinely confused. The widespread interpretation of fatigue as a negative consequence of work may be true only for externally imposed goals; meaningful or self-initiated work is rarely tiring and often invigorating. In the first book dedicated to the systematic treatment of fatigue for over sixty years, Robert Hockey examines its many aspects - social history, neuroscience, energetics, exercise physiology, sleep and clinical implications - and develops a new motivational control theory, in which fatigue is treated as an emotion having a fundamental adaptive role in the management of goals. He then uses this new perspective to explore the role of fatigue in relation to individual motivation, working life and wellbeing.
What does it mean to be a European citizen? The rapidly changing politics of citizenship in the face of migration, diversity, heightened concerns about security and financial and economic crises, has left European citizenship as one of the major political and social challenges to European integration. Enacting European Citizenship develops a distinctive perspective on European citizenship and its impact on European integration by focusing on 'acts' of European citizenship. The authors examine a broad range of cases - including those of the Roma, Sinti, Kurds, sex workers, youth and other 'minorities' or marginalised peoples - to illuminate the ways in which the institutions and practices of European citizenship can hinder as well as enable claims for justice, rights and equality. This book draws the key themes together to explore what the limitations and possibilities of European citizenship might be.
What people are saying about The New How "How are you going to get rid of your Air Sandwich if you don't even know what it is? Provocative and practical at the same time."--Seth Godin, author of Linchpin" The New How is informative and provides exciting insights because the suggestions are practical and doable. Merchant gets the new reality--leadership fails not so much from flawed strategy as it does from failed processes of engagement from those responsible for implementing the strategy. In high-performing organizations, everyone acts like a leader, and they own the strategy and take actions to ensure its success. If you care about making a difference, read this book."--Barry Posner, author of The Leadership Challenge"Collaboration is a powerful, competitive weapon: this book shows you how to use it to win markets."--Mark Interrante, VP Content Products, Yahoo, Inc."In a world in which the pace of change is ever quickening, collaboration, not control, is the route to a successful organization. This book tells you how to make your organization collaborative. And Nilofer Merchant's writing is a model of clarity."--Barry Schwartz, author of The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less"Want to transform your organization into a collaborative enterprise? Nilofer Merchant provides insightful and practical strategies in The New How."--Padmasree Warrior, CTO, Cisco Systems, Inc."Merchant's book is a practical guide for the journey from strategy to implementation. The collaborative tools described here can help companies reach strategic success--and avoid pitfalls along the way."--Tom Kelley, General Manager, IDEO, and author of Ten Faces of InnovationOnce in a generation, a book comes along that transforms the business landscape. For today's business leaders, The New How redefines the way companies create strategies and win new markets.Management gurus have always said "people matter." But those same gurus still relegate strategy to an elite set of executives who focus on frameworks, long presentations, and hierarchical approaches. Business strategy typically has been planned by corporate chiefs in annual meetings, and then dictated to managers to carry out. The New How turns that notion on its head. After many years of working with Apple, Adobe, HP, and many other companies, Nilofer Merchant discovered the secret sauce: the best way to create a winning strategy is to include employees at all levels, helping to create strategy they not only believe in, but are also equipped to implement.In The New How, Nilofer shows today's corporate directors, executives, and managers how they can transform their traditional, top-down approach to strategy planning and execution into collaborative "stratecution" that has proven to be significantly more effective. Enhance performance and outcomes by deflating the "air sandwich" between executives in the boardroom and employees Recognize that strategy and execution are thoroughly intertwined Understand how successful strategy is founded in effective idea selection-a pile of good ideas doesn't necessarily build good strategy Create company strategy and link it to targeted execution, using the practical models and techniques provided
Arguing that composition should renew its interest in reading pedagogy and research, Chasing Literacy offers writing instructors and literacy scholars a framework for understanding and responding to the challenges posed by the proliferation of interactive and multimodal communication technologies in the twenty-first century.Employing case-study research of student reading practices, Keller explores reading-writing connections in new media contexts. He identifies a culture of acceleration--a gathering of social, educational, economic, and technological forces that reinforce the values of speed, efficiency, and change--and challenges educators to balance new "faster" literacies with traditional "slower" literacies. In addition, Keller details four significant features of contemporary literacy that emerged from his research: accumulation and curricular choices; literacy perceptions; speeds of rhetoric; and speeds of reading. Chasing Literacy outlines a new reading pedagogy that will help students gain versatile, dexterous approaches to both reading and writing and makes a significant contribution to this emerging area of interest in composition theory and practice.
In Aztec Philosophy, James Maffie reveals a highly sophisticated and systematic Aztec philosophy worthy of consideration alongside European philosophies of their time. Bringing together the fields of comparative world philosophy and Mesoamerican studies, Maffie excavates the distinctly philosophical aspects of Aztec thought.Aztec Philosophy focuses on the ways Aztec metaphysics--the Aztecs' understanding of the nature, structure and constitution of reality--underpinned Aztec thinking about wisdom, ethics, politics, and aesthetics, and served as a backdrop for Aztec religious practices as well as everyday activities such as weaving, farming, and warfare. Aztec metaphysicians conceived reality and cosmos as a grand, ongoing process of weaving--theirs was a world in motion. Drawing upon linguistic, ethnohistorical, archaeological, historical, and contemporary ethnographic evidence, Maffie argues that Aztec metaphysics maintained a processive, transformational, and non-hierarchical view of reality, time, and existence along with a pantheistic theology. Aztec Philosophy will be of great interest to Mesoamericanists, philosophers, religionists, folklorists, and Latin Americanists as well as students of indigenous philosophy, religion, and art in the Americas.
Finally, an all-inclusive, visual handbook for sushi lovers who want to make sushi affordably and confidently at home! This gorgeously accessible book includes popular sushi, sashimi, and sushi-style recipes by Hiro Sone, a Japaneseborn and classically trained James Beard Award-winning chef. More than 175 photographs feature beautifully finished nigiri, rolls, and ingredients in step-by-step sequences that visually demonstrate basic sushi cuts and shaping fundamentals. Packed with essential sushi knowledge--including profiles of the 65 fish and other key ingredients of sushi, recipes for staples such as dashi, and lessons in basic beverage pairing--this comprehensive yet stylish book will appeal to any fan of sushi or Japanese culture.
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