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Advances in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution over the past several years have greatly expanded opportunities for practical applications of remote sensing data. To explore the implications of these possibilities, the NRC held a series of three workshops on different facets of remote sensing applications. This report is on the third of those workshops: the development and use of remote sensing data and information by state, local, and regional governments. The steering committee was asked to examine the opportunities, potential challenges, and policy issues associated with the application of remote sensing data in the public sector including approaches and procedures for government agencies to use such data and barriers to development and use of the applications. The resulting report is addressed primarily to non-technical managers and decisions makers at all levels of government below the federal level.
Virtually all of the growth in the world’s population for the foreseeable future will take place in the cities and towns of the developing world. Over the next twenty years, most developing countries will for the first time become more urban than rural. The benefits from urbanization cannot be overlooked, but the speed and sheer scale of this transformation present many challenges. A new cast of policy makers is emerging to take up the many responsibilities of urban governance—as many national governments decentralize and devolve their functions, programs in poverty, health, education, and public services are increasingly being deposited in the hands of untested municipal and regional governments. Demographers have been surprisingly slow to devote attention to the implications of the urban transformation. Drawing from a wide variety of data sources, many of them previously inaccessible, Cities Transformed explores the implications of various urban contexts for marriage, fertility, health, schooling, and children’s lives. It should be of interest to all involved in city-level research, policy, planning, and investment decisions.
Accurate and timely environmental information can provide a tactical advantage to U. S. naval forces during warfare. This report analyzes the current environmental information system used by the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps and recommends ways to address uncertainty and leverage network-centric operating principles to enhance the value of environmental information.
The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.
The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containmentby Forum on Emerging Infections
The resistance topic is timely given current events. The emergence of mysterious new diseases, such as SARS, and the looming threat of bioterrorist attacks remind us of how vulnerable we can be to infectious agents. With advances in medical technologies, we have tamed many former microbial foes, yet with few new antimicrobial agents and vaccines in the pipeline, and rapidly increasing drug resistance among infectious microbes, we teeter on the brink of loosing the upperhand in our ongoing struggle against these foes, old and new. "The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors examines our understanding of the relationships among microbes, disease vectors, and human hosts, and explores possible new strategies for meeting the challenge of resistance.
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for apparently healthy people. This volume is the second of two reports in the DRI series aimed at providing specific guidance on the appropriate uses of the DRIs. The first report provided guidance on appropriate methods for using DRIs in dietary assessment. This volume builds on the statistical foundations of the assessment report to provide specific guidance on how to use the appropriate DRIs in planning diets for individuals and for groups. Dietary planning, whether for an individual or a group, involves developing a diet that is nutritionally adequate without being excessive. The planning goal for individuals is to achieve recommended and adequate nutrient intakes using food-based guides. For group planning, the report presents a new approach based on considering the entire distribution of usual nutrient intakes rather than focusing on the mean intake of the group. The report stresses that dietary planning using the DRIs is a cyclical activity that involves assessment, planning, implementation, and reassessment.
The Role Of Scientific And Technical Data And Information In The Public Domain: Proceedings Of A Symposiumby Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain Steering Committee International Scientific and Technical Information Programs Office National Research Council Staff
This symposium brought together leading experts and managers from the public and private sectors who are involved in the creation, dissemination, and use of scientific and technical data and information (STI) to: (1) describe and discuss the role and the benefits and costs--both economic and other--of the public domain in STI in the research and education context, (2) to identify and analyze the legal, economic, and technological pressures on the public domain in STI in research and education, (3) describe and discuss existing and proposed approaches to preserving the public domain in STI in the United States, and (4) identify issues that may require further analysis.
Satellite Observations of the Earth's Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operationsby Committee on NASA- NOAA Transition from Research to Operations
This report addresses the transition of research satellites, instruments, and calculations into operational service for accurately observing and predicting the Earth’s environment. These transitions, which take place in large part between NASA and NOAA, are important for maintaining the health, safety, and prosperity of the nation, and for achieving the vision of an Earth Information System in which quantitative information about the complete Earth system is readily available to myriad users. Many transitions have been ad hoc, sometimes taking several years or even decades to occur, and others have encountered roadblocks—lack of long-range planning, resources, institutional or cultural differences, for instance—and never reached fruition. Satellite Observations of Earth’s Environment recommends new structures and methods that will allow seamless transitions from research to practice.
The number of hazardous waste sites across the United States has grown to approximately 217,000, with billions of cubic yards of soil, sediment, and groundwater plumes requiring remediation. Sites contaminated with recalcitrant contaminants or with complex hydrogeological features have proved to be a significant challenge to cleanup on every level—technologically, financially, legally, and sociopolitically. Like many federal agencies, the Navy is a responsible party with a large liability in hazardous waste sites. Environmental Cleanup at Navy Facilitites applies the concepts of adaptive management to complex, high-risk hazardous waste sites that are typical of the military, EPA, and other responsible parties. The report suggests ways to make forward progress at sites with recalcitrant contamination that have stalled prior to meeting cleanup goals. This encompasses more rigorous data collection and analysis, consideration of alternative treatment technologies, and comprehensive long-term stewardship.
Weaving a National Map draws on contributions to a September 2002 workshop and the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) "vision" document for The National Map, envisioned by the USGS as a database providing public domain core geographic data about the United States and its territories that other agencies can extend, enhance, and reference as they concentrate on maintaining other data that are unique to their needs. The demand for up-to-date information in real time for public welfare and safety informs this need to update an aging paper map series that is, on average, 23 years old. The NRC report describes how "The National Map initiative would gain from improved definition so that the unprecedented number of partners needed for success will become energized to participate. The challenges faced by USGS in implementing "The National Map are more organizational than technical. To succeed, the USGS will need to continue to learn from challenges encountered in its ongoing pilot studies as well as from other federal-led programs that have partnered with multiple sectors.
Decades of evolving U.S. policy have led to three sectors providing weather services--NOAA (primarily the National Weather Service [NWS]), academic institutions, and private companies. This three-sector system has produced a scope and diversity of weather services in the United States second to none. However, rapid scientific and technological change is changing the capabilities of the sectors and creating occasional friction. Fair Weather: Effective Partnerships in Weather and Climate Services examines the roles of the three sectors in providing weather and climate services, the barriers to interaction among the sectors, and the impact of scientific and technological advances on the weather enterprise. Readers from all three sectors will be interested in the analysis and recommendations provided in Fair Weather.
This book, also based on a workshop, assesses the current state of chemistry and chemical engineering at the interface with novel and existing forms of energy and transportation systems. The book also identifies challenges for the chemical sciences in helping to meet the increased demand for more energy, and opportunities for research in energy technologies and in the development of transportation vehicles.
The report provides an independent assessment of suitable test protocols that might be useful and reliable for the testing and evaluation of standoff chemical agent detectors. The report proposes two testing protocols, one for passive detectors and one for active detectors, to help ensure the reliable detection of a release of chemical warfare agents. The report determined that testing these detectors by release of chemical warfare agents into the atmosphere would not provide additional useful information on the effectiveness of these detectors than would a rigorous testing protocol using chemical agents in the laboratory combined with atmospheric release of simulated chemical warfare agents.
This report of the National Research Council examines the possibilities and promises of increased interaction between the geospatial and computer science research communities for capitalizing on the increasing complexity and diversity of georeferenced data. The goals of the report are to encourage the performance, accessibility, and usability of geospatial information; to identify how geospatial applications might influence computer science research; and to identify new geospatial applications made possible by recent advancements in computer science. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc. , Portland, OR (booknews. com)
This book identifies accumulated environmental, social and economic effects of oil and gas leasing, exploration, and production on Alaska's North Slope. Economic benefits to the region have been accompanied by effects of the roads, infrastructure and activies of oil and gas production on the terrain, plants, animals and peoples of the North Slope. While attempts by the oil industry and regulatory agencies have reduced many of the environmental effects, they have not been eliminated. The book makes recommendations for further environmental research related to environmental effects.
Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtableby Chemical Sciences Roundtable
Innovation, the process by which fundamental research becomes a commercial product, is increasingly important in the chemical sciences and is changing the nature of research and development efforts in the United States. The workshop was held in response to requests to speed the R&D process and to rapidly evolve the patterns of interaction among industry, academe, and national laboratories. The report contains the authors' written version of the workshop presentations along with audience reaction.
Frontiers of Engineering: Reports on Leading-edge Engineering from the 2002 NAE Symposium on Frontiers of Engineeringby National Academy of Engineering Staff
This collection includes summaries of presentations given at the NAE Symposium in September 2002. Topics include chemical and molecular engineering in the 21st century, human factors engineering, the future of nuclear energy, and engineering challenges for quantum information technology.
Accurate prediction of convective storms 2- to 6-hours in advance is critical to selecting air traffic routes with minimal weather delays or diversions. This report summarizes the discussions of a workshop to explore present convective weather forecasting skill, strategies for improving that skill, ways to verify forecasts are accurate, and how to make forecasts useful to air traffic controllers, airline dispatchers, and pilots.
Science And The Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration: An Assessment Of The Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiativeby Panel to Review the Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative
The book reviews a U.S. Department of the Interior research program, finding that it provides key information to support the restoration of the Florida Everglades and to better assess the impact of hydrologic change on the ecosystem. However, the program needs more funding, better management and broader distribution of its findings. The book suggests that strategic investments in Everglades research will increase the chances of reaching restoration goals while reducing overall costs.
A Shared Destiny is the fourth in a series of six reports on the problems of uninsurance in the United States. This report examines how the quality, quantity, and scope of community health services can be adversely affected by having a large or growing uninsured population. It explores the overlapping financial and organizational basis of health services delivery to uninsured and insured populations, the effects of community uninsurance on access to health care locally, and the potential spillover effects on a community’s economy and the health of its citizens. The committee believes it is both mistaken and dangerous to assume that the persistence of a sizable uninsured population in the United States harms only those who are uninsured.
National expenditures for medical care in the months and days preceding death are enormous. But we do not know whether that money is buying good quality care or optimizing the quality of life of those dying, or whether the situation is getting better or worse over time. The information that exists "describing death" at a national level--though some of it is very informative--is fragmentary. This report recommends ways to fill the information gaps by better use of existing nationally-representative data, and through some new measures, in particular, a new, ongoing National Mortality Followback Survey. The aim is to allow us to benchmark where we are today as a society, and what goals we can set to minimize pain and suffering and maximize the quality of life of all of us who will die in the years to come.
The Institute of Medicine study Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001) recommended that an interdisciplinary summit be held to further reform of health professions education in order to enhance quality and patient safety. Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality is the follow up to that summit, held in June 2002, where 150 participants across disciplines and occupations developed ideas about how to integrate a core set of competencies into health professions education. These core competencies include patient-centered care, interdisciplinary teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and informatics. This book recommends a mix of approaches to health education improvement, including those related to oversight processes, the training environment, research, public reporting, and leadership. Educators, administrators, and health professionals can use this book to help achieve an approach to education that better prepares clinicians to meet both the needs of patients and the requirements of a changing health care system.
This study identifies research opportunities for storage, recycle, reuse, or disposal of nuclear materials and spent nuclear fuel. Most of the materials dealt with in this report have not been declared as waste. The report completes the fifth in a series of studies requested by the EMSP to assist in developing its calls for proposals and evaluating proposals on this issue. There is no subject index. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc. , Portland, OR (booknews. com)
This sourcebook is the result of a collective work jointly undertaken by the College of Development Communication of the University of Los Baäos, the Philippines, and FAO Communication for Development Group, in their effort to support collaborative natural resources management in agriculture in Cambodia. This sourcebook is intended to be ready reference material for communication specialists and facilitators organizing training and capability building in communication for development as a strategic component of sustainable natural resource management and rural livelihood initiatives
The report assesses the current state of chemistry and chemical engineering within the context of drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and disease prevention. Also addressed are chemical and chemical engineering challenges in pharmaceutical synthesis, delivery, and manufacture.
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