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How was medieval English theatre performed? Many of the modern theatrical concepts and terms used today to discuss the nature of medieval English theatre were never used in medieval times. Concepts and terms such as character, characterisation, truth and belief, costume, acting style, amateur, professional, stage directions, effects and special effects are all examples of post-medieval terms that have been applied to the English theatre. Little has been written about staging conventions in the performance of medieval English theatre and the identity and value of these conventions has often been overlooked. In this book, Philip Butterworth analyses dormant evidence of theatrical processes such as casting, doubling of parts, rehearsing, memorising, cueing, entering, exiting, playing, expounding, prompting, delivering effects, timing, hearing, seeing and responding. All these concerns point to a very different kind of theatre to the naturalistic theatre produced today.
The first edition of The Law of Refugee Status (published in 1991) is generally regarded as the seminal text on interpreting the refugee definition set by the UN's 1951 Refugee Convention. Its groundbreaking analysis served as the bedrock for not only much judicial reasoning, but also for a burgeoning academic literature in law and related fields. This second edition builds on the strong critical focus and human rights orientation of the first edition, but undertakes an entirely original analysis of the jurisprudence of leading common law and select civil law states. The authors provide robust responses to the most difficult questions of refugee status in a clear and direct way. The result is a comprehensive and truly global analysis of the central question in asylum law: who is a refugee?
Use the quick-start guide to create your course in a flashPost course materials, give quizzes, facilitate discussions, and handle gradesYou're an educator, not a psychic, so how would you know how to use Blackboard with no instructions? These step-by-step examples show you how to set up a Blackboard classroom, put your materials on the Internet, communicate online with students, and even evaluate their performance.Discover how to* Navigate the Blackboard environment* Customize your course menu* Add and organize course materials* Give online assignments* Conduct online discussions and chat rooms* Keep track of grades
Do you want to develop Web sites without the help of a programmer? Lucky for you there's DotNetNuke, a content management system that allows you to build and maintain dynamic Web sites just by using a Web browser. DotNetNuke For Dummies helps you get down to business and shows you how to create a user-friendly Web site. You'll find out how you can build and manage a flexible, versatile site with all the advantages an open-source application offers, use convenient modules, build a community, and save some money at the same time. This plain-English guide lets you discover how to: Install, run, and troubleshoot DotNetNuke Change and customize portal settings Add and manage pages on your site Make your site look professional Deliver contents with Text/HTML Add news feeds, online surveys, and banners Interact with visitors through blogging, feedback comments, and forums Create an e-business Customize the look of your site with exciting components This book features cool new modules that will meet every Web site's need, both commercial and personal. With DotNetNuke For Dummies, you'll get up to speed with this wonderful online tool and create your own corner of the World Wide Web!
Comprehensive, self-contained, and clearly written, this successor to Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics (1987) describes the macroscopic equilibrium and stability of high temperature plasmas - the basic fuel for the development of fusion power. Now fully updated, this book discusses the underlying physical assumptions for three basic MHD models: ideal, kinetic, and double-adiabatic MHD. Included are detailed analyses of MHD equilibrium and stability, with a particular focus on three key configurations at the cutting-edge of fusion research: the tokamak, stellarator, and reversed field pinch. Other new topics include continuum damping, MHD stability comparison theorems, neoclassical transport in stellarators, and how quasi-omnigeneity, quasi-symmetry, and quasi-isodynamic constraints impact the design of optimized stellarators. Including full derivations of almost every important result, in-depth physical explanations throughout, and a large number of problem sets to help master the material, this is an exceptional resource for graduate students and researchers in plasma and fusion physics.
Written specifically for graduate students and practitioners beginning social science research, Statistical Modeling and Inference for Social Science covers the essential statistical tools, models and theories that make up the social scientist's toolkit. Assuming no prior knowledge of statistics, this textbook introduces students to probability theory, statistical inference and statistical modeling, and emphasizes the connection between statistical procedures and social science theory. Sean Gailmard develops core statistical theory as a set of tools to model and assess relationships between variables - the primary aim of social scientists - and demonstrates the ways in which social scientists express and test substantive theoretical arguments in various models. Chapter exercises guide students in applying concepts to data, extending their grasp of core theoretical concepts. Students gain the ability to create, read and critique statistical applications in their fields of interest.
The Renaissance in Italy continues to exercise a powerful hold on the popular imagination and on scholarly enquiry. This Companion presents a lively, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and current approach to the period that extends in Italy from the turn of the fourteenth century through the latter decades of the sixteenth. Addressed to students, scholars, and non-specialists, it introduces the richly varied materials and phenomena as well as the different methodologies through which the Renaissance is studied today both in the English-speaking world and in Italy. The chapters are organized around axes of humanism, historiography, and cultural production, and cover a wide variety of areas including literature, science, music, religion, technology, artistic production, and economics. The diffusion of the Renaissance throughout Italian territories is emphasized. Overall, the Companion provides an essential overview of a period that witnessed both a significant revalidation of the classical past and the development of new, vernacular, and increasingly secular values.
Focusing on the role that automorphisms and equivalence relations play in the algebraic theory of minimal sets provides an original treatment of some key aspects of abstract topological dynamics. Such an approach is presented in this lucid and self-contained book, leading to simpler proofs of classical results, as well as providing motivation for further study. Minimal flows on compact Hausdorff spaces are studied as icers on the universal minimal flow M. The group of the icer representing a minimal flow is defined as a subgroup of the automorphism group G of M, and icers are constructed explicitly as relative products using subgroups of G. Many classical results are then obtained by examining the structure of the icers on M, including a proof of the Furstenberg structure theorem for distal extensions. This book is designed as both a guide for graduate students, and a source of interesting new ideas for researchers.
"During the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, countless slaves from culturally diverse communities in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia journeyed to Mexico on the ships of the Manila Galleon. Upon arrival in Mexico, they were grouped together and categorized as chinos. In time, chinos came to be treated under the law as Indians (the term for all native people of Spain's colonies) and became indigenous vassals of the Spanish crown after 1672. The implications of this legal change were enormous: as Indians, rather than chinos, they could no longer be held as slaves. By tracking these individuals' complex journey from the bondage of the Manila slave market to the freedom of Mexico City streets, Tatiana Seijas challenges commonly held assumptions about the uniformity of the slave experience in the Americas and shows that the history of coerced labor is necessarily connected to colonial expansion and forced global migration"--
This book is the first in a planned trilogy by Pippa Norris on challenges of electoral integrity to be published by Cambridge University Press. Unfortunately too often elections around the globe are deeply flawed or even fail. Why does this matter? It is widely suspected that such contests will undermine confidence in elected authorities, damage voting turnout, trigger protests, exacerbate conflict, and occasionally lead to regime change. Well-run elections, by themselves, are insufficient for successful transitions to democracy. But flawed, or even failed, contests are thought to wreck fragile progress. Is there good evidence for these claims? Under what circumstances do failed elections undermine legitimacy? With a global perspective, using new sources of data for mass and elite evidence, this book provides fresh insights into these major issues.
The notion of burden of proof and its companion notion of presumption are central to argumentation studies. This book argues that we can learn a lot from how the courts have developed procedures over the years for allocating and reasoning with presumptions and burdens of proof, and from how artificial intelligence has built precise formal and computational systems to represent this kind of reasoning. The book provides a model of reasoning with burden of proof and presumption, based on analyses of many clearly explained legal and non-legal examples. The model is shown to fit cases of everyday conversational argumentation as well as argumentation in legal cases. Burden of proof determines (1) under what conditions an arguer is obliged to support a claim with an argument that backs it up and (2) how strong that argument needs to be to prove the claim in question.
This book demonstrates the close relationship between religion and democracy in India. Religious practice creates ties among citizens that can generate positive and democratic political outcomes. In pursuing this line of inquiry the book questions a dominant strand in some contemporary social sciences - that a religious denomination (Catholic, Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, and so on) is sufficient to explain the relationship between religion and politics or that religion and democracy are antithetical to each other. The book makes a strong case for studying religious practice and placing that practice in the panoply of other social practices and showing that religious practice is positively associated with democracy.
This groundbreaking single-authored textbook equips students with everything they need to know to truly understand the hugely topical field of biomaterials science, including essential background on the clinical necessity of biomaterials, relevant concepts in biology and materials science, comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of all existing clinical and experimental biomaterials, and the fundamental principles of biocompatibility. It features extensive case studies interweaved with theory, from a wide range of clinical disciplines, equipping students with a practical understanding of the phenomena and mechanisms of biomaterials performance; a whole chapter dedicated to the biomaterials industry itself, including guidance on regulations, standards and guidelines, litigation, and ethical issues to prepare students for industry; informative glossaries of key terms, engaging end-of-chapter exercises and up-to-date lists of recommended reading. Drawing on the author's forty years' experience in biomaterials, this is an indispensable resource for students studying these lifesaving technological advances.
Handle grooming yourself to save money and bond with your dog Brush, bathe, and clip your dog like a pro! Whether your dog is destined for a career in the show ring or a spot on the living room couch, good grooming is important. This friendly guide shows you how to develop a grooming routine that will keep your dog clean - and strengthen the bond between you. It includes detailed, step-by-step grooming instructions for all types of coats. Discover how to Train your dog for grooming Care for nails, teeth, and ears Use clippers and scissors Groom specific types of coats Prepare a dog for the show ring
Think only master chefs can create the savory, succulent barbecue masterpieces you love to eat? Nonsense! BBQ Sauces, Rubs & Marinades For Dummies shows you everything you need to dig in, get your apron dirty, and start stirring up scrumptious sauces, magical marinades, and rubs to remember. Featuring 100 bold new recipes, along with lots of savvy tips for spicing up your backyard barbecue, this get-the-flavor guide a healthy dose of barbecue passion as it delivers practical advice and great recipes from some of America's best competition barbecue cooks. You get formulas for spicing up chicken, beef, pork, and even seafood, plus plenty of suggestions on equipment, side dishes, and much more. Discover how to: Choose the right types of meat Build a BBQ tool set Craft your own sauces Smoke and grill like a pro Marinate like a master Choose the perfect time to add sauce Rub your meat the right way Whip up fantastic sides Add flavor with the right fuel Plan hours (and hours) ahead Cook low and slow for the best results Avoid flavoring pitfalls Turn BBQ leftovers into ambrosia Complete with helpful lists of dos and don'ts, as well as major barbecue events and associations, BBQ Sauces, Rubs & Marinades For Dummies is the secret ingredient that will have your family, friends, and neighborhoods begging for more.
Regarded as one of the most difficult languages to learn for native English speakers by the U. S. State Department, Arabic is gaining both prominence and importance in America. Recent world events have brought more and more Americans and other English speakers into contact with Arabic-speaking populations, and governments and businesses are increasingly aware of the importance of basic Arabic language skills. Arabic for Dummies provides you with a painless and fun way to start communicating in Arabic. Why should you learn Arabic? Well, besides the fact that over 200 million people in more than 22 nations use it to communicate, there are tons of reasons to get up to speed this 1,400 year old language, including: Nearly all of the Middle-East speaks Arabic or one of its dialects Basic Arabic skills are extremely useful for anyone traveling to, doing business in, or serving in the Middle East It is the language in which the Koran is written There is a rich, centuries-old literary tradition in Arabic Arabic For Dummies presents the language in the classic, laid-back For Dummies style. Taking a relaxed approach to this difficult language, it's packed with practice dialogues and communication tips that will have you talking the talk in no time. You'll get the scoop on: The Arabic alphabet, pronunciation, basic grammar, and the rules of transliteration The history of the language and information on classical Arabic and its dialects How to make small talk and make yourself understood when dining, shopping, or traveling around town How to communicate on the phone and in business conversations Handy words and phrases for dealing with money, directions, hotels, transportation, and emergencies Arabic culture and etiquette, including ten things you should never do in Arabic countries The book also includes an Arabic-English dictionary, verb tables, and an audio CD with dialogues from the book to help you perfect your pronunciation. Written by a native Arabic speaker who helped start a year-round Arabic department at Middlebury College, Arabic For Dummies is just what you need to start making yourself understood in Arabic. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
Worldwide telecom spending was over $4 trillion in 2004, and virtually all 12 million businesses in the U.S. buy phone and other telecom servicesOur book shows people at small and medium-sized businesses how to make sense of telecom lingo and get the best dealsIncludes an overview of the major players in the telecom industry and an easy-to-understand explanation of the existing telecom infrastructureHelps people pinpoint the telecom services best suited to their business needs, understand billing, and troubleshoot problemsCovers emerging industry trends, such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), and how they can help businesses cut costs
"Plurality-led Congresses are among the most pervasive and least studied phenomena in presidential systems around the world. Often conflated with divided government, where an organized opposition controls a majority of seats in congress, plurality-led congresses are characterized by a party with fewer than 50 percent of the seats still in control of the legislative gates. Extensive gatekeeping authority without plenary majorities, this book shows, leads to policy outcomes that are substantially different from those observed in majority-led congresses. Through detailed analyses of legislative success in Argentina and Uruguay, this book explores the determinants of law enactment in fragmented congresses. It describes in detail how the lack of majority support explains legislative success in standing committees, the chamber directorate, and the plenary floor"--
This book presents the most complete set of analytical, normative, and historical discussions of majority decision making to date. One chapter critically addresses the social-choice approach to majority decisions, whereas another presents an alternative to that approach. Extensive case studies discuss majority voting in the choice of religion in early modern Switzerland, majority voting in nested assemblies such as the French Estates-General and the Federal Convention, majority voting in federally organized countries, qualified majority voting in the European Union Council of Ministers, and majority voting on juries. Other chapters address the relation between majority decisions and cognitive diversity, the causal origin of majority decisions, and the pathologies of majority decision making. Two chapters, finally, discuss the counter-majoritarian role of courts that exercise judicial review. The editorial Introduction surveys conceptual, causal, and normative issues that arise in the theory and practice of majority decisions.
This is the first comprehensive look at the human rights dimensions of the work of the only body within the United Nations system capable of compelling action by its member states. Known popularly for its failure to prevent mass atrocities in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and Syria, the breadth and depth of the Security Council's work on human rights in recent decades is much broader. This book examines questions including: how is the Security Council dealing with human rights concerns? What does it see as the place of human rights in conflict prevention, peacemaking and peacekeeping? And how does it address the quest for justice in the face of gross violations of human rights? Written by leading practitioners, scholars and experts, this book provides a broad perspective that describes, explains and evaluates the contribution of the Security Council to the promotion of human rights and how it might more effectively achieve its goals.
Despite the growing quantity and quality of research connecting religion to inequality, no single volume to date brings together key figures to discuss various components of this process. This volume aims to fill this gap with contributions from top scholars in the fields of religion and sociology. The essays in this volume provide important new details about how and why religion and inequality are related by focusing on new indicators of inequality and well-being, combining and studying mediating factors in new and informative ways, focusing on critical and often understudied groups, and exploring the changing relationship between religion and inequality over time.
This is the first comprehensive text on the theory and practice of aquatic organic matter fluorescence analysis, written by the experts who pioneered the research area. This book covers the topic in the broadest possible terms, providing a common reference for making measurements that are comparable across disciplines, and allowing consistent interpretation of data and results. The book includes the fundamental physics and chemistry of organic matter fluorescence, as well as the effects of environmental factors. All aspects of sample handling, data processing, and the operation of both field and laboratory instrumentation are included, providing the practical advice required for successful fluorescence analyses. Advanced methods for data interpretation and modeling, including parallel factor analysis, are also discussed. The book will interest those establishing field, laboratory, or industrial applications of fluorescence, including advanced students and researchers in environmental chemistry, marine science, environmental geosciences, environmental engineering, soil science, and physical geography.
A surprising number of Victorian scientists wrote poetry. Many came to science as children through such games as the spinning-top, soap-bubbles and mathematical puzzles, and this playfulness carried through to both their professional work and writing of lyrical and satirical verse. This is the first study of an oddly neglected body of work that offers a unique record of the nature and cultures of Victorian science. Such figures as the physicist James Clerk Maxwell toy with ideas of nonsense, as through their poetry they strive to delineate the boundaries of the new professional science and discover the nature of scientific creativity. Also considering Edward Lear, Daniel Brown finds the Victorian renaissances in research science and nonsense literature to be curiously interrelated. Whereas science and literature studies have mostly focused upon canonical literary figures, this original and important book conversely explores the uses literature was put to by eminent Victorian scientists.
Oratory and sermons had a fixed place in the religious and civic rituals of pre-modern Muslim societies and were indispensible for transmitting religious knowledge, legitimizing or challenging rulers, and inculcating the moral values associated with being part of the Muslim community. While there has been abundant scholarship on medieval Christian and Jewish preaching, Linda G. Jones's book is the first to consider the significance of the tradition of pulpit oratory in the medieval Islamic world. Traversing Iberia and North Africa from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries, the book analyzes the power of oratory, the ritual juridical and rhetorical features of pre-modern sermons, and the social profiles of the preachers and orators who delivered them. The biographical and historical sources, which form the basis of this remarkable study, offer abundant proof of cultural exchange between al-Andalus and the eastern regions of the Islamic empires, as preachers traveled back and forth between the great cities of Cordoba, Qayrawan, Baghdad, and Cairo. In this way, the book sheds light on different regional practices and the juridical debates between individual preachers around correct performance.
Building up gradually from first principles, this unique introduction to modern thermodynamics integrates classical, statistical and molecular approaches and is especially designed to support students studying chemical and biochemical engineering. In addition to covering traditional problems in engineering thermodynamics in the context of biology and materials chemistry, students are also introduced to the thermodynamics of DNA, proteins, polymers and surfaces. It includes over 80 detailed worked examples, covering a broad range of scenarios such as fuel cell efficiency, DNA/protein binding, semiconductor manufacturing and polymer foaming, emphasizing the practical real-world applications of thermodynamic principles; more than 300 carefully tailored homework problems, designed to stretch and extend students' understanding of key topics, accompanied by an online solution manual for instructors; and all the necessary mathematical background, plus resources summarizing commonly used symbols, useful equations of state, microscopic balances for open systems, and links to useful online tools and datasets.
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