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In this eighth book in the Henry and Mudge series, Henry and his dog Mudge take in a stray cat. It's not a pretty cat, but it is a happy cat and it loves Mudge!
Celebrated as the home of the blues and the birthplace of rock and roll, Memphis, Tennessee, is where Elvis Presley, B. B. King, Johnny Cash, and other musical legends got their starts. It is also a place of conflict and tragedy--the site of Martin Luther King Jr. 's 1968 assassination--and a city typically marginalized by scholars and underestimated by its own residents. Using this iconic southern city as a case study, Wanda Rushing explores the significance of place in a globalizing age. Challenging the view that globalization renders place generic or insignificant, Rushing argues that cultural and economic distinctiveness persists in part because of global processes, not in spite of them. Rushing weaves her analysis into stories about the history and global impact of blues music, the social and racial complexities of Cotton Carnival, and the global rise of FedEx, headquartered in Memphis. She portrays Memphis as a site of cultural creativity and global industry--a city whose traditions, complex past, and specific character have had an influence on culture worldwide.
Intersectionality, or the consideration of race, class, and gender, is one of the prominent contemporary theoretical contributions made by scholars in the field of women's studies that now broadly extends across the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Taking stock of this transformative paradigm,The Intersectional Approachguides new and established researchers to engage in a critical reflection about the broad adoption of intersectionality that constitutes what the editors call a new "social literacy" for scholars. In eighteen essays, contributors examine various topics of interest to students and researchers from a feminist perspective as well as through their respective disciplines, looking specifically at gender inequalities related to globalization, health, motherhood, sexuality, body image, and aging. Together, these essays provide a critical overview of the paradigm, highlight new theoretical and methodological advances, and make a strong case for the continued use of the intersectional approach both within the borders of women's and gender studies and beyond. Contributors: Lidia Anchisi, Gettysburg College Naomi Andre, University of Michigan Jean Ait Belkhir, Southern University at New Orleans Michele Tracy Berger, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Kia Lilly Caldwell, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Elizabeth R. Cole, University of Michigan Kimberle Crenshaw, University of California, Los Angeles Bonnie Thornton Dill, University of Maryland Michelle Fine, Graduate Center, City University of New York Jennifer Fish, Old Dominion University Mako Fitts, Seattle University Kathleen Guidroz, Mount St. Mary's University Ivette Guzman-Zavala, Lebanon Valley College Kaaren Haldeman, Durham, North Carolina Catherine E. Harnois, Wake Forest University AnaLouise Keating, Texas Woman's University Rachel E. Luft, University of New Orleans Gary K. Perry, Seattle University Jennifer Rothchild, University of Minnesota, Morris Ann Russo, DePaul University Natalie J. Sabik, University of Michigan Jessica Holden Sherwood, University of Rhode Island Yvette Taylor, University of Newcastle, United Kingdom Nira Yuval-Davis, University of East London
The contributors to this volume argue that for too long, inclusiveness has substituted for methodology in American studies scholarship. The ten original essays collected here call for a robust comparativism that is attuned theoretically to questions of both space and time. States of Emergencyasks readers to engage in a thought experiment: imagine that you have an object you want to study. Which methodologies will contextualize and explain your selection? What political goals are embedded in your inquiry? This thought experiment is taken up by contributors who consider an array of objects--the weather, cigarettes, archival material, AIDS, the enemy, extinct species, and torture. The essayists recalibrate the metrics of time and space usually used to measure these questions. In the process, each contributes to a project that redefines the object of American studies, reading its history as well as its future across, against, even outside the established grain of interdisciplinary practice. Contributors: Srinivas Aravamudan, Duke University Ian Baucom, Duke University Chris Castiglia, The Pennsylvania State University Russ Castronovo, University of Wisconsin-Madison Wai Chee Dimock, Yale University Nan Enstad, University of Wisconsin-Madison Susan Gillman, University of California, Santa Cruz Rodrigo Lazo, University of California, Irvine Robert S. Levine, University of Maryland Anne McClintock, University of Wisconsin-Madison Kenneth W. Warren, University of Chicago
In 2002 a burial box of skeletal remains purchased anonymously from the black market was identified as the ossuary of James, the brother of Jesus. Transformed by the media into a religious and historical relic overnight, the artifact made its way to the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, where 100,000 people congregated to experience what had been prematurely and hyperbolically billed as the closest tactile connection to Jesus yet unearthed. Within a few months, however, the ossuary was revealed to be a forgery. Resurrecting the Brother of Jesusoffers a critical evaluation of the popular and scholarly reception of the James Ossuary as it emerged from the dimness of the antiquities black market to become a Protestant relic in the media's custody. The volume brings together experts in Jewish archaeology, early Christianity, American religious history, and pilgrimage to explore the theory and practice couched in the debate about the object's authenticity. Contributors explore the ways in which the varying popular and scholarly responses to the ossuary phenomenon inform the presumption of religious meaning; how religious categories are created, vetted, and used for various purposes; and whether the history of pious frauds in America can help to illuminate this international episode. Resurrecting the Brother of Jesusalso contributes to discussions about the construction of religious studies as an academic discipline and the role of scholars as public interpreters of discoveries with religious significance. Contributors: Thomas S. Bremer, Rhodes College Ryan Byrne, Menifee, California Byron R. McCane, Wofford College Bernadette McNary-Zak, Rhodes College Milton Moreland, Rhodes College Jonathan L. Reed, University of La Verne
InInfectious Ideas, Jennifer Brier convincingly argues that the AIDS epidemic had a profound effect on the American political landscape. Viewing contemporary history from the perspective of the AIDS crisis, she provides rich, new understandings of the complex social and political trends of the post-1960s era. Brier describes how AIDS workers--in groups as disparate as the gay and lesbian press, AIDS service organizations, private philanthropies, and the State Department--influenced American politics, especially on issues such as gay and lesbian rights, reproductive health, racial justice, and health care policy, even in the face of the expansion of the New Right. Indeed, the book shows that efforts to deal with AIDS produced significant fissures in the conservative movement during this period, especially when the State Department and USAID adopted AIDS as a centerpiece of its diplomatic strategy, including the distribution of millions of condoms overseas. Infectious Ideasplaces recent social, cultural, and political events in a new light, making an important contribution to our understanding of the United States at the end of the twentieth century.
We Were All Like Migrant Workers Here: Work, Community, and Memory on California's Round Valley Reservation, 1850-1941by William J. Bauer Jr.
The federally recognized Round Valley Indian Tribes are a small, confederated people whose members today come from twelve indigenous California tribes. In 1849, during the California gold rush, people from several of these tribes were relocated to a reservation farm in northern Mendocino County. Fusing Native American history and labor history, William Bauer Jr. chronicles the evolution of work, community, and tribal identity among the Round Valley Indians in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that enabled their survival and resistance to assimilation. Drawing on oral history interviews, Bauer brings Round Valley Indian voices to the forefront in a narrative that traces their adaptations to shifting social and economic realities, first within unfree labor systems, including outright slavery and debt peonage, and later as wage laborers within the agricultural workforce. Despite the allotment of the reservation, federal land policies, and the Great Depression, Round Valley Indians innovatively used work and economic change to their advantage in order to survive and persist in the twentieth century. We Were All Like Migrant Workers Hererelates their history for the first time.
Since the 1950s, anthropologist Sidney W. Mintz has been at the forefront of efforts to integrate the disciplines of anthropology and history. Author ofSweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern Historyand other groundbreaking works, he was one of the first scholars to anticipate and critique "globalization studies. " However, a strong tradition of epistemologically sophisticated and theoretically informed empiricism of the sort advanced by Mintz has yet to become a cornerstone of contemporary anthropological scholarship. This collection of essays by leading anthropologists and historians serves as an intervention that rests on Mintz's rigorously historicist ethnographic work, which has long predicted the methodological crisis in anthropology today. Contributors to this volume build on Mintzean interdisciplinarity to provide productive ways to theorize the everyday life of local groups and communities, nation-states, and regions and the interconnections among them. Consisting of theoretical and case studies of Latin America, North America, the Caribbean, and Papua New Guinea,Empirical Futuresdemonstrates how Mintzean perspectives advance our understanding of the relationship among empirical approaches, the uses of ethnographic and historical data and theory-building, and the study of these from both local and global vantage points. Contributors: George Baca, Goucher College Frederick Cooper, New York University Virginia R. Dominguez, University of Illinois Frederick Errington, Trinity College Deborah Gewertz, Amherst College Juan Giusti-Cordero, University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras Aisha Khan, New York University Samuel MartÍnez, University of Connecticut Stephan PalmiÉ, University of Chicago Jane Schneider, City University of New York Graduate Center Rebecca J. Scott, University of Michigan Since the 1950s, anthropologist Sidney W. Mintz has been at the forefront of efforts to integrate the disciplines of anthropology and history. Author ofSweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern Historyand other groundbreaking works, he was one of the first scholars to anticipate "globalization studies. " Yet a strong tradition of epistemologically sophisticated and theoretically informed empiricism of the sort advanced by Mintz has yet to become a cornerstone of contemporary anthropological scholarship. This collection of essays by leading anthropologists and historians serves as an intervention that rests on Mintz's rigorously historicist ethnographic work, which has long predicted the methodological crisis in anthropology today. Contributors to this volume build on Mintzean interdisciplinarity to provide productive ways to theorize the everyday life of local groups and communities, nation-states, and regions and the interconnections among them. Consisting of theoretical and case studies of Latin America, North America, the Caribbean, and Papua New Guinea,Empirical Futuresdemonstrates how a Mintzean approach advances the study of culture, power, and identity. The contributors are George Baca, Frederick Cooper, Virginia R. Dominguez, Frederick Errington, Deborah Gewertz, Juan Giusti-Cordero, Aisha Khan, Samuel MartÍnez, Stephan PalmiÉ, Jane Schneider, and Rebecca J. Scott. The editors are George Baca, Aisha Khan, and Stephan PalmiÉ. -->
Fewer Americans were captured or missing during the Vietnam War than in any previous major military conflict in U. S. history. Yet despite their small numbers, American POWs inspired an outpouring of concern that slowly eroded support for the war. Michael J. Allen reveals how wartime loss transformed U. S. politics well before, and long after, the war's official end. Throughout the war's last years and in the decades since, Allen argues, the effort to recover lost warriors was as much a means to establish responsibility for their loss as it was a search for answers about their fate. Though millions of Americans and Vietnamese took part in that effort, POW and MIA families and activists dominated it. Insisting that the war was not over "until the last man comes home," this small, determined group turned the unprecedented accounting effort against those they blamed for their suffering. Allen demonstrates that POW/MIA activism prolonged the hostility between the United States and Vietnam even as the search for the missing became the basis for closer ties between the two countries in the 1990s. Equally important, he explains, POW/MIA families' disdain for the antiwar left and contempt for federal authority fueled the conservative ascendancy after 1968. Mixing political, cultural, and diplomatic history,Until the Last Man Comes Homepresents the full and lasting impact of the Vietnam War in ways that are both familiar and surprising.
The 1990s were a time of dramatic transformation for Cuba. With the collapse of its Cold War relationship with the Soviet Union, the island nation plummeted into an era of scarcity and uncertainty known as the Special Period, a time from which it emerged only slowly in the new century. On Location in Cubaviews these pivotal decades through the lens of cinema. Ann Marie Stock conducted hundreds of interviews and conversations in Cuba to examine individual artists' lives and creative output--including film, video, and audiovisual art. She explores the impact of the Cold War's end, the economic crisis that ensued, and the decentralization of the state's political, economic, and cultural apparatus. Stock focuses on what she calls Street Filmmaking--the production of emerging audiovisual artists who work outside the state film industry--to examine the island's transformation and changing notions of Cuban identity. Employing entrepreneurial approaches to producing art and to negotiating the exigencies of globalization, this younger generation of filmmakers offers fresh perspectives on what it means to be Cuban in an increasingly complex and connected world.
In 1925 Leonard Rhinelander, the youngest son of a wealthy New York society family, sued to end his marriage to Alice Jones, a former domestic servant and the daughter of a "colored" cabman. After being married only one month, Rhinelander pressed for the dissolution of his marriage on the grounds that his wife had lied to him about her racial background. The subsequent marital annulment trial became a massive public spectacle, not only in New York but across the nation--despite the fact that the state had never outlawed interracial marriage. Elizabeth Smith-Pryor makes extensive use of trial transcripts, in addition to contemporary newspaper coverage and archival sources, to explore why Leonard Rhinelander was allowed his day in court. She moves fluidly between legal history, a day-by-day narrative of the trial itself, and analyses of the trial's place in the culture of the 1920s North to show how notions of race, property, and the law were--and are--inextricably intertwined.
مع انبلاج الفجر تنتظر الفتاة الصغيرة بزوغ الشمس لتبدأ يومها. وأخيراً تظهر الشمس وتقفز الفتاة فرحة لتحتفي بضوء الشمس ودفئها. تتحدث الفتاة عن أثر الشمس على الكون, فهي تجعل الأزهار تنمو, والطيور تغرد, والفراشات ترفرف, والفتاة نفسها تبتهج. فجأة تختبئ الشمس وراء غيمة مما يحير الفتاة الصغيرة فتتساءل أين ذهبت. وحين تعود الشمس تعود البهجة للفتاة. لكن حين اشتدت حرارة الشمس شعرت الفتاة بلسعتها وحملت مظلتها لتحمي نفسها.
قصة عن الحيوانات المعرضة للانقراض وعن دور البشر في الحفاظ على البيئة. ففي هذه القصة تستمع فتاة صغيرة للأغاني الغامضة الرائعة للحيتان وتتساءل عن معنى هذه الأغاني, بينما تتبادل السماعات الخاصة مع بقية الفريق ويتحدث الجميع عن هذه المخلوقات الضخمة الرائعة مستعرضين الكثير من المعلومات التي تعرّف بالحيتان وبأهمية حمايتها وحماية كل الكائنات المهددة بالانقراض ورفع الوعي حول البيئة وقضاياها.
يحاول سامي سالم معرفة سر المفتاح الذهبي المحفوظ في صندوق في بيت خال راغب, الفتى الجديد في المدينة, بناءً على طلبه. وبعد الكثير من الجهود لمعرفة الشفرة الموجودة في الصندوق, يصل سامي ومساعدته أمل لصندوق ملابس قديمة في العلية, ليكتشفا فيما بعد بأن فيها قبعة وبداخل القبعة طابع بريدي كان راغب يبحث عنه ليكمل به سلسلة الطوابع التي يجمعها, وهذا ما جعله في غاية السعادة وكما لو أنه أصبح شخصاً آخر تماماً. لكن سامي سالم كان قد لاحظ أمراً مريباً, وقاده تفكيره لمعرفة بأن من وضع الطابع في الصندوق واخترع كل هذه الحبكة لم يكن سوى شاهيناز, أخت راغب, بغرض إدخال السعادة لحياة أخيها الأصغر.
يلاحظ نجيب المتميز برغبته في حل الألغاز بطريقة "الباحث" المنهجية بأن الطيور الزرقاء قد اختفت من البلدة. فيبدأ بالتساؤل وجمع الاستدلالات للتوصل لحل هذا اللغز المفاجئ. وبينما يحاول معرفة حل للغز, يجد نجيب الكثير من المعلومات عن طريق البحث وتوجيه الأسئلة والقراءة إلى أن يصل لطريقة تحافظ على الطيور الزرقاء وتشجعها على البقاء.
قصة فتاة صغيرة أرادت أن تساعد معلمتها المفضلة بتوصيل رسالة منها إلى معلمة أخرى, ولكن لأنها لم تكن ترغب في أن توجه أسئلة أو أن تخبر معلمتها بأنها لم تجد حجرة المعلمة الأخرى فقد انتهى بها المطاف بأنها لم تسلم الرسالة. وبسبب شعورها بالخجل من العودة لمعلمتها لسؤالها أو إخبارها بأنها لم تجد حجرة المعلمة الأخرى, فإنها لم تخبر معلمتها بأنها لم توصل الرسالة. ثم بسبب شعورها بالذنب لم تتمكن من النوم طوال الليل, مما جعلها تفيق في الصباح متعبة جداً لدرجة عدم قدرتها على الذهاب للمدرسة. وعلى الرغم من أن والدتها مكثت في البيت معها طوال اليوم, إلا أنها لم تستمتع بوقتها في البيت. وفي اليوم التالي قابلت معلمتها وأخبرتها بالحقيقة, فعفت عنها المعلمة وأخبرتها بأنها قد قابلت زميلتها في الوقت المحدد حسب الرسالة وأنه لا توجد مشكلة. ولكن المعلمة طلبت منها أن تعدها بألا تتردد في السؤال عن أي شيء إن كانت لا تعرفه. وهذا ما جعل الفتاة سعيدة ووعدتها بذلك.
In 1934 the republic of Haiti celebrated its 130th anniversary as an independent nation. In that year, too, another sort of Haitian independence occurred, as the United States ended nearly two decades of occupation. In the first comprehensive political history of postoccupation Haiti, Matthew Smith argues that the period from 1934 until the rise of dictator Fran ois "Papa Doc" Duvalier to the presidency in 1957 constituted modern Haiti's greatest moment of political promise. Smith emphasizes the key role that radical groups, particularly Marxists and black nationalists, played in shaping contemporary Haitian history. These movements transformed Haiti's political culture, widened political discourse, and presented several ideological alternatives for the nation's future. They were doomed, however, by a combination of intense internal rivalries, pressures from both state authorities and the traditional elite class, and the harsh climate of U. S. anticommunism. Ultimately, the political activism of the era failed to set Haiti firmly on the path to a strong independent future.
In the American South at the turn of the twentieth century, the legal segregation of the races and psychological sciences focused on selfhood emerged simultaneously. The two developments presented conflicting views of human nature. American psychiatry and psychology were optimistic about personality growth guided by the new mental sciences. Segregation, in contrast, placed racial traits said to be natural and fixed at the forefront of identity. In a society built on racial differences, raising questions about human potential, as psychology did, was unsettling. As Anne Rose lays out with sophistication and nuance, the introduction of psychological thinking into the Jim Crow South produced neither a clear victory for racial equality nor a single-minded defense of traditional ways. Instead, professionals of both races treated the mind-set of segregation as a hazardous subject. Psychology and Selfhood in the Segregated Southexamines the tensions stirred by mental science and restrained by southern custom. Rose highlights the role of southern black intellectuals who embraced psychological theories as an instrument of reform; their white counterparts, who proved wary of examining the mind; and northerners eager to change the South by means of science. She argues that although psychology and psychiatry took root as academic disciplines, all these practitioners were reluctant to turn the sciences of the mind to the subject of race relations.
Americans have always shown a fascination with the people, customs, and legends of the "East"--witness the popularity of the stories of theArabian Nights, the performances of Arab belly dancers and acrobats, the feats of turban-wearing vaudeville magicians, and even the antics of fez-topped Shriners. In this captivating volume, Susan Nance provides a social and cultural history of this highly popular genre of Easternized performance in America up to the Great Depression. According to Nance, these traditions reveal how a broad spectrum of Americans, including recent immigrants and impersonators, behaved as producers and consumers in a rapidly developing capitalist economy. In admiration of theArabian Nights, people creatively reenacted Eastern life, but these performances were also demonstrations of Americans' own identities, Nance argues. The story of Aladdin, made suddenly rich by rubbing an old lamp, stood as a particularly apt metaphor for how consumer capitalism might benefit each person. The leisure, abundance, and contentment that many imagined were typical of Eastern life were the same characteristics used to define "the American dream. " The recent success of Disney'sAladdinmovies suggests that many Americans still welcome an interpretation of the East as a site of incredible riches, romance, and happy endings. This abundantly illustrated account is the first by a historian to explain why and how so many Americans sought out such cultural engagement with the Eastern world long before geopolitical concerns became paramount.
Choosing Craftexplores the history and practice of American craft through the words of influential artists whose lives, work, and ideas have shaped the field. Editors Vicki Halper and Diane Douglas construct an anecdotal narrative that examines the post-World War II development of modern craft, which came of age alongside modernist painting and sculpture and was greatly influenced by them as well as by traditional and industrial practices. The anthology is organized according to four activities that ground a professional life in craft--inspiration, training, economics, and philosophy. Halper and Douglas mined a wide variety of sources for their material, including artists' published writings, letters, journal entries, exhibition statements, lecture notes, and oral histories. The detailed record they amassed reveals craft's dynamic relationships with painting, sculpture, design, industry, folk and ethnic traditions, hobby craft, and political and social movements. Collectively, these reflections form a social history of craft. Choosing Craftultimately offers artists' writings and recollections as vital and vivid data that deserve widespread study as a primary resource for those interested in the American art form.
By the end of World War I, the skyrocketing divorce rate in the United States had generated a deep-seated anxiety about marriage. This fear drove middle-class couples to seek advice, both professional and popular, in order to strengthen their relationships. InMaking Marriage Work, historian Kristin Celello offers an insightful and wide-ranging account of marriage and divorce in America in the twentieth century, focusing on the development of the idea of marriage as "work. " Examining the marriage counseling profession, advice columns in women's magazines, movies, and television shows, Celello describes how professionals and the public worked together to define the nature of marital work throughout the twentieth century. She also demonstrates that the maxim of "working at marriage" often masked important inequalities in regard to men's and women's roles within marriage. Most experts, for instance, assumed that women needed marriage more than men and thus held wives accountable for marital success or failure. Making Marriage Workpresents a new interpretation of married life in the United States, illuminating the interaction of marriage and divorce over the century and revealing how the idea that marriage requires work became part of Americans' collective consciousness.
The Land Has Memory: Indigenous Knowledge, Native Landscapes, and the National Museum of the American Indianby Duane Blue Spruce
In the heart of Washington, D. C. , a centuries-old landscape has come alive in the twenty-first century through a re-creation of the natural environment as the region's original peoples might have known it. Unlike most landscapes that surround other museums on the National Mall, the natural environment around the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) is itself a living exhibit, carefully created to reflect indigenous ways of thinking about the land and its uses. Abundantly illustrated,The Land Has Memoryoffers beautiful images of the museum's natural environment in every season as well as the uniquely designed building itself. Essays by Smithsonian staff and others involved in the museum's creation provide an examination of indigenous peoples' long and varied relationship to the land in the Americas, an account of the museum designers' efforts to reflect traditional knowledge in the creation of individual landscape elements, detailed descriptions of the 150 native plant species used, and an exploration of how the landscape changes seasonally. The Land Has Memoryserves not only as an attractive and informative keepsake for museum visitors, but also as a thoughtful representation of how traditional indigenous ways of knowing can be put into practice.
American religious pacifism is usually explained in terms of its practitioners' ethical and philosophical commitments. Patricia Appelbaum argues that Protestant pacifism, which constituted the religious center of the large-scale peace movement in the United States after World War I, is best understood as a culture that developed dynamically in the broader context of American religious, historical, and social currents. Exploring piety, practice, and material religion, Appelbaum describes a surprisingly complex culture of Protestant pacifism expressed through social networks, iconography, vernacular theology, individual spiritual practice, storytelling, identity rituals, and cooperative living. Between World War I and the Vietnam War, she contends, a paradigm shift took place in the Protestant pacifist movement. Pacifism moved from a mainstream position to a sectarian and marginal one, from an embrace of modernity to skepticism about it, and from a Christian center to a purely pacifist one, with an informal, flexible theology. The book begins and ends with biographical profiles of two very different pacifists, Harold Gray and Marjorie Swann. Their stories distill the changing religious culture of American pacifism revealed inKingdom to Commune.
Bird lovers, take heart! While the birding literature is filled with tales of expert observers spotting rare species in exotic locales, John Yow's The Armchair Birder reminds us that the most fascinating birds can be the ones perched right outside our windows. In thirty-five engaging, humorous, and even irreverent essays, Yow reveals the fascinating lives of birds you probably already recognize and naturally want to know more about--because they're the ones you see nearly every day. Following the seasons of the year, Yow covers forty-two species, from the Carolina wren that rings in the springtime to the sandhill crane croaking high overhead at the end of winter. Leisurely and entertaining, the essays explore the improbable, unusual, and comical aspects of their subjects' lives--from the philandering of the ruby-throated hummingbird to the occasional dipsomania of the cedar waxwing. Rather than bare facts and field marks, The Armchair Birder offers observations, anecdotes, and stories--not only Yow's own, but also those of America's classic bird writers, such as John James Audubon, Arthur Bent, and Edward Forbush, experts who saw it all and wrote with wit and passion. With The Armchair Birder, backyard birders will take new delight in the birds at their feeders, while veteran check-listers will enjoy putting their feet up. All will applaud this unique addition to bird literature, one that combines the fascination of bird life with the pleasure of good reading.
Like many black school principals, Ulysses Byas, who served the Gainesville, Georgia, school system in the 1950s and 1960s, was reverently addressed by community members as "Professor." He kept copious notes and records throughout his career, documenting efforts to improve the education of blacks. Through conversations with Byas and access to his extensive archives on his principalship, Vanessa Siddle Walker finds that black principals were well positioned in the community to serve as conduits of ideas, knowledge, and tools to support black resistance to officially sanctioned regressive educational systems in the Jim Crow South. Walker explains that principals participated in local, regional, and national associations, comprising a black educational network through which power structures were formed and ideas were spread to schools across the South. The professor enabled local school empowerment and applied the collective wisdom of the network to pursue common school projects such as pressuring school superintendents for funding, structuring professional development for teachers, and generating local action that was informed by research in academic practice. The professor was uniquely positioned to learn about and deploy resources made available through these networks. Walker's record of the transfer of ideology from black organizations into a local setting illuminates the remembered activities of black schools throughout the South and recalls for a new generation the role of the professor in uplifting black communities.
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