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From Monsoons to Microbes: Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health

by National Research Council

What can sharks teach us about our immune system? What can horseshoe crabs show us about eyesight?The more we learn about the ocean, the more we realize how critical these vast bodies of water are to our health and well-being. Sometimes the ocean helps us, as when a marine organism yields a new medical treatment. At other times, the ocean poses the threat of coastal storm surges or toxic algal blooms.From Monsoons to Microbes offers a deeper look into the oceans that surround us, often nuturing yet sometimes harming humankind. This book explores the links among physical oceanography, public health, epidemiology, marine biology, and medicine in understanding what the ocean has to offer. It will help readers grasp such important points as: How the ocean's sweeping physical processes create long-term phenomena such as El Nino and short-term disastrous events such as tsunamis--including what communities can do to prepare.What medicines and nutritional products have come from the ocean and what the prospects are for more such discoveries.How estuaries work--where salt and fresh water meet--and what can go wrong, as in the 7,000 square mile "dead zone" at the out-flow of the Mississippi River.How the growing demand for seafood and the expansion of ocean-going transport has increased our exposure to infectious agents--and how these agents can be tracked down and fought.Why "red tides" of toxic algae suddenly appear in previously unaffected coastal areas, and what happens when algal toxins find their way into our food supply or the air we breathe. The book recommends ways we can implement exciting new technologies to monitor the physics, chemistry, and biology of the ocean to recognize change as it happens. From the impact of worldwide atmospheric warming to the significance of exotic bacteria from submarine hydrothermal vents, the ocean has many depths left to explore.

Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment

by Institute of Medicine

Injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among people under age 35 in the United States. Despite great strides in injury prevention over the decades, injuries result in 150,000 deaths, 2.6 million hospitalizations, and 36 million visits to the emergency room each year.Reducing the Burden of Injury describes the cost and magnitude of the injury problem in America and looks critically at the current response by the public and private sectors, including: Data and surveillance needs.Research priorities.Trauma care systems development.Infrastructure support, including training for injury professionals.Firearm safety.Coordination among federal agencies. The authors define the field of injury and establish boundaries for the field regarding intentional injuries. This book highlights the crosscutting nature of the injury field, identifies opportunities to leverage resources and expertise of the numerous parties involved, and discusses issues regarding leadership at the federal level.

BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: Forging Partnerships with Community-Based Drug and Alcohol Treatment

by Committee on Community-Based Drug Treatment

Today, most substance abuse treatment is administered by community-based organizations. If providers could readily incorporate the most recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of addiction and treatment, the treatment would be much more effective and efficient. The gap between research findings and everyday treatment practice represents an enormous missed opportunity at this exciting time in this field.Informed by real-life experiences in addiction treatment including workshops and site visits, Bridging the Gap Between Practice and Research examines why research remains remote from treatment and makes specific recommendations to community providers, federal and state agencies, and other decisionmakers. The book outlines concrete strategies for building and disseminating knowledge about addiction; for linking research, policy development, and everyday treatment implementation; and for helping drug treatment consumers become more informed advocates.In candid language, the committee discusses the policy barriers and the human attitudes--the stigma, suspicion, and skepticism--that often hinder progress in addiction treatment. The book identifies the obstacles to effective collaboration among the research, treatment, and policy sectors; evaluates models to address these barriers; and looks in detail at the issue from the perspective of the community-based provider and the researcher.

Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach

by National Research Council

During recent years, large-scale investigations into global climate change and other highly visible issues have taken the lion's share of declining research funds. At the same time, funding for basic research in such core disciplines as physical oceanography, biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, and marine geology has dwindled.Global Ocean Science examines how the largest U.S. ocean research programs, such as the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), have significantly contributed to our understanding of the oceans. The book examines the impact of these programs on research, education, and collegiality within this diverse scientific community and offers recommendations to help ensure a vital future for ocean science, including:Specific results of the programs such as data collected, conceptual breakthroughs, information published, demonstrable use of program products, incorporation of new knowledge into education, and contribution to policymaking and decisionmaking by federal agencies.Mechanisms for efficiently identifying knowledge gaps and research questions, strategic planning of research programs, managing competitive proposals, securing needed resources, and more.This practical book will be welcomed by ocean investigators, users of oceanographic research findings, policymakers, administrators, educators, and students.

Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives

by National Research Council

Spending on K-12 education across the United States and across local school districts has long been characterized by great disparities--disparities that reflect differences in property wealth and tax rates. For more than a quarter-century, reformers have attempted to reduce these differences through court challenges and legislative action. As part of a broad study of education finance, the committee commissioned eight papers examining the history and consequences of school finance reform undertaken in the name of equity and adequacy. This thought-provoking, timely collection of papers explores such topics as: What do the terms "equity" and "adequacy" in school finance really mean?How are these terms relevant to the politics and litigation of school finance reform?What is the impact of court-ordered school finance reform on spending disparities?How do school districts use money from finance reform?What policy options are available to states facing new challenges from court decisions mandating adequacy in school finance?When measuring adequacy, how do you consider differences in student needs and regional costs?

Living on an ACTIVE Earth: Perspectives on Earthquake Science

by Committee on the Science of Earthquakes

The destructive force of earthquakes has stimulated human inquiry since ancient times, yet the scientific study of earthquakes is a surprisingly recent endeavor. Instrumental recordings of earthquakes were not made until the second half of the 19th century, and the primary mechanism for generating seismic waves was not identified until the beginning of the 20th century.From this recent start, a range of laboratory, field, and theoretical investigations have developed into a vigorous new discipline: the science of earthquakes. As a basic science, it provides a comprehensive understanding of earthquake behavior and related phenomena in the Earth and other terrestrial planets. As an applied science, it provides a knowledge base of great practical value for a global society whose infrastructure is built on the Earth's active crust.This book describes the growth and origins of earthquake science and identifies research and data collection efforts that will strengthen the scientific and social contributions of this exciting new discipline.

From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families

by Adjustment of Immigrant Families Committee on the Health

Immigrant children and youth are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and so their prospects bear heavily on the well-being of the country. However, relevant public policy is shaped less by informed discussion than by politicized contention over welfare reform and immigration limits.From Generation to Generation explores what we know about the development of white, black, Hispanic, and Asian children and youth from numerous countries of origin. Describing the status of immigrant children and youth as "severely understudied," the committee both draws on and supplements existing research to characterize the current status and outlook of immigrant children.The book discusses the many factors--family size, fluency in English, parent employment, acculturation, delivery of health and social services, and public policies--that shape the outlook for the lives of these children and youth. The committee makes recommendations for improved research and data collection designed to advance knowledge about these children and, as a result, their visibility in current policy debates.

America's Children: Health Insurance and Access to Care

by Committee on Children Health Insurance Access To Care

America's Children is a comprehensive, easy-to-read analysis of the relationship between health insurance and access to care. The book addresses three broad questions: How is children's health care currently financed? Does insurance equal access to care? How should the nation address the health needs of this vulnerable population?America's Children explores the changing role of Medicaid under managed care; state-initiated and private sector children's insurance programs; specific effects of insurance status on the care children receive; and the impact of chronic medical conditions and special health care needs. It also examines the status of "safety net" health providers, including community health centers, children's hospitals, school-based health centers, and others and reviews the changing patterns of coverage and tax policy options to increase coverage of private-sector, employer-based health insurance.In response to growing public concerns about uninsured children, last year Congress voted to provide $24 billion over five years for new state insurance initiatives. This volume will serve as a primer for concerned federal policymakers and regulators, state agency officials, health plan decisionmakers, health care providers, children's health advocates, and researchers.

HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide

by Chuck Musciano Bill Kennedy

HTML and its XML-based descendant, XHTML, are the fundamental languages for working on the web, and the new edition of our popular HTML guide offers web developers a better way to become fluent in these languages. HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide, 5th Edition is the most comprehensive, up-to-date book available on HTML and XHTML. It covers Netscape Navigator 6, Internet Explorer 6, HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0, CSS2, and all of the features supported by the popular web browsers. Learning HTML and XHTML is like learning any new language. Most students first immerse themselves in examples. Studying others is a natural way to learn; however, it's as easy to learn bad habits through imitation as it is to acquire good ones. The better way to become HTML-fluent is through a comprehensive reference that covers the language syntax, semantics, and variations in detail and demonstrates the difference between good and bad usage. In HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide, the authors cover every element of HTML/XHTML in detail, explaining how each element works and how it interacts with other elements. Tips about HTML/XHTML style help you write documents ranging from simple online documentation to complex presentations. With hundreds of examples, the book gives you models for writing your own effective web pages and for mastering advanced features like style sheets and frames. HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide, 5th Edition, shows how to: Use style sheets to control a document's appearance Work with programmatically generated HTML Create tables, from simple to complex Use frames to coordinate sets of documents Design and build interactive forms and dynamic documents Insert images, sound files, video, Java applets, and JavaScript programs Create documents that look good on a variety of browsers Make the transition to XHTML The book comes with a handy quick-reference card listing HTML/XHTML tags.

Ensuring Safe Food From Production to Consumption

by Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption

How safe is our food supply? Each year the media report what appears to be growing concern related to illness caused by the food consumed by Americans. These food borne illnesses are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, pesticide residues, and food additives. Recent actions taken at the federal, state, and local levels in response to the increase in reported incidences of food borne illnesses point to the need to evaluate the food safety system in the United States. This book assesses the effectiveness of the current food safety system and provides recommendations on changes needed to ensure an effective science-based food safety system. Ensuring Safe Food discusses such important issues as:What are the primary hazards associated with the food supply? What gaps exist in the current system for ensuring a safe food supply? What effects do trends in food consumption have on food safety? What is the impact of food preparation and handling practices in the home, in food services, or in production operations on the risk of food borne illnesses? What organizational changes in responsibility or oversight could be made to increase the effectiveness of the food safety system in the United States?Current concerns associated with microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards in the food supply are discussed. The book also considers how changes in technology and food processing might introduce new risks. Recommendations are made on steps for developing a coordinated, unified system for food safety. The book also highlights areas that need additional study. Ensuring Safe Food will be important for policymakers, food trade professionals, food producers, food processors, food researchers, public health professionals, and consumers.

Trust in Cyberspace

by National Research Council

Whether or not you use a computer, you probably use a telephone, electric power, and a bank. Although you may not be aware of their presence, networked computer systems are increasingly becoming an integral part of your daily life. Yet, if such systems perform poorly or don't work at all, then they can put life, liberty, and property at tremendous risk. Is the trust that we--as individuals and as a society--are placing in networked computer systems justified? And if it isn't, what can we do to make such systems more trustworthy?This book provides an assessment of the current state of the art procedures for building trustworthy networked information systems. It proposes directions for research in computer and network security, software technology, and system architecture. In addition, the book assesses current technical and market trends in order to better inform public policy as to where progress is likely and where incentives could help. Trust in Cyberspace offers insights into:--The strengths and vulnerabilities of the telephone network and Internet, the two likely building blocks of any networked information system.--The interplay between various dimensions of trustworthiness: environmental disruption, operator error, "buggy" software, and hostile attack.--The implications for trustworthiness of anticipated developments in hardware and software technology, including the consequences of mobile code.--The shifts in security technology and research resulting from replacing centralized mainframes with networks of computers.--The heightened concern for integrity and availability where once only secrecy mattered.--The way in which federal research funding levels and practices have affected the evolution and current state of the science and technology base in this area.You will want to read this book if your life is touched in any way by computers or telecommunications. But then, whose life isn't?

DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: FOR Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline

by Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes its Panel on Folate Other B Vitamins Choline Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients

Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach--the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.This volume of the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group--from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses: Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people. This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.

Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America

by National Research Council

America's cities have symbolized the nation's prosperity, dynamism, and innovation. Even with the trend toward suburbanization, many central cities attract substantial new investment and employment. Within this profile of health, however, many urban areas are beset by problems of economic disparity, physical deterioration, and social distress.This volume addresses the condition of the city from the perspective of the larger metropolitan region. It offers important, thought-provoking perspectives on the structure of metropolitan-level decisionmaking, the disadvantages faced by cities and city residents, and expanding economic opportunity to all residents in a metropolitan area. The book provides data, real-world examples, and analyses in key areas: Distribution of metropolitan populations and what this means for city dwellers, suburbanites, whites, and minorities.How quality of life depends on the spatial structure of a community and how problems are based on inequalities in spatialopportunity--with a focus on the relationship between taxes and services.The role of the central city today, the rationale for revitalizing central cities, and city-suburban interdependence. The book includes papers that provide in-depth examinations of zoning policy in relation to patterns of suburban development; regionalism in transportation and air quality; the geography of economic and social opportunity; social stratification in metropolitan areas; and fiscal and service disparities within metropolitan areas.

Statistics, Testing, and Defense Acquisition: New Approaches and Methodological Improvements

by Michael L. Cohen Duane L. Steffey John E. Rolph

For every weapons system being developed, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) must make a critical decision: Should the system go forward to full-scale production? The answer to that question may involve not only tens of billions of dollars but also the nation's security and military capabilities. In the milestone process used by DOD to answer the basic acquisition question, one component near the end of the process is operational testing, to determine if a system meets the requirements for effectiveness and suitability in realistic battlefield settings. Problems discovered at this stage can cause significant production delays and can necessitate costly system redesign.This book examines the milestone process, as well as the DOD's entire approach to testing and evaluating defense systems. It brings to the topic of defense acquisition the application of scientific statistical principles and practices.

Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants

by National Research Council

This book presents a comprehensive, up-to-date review of technologies for cleaning up contaminants in groundwater and soil. It provides a special focus on three classes of contaminants that have proven very difficult to treat once released to the subsurface: metals, radionuclides, and dense nonaqueous-phase liquids such as chlorinated solvents.Groundwater and Soil Cleanup was commissioned by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of its program to clean up contamination in the nuclear weapons production complex. In addition to a review of remediation technologies, the book describes new trends in regulation of contaminated sites and assesses DOE's program for developing new subsurface cleanup technologies.

Protecting Nuclear Weapons Material In Russia

by National Research Council Staff Office of International Affairs Staff

The management challenge in orchestrating a multitude of DOE headquarters, laboratory, and contractor personnel at about 50 sites in Russia is daunting. Steps are needed to maximize the return on U.S. expenditures, to reduce redundancy while ensuring adequate oversight, and to provide additional work incentives that will attract highly qualified specialists from the United States and Russia to participate in the protection, control, and accountability of direct-use material (MPC&A) program. This report contains many recommendations to address these and related issues.

Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance

by National Research Council Institute of Medicine

Immigrant children and youth are the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population, and so their prospects bear heavily on the well-being of the country. Children of Immigrants represents some of the very best and most extensive research efforts to date on the circumstances, health, and development of children in immigrant families and the delivery of health and social services to these children and their families.This book presents new, detailed analyses of more than a dozen existing datasets that constitute a large share of the national system for monitoring the health and well-being of the U.S. population. Prior to these new analyses, few of these datasets had been used to assess the circumstances of children in immigrant families. The analyses enormously expand the available knowledge about the physical and mental health status and risk behaviors, educational experiences and outcomes, and socioeconomic and demographic circumstances of first- and second-generation immigrant children, compared with children with U.S.-born parents.

Risk-Based Waste Classification in California

by Committee on Risk-Based Criteria for Non-RCRA Hazardous Waste

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

DocBook 5: The Definitive Guide

by Richard L. Hamilton Norman Walsh

If you need a reliable tool for technical documentation, this clear and concise reference will help you take advantage of DocBook, the popular XML schema originally developed to document computer and hardware projects. DocBook 5.0 has been expanded and simplified to address documentation needs in other fields, and it's quickly becoming the tool of choice for many content providers. DocBook 5: The Definitive Guide is the complete, official documentation of DocBook 5.0. You'll find everything you need to know to use DocBook 5.0's features-including its improved content model-whether you're new to DocBook or an experienced user of previous versions. Learn how to write DocBook XML documents Understand DocBook 5.0's elements and attributes, and how they fit together Determine whether your documents conform to the DocBook schema Learn about options for publishing DocBook to various output formats Customize the DocBook schema to meet your needs Get additional information about DocBook editing and processing

CSS Cookbook

by Christopher Schmitt

What people are saying about CSS Cookbook "Christopher's fantastic cookbook will give you solutions to pretty much all of the CSS problems you'll come up against in your day-to-day web design work, saving you bags of time and frustration. This guy is one of the industry's brightest minds -- he really knows his stuff." --Chris Mills, Opera SoftwareLearn how to solve the real problems you face with CSS. This cookbook offers hundreds of practical examples for using CSS to format your web pages, and includes code samples you can use right away. You'll find exactly what you need, from the basics to complex hacks and workarounds. Each recipe explains how to customize a solution to meet your needs, and each chapter features a sample design that showcases the topics discussed. You'll learn about the behavior of the latest browsers-including IE 8, Firefox 3, Safari 4, and Google Chrome-and how you can resolve differences in the ways they display your web pages. Arranged in a convenient format for quick reference, this third edition is a valuable companion for anyone working with CSS. Learn the basics, such as the CSS rule structure Work with web typography and page layout Create effects for images and other page elements Learn techniques for configuring lists, forms, and tables Design effective web navigation and create custom links Get creative by combining CSS with JavaScript Learn useful troubleshooting techniques Explore features of HTML5 and CSS3

The Unexpected Husband: Jury of His Peers, and Any Sunday

by Debbie Macomber

This two-in-one volume by a "New York Times" bestselling author features stories of two women who find love in unexpected places like a jury room and a doctor's office. Includes "Jury of His Peers" and "Any Sunday."

LED Lighting

by Sal Cangeloso

We're on the brink of a lighting revolution with light-emitting diodes--the tiny LEDs you've seen in electronic devices for years. With this practical guide, you'll go behind the scenes to see how and why manufacturers are now designing LED devices to light everything from homes and offices to streets and warehouses. Author Sal Cangeloso shows you the working parts of a "simple" LED bulb and explains the challenges electronics companies face as they push LED lighting into the mainstream. You'll learn how you can use LEDs now, and why solid state lighting will bring dramatic changes in the near future. Explore the drivers, phosphors, and integrated circuits in a typical LED bulb Understand the challenges in producing LED bulbs with acceptable brightness, color temperature, and power consumption Learn about non-bulb LED applications, including lamps, street lights, and signage Discover the market forces driving--and impeding--the adoption of LED lighting Compare LEDs to compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and electron-stimulated luminescence (ESL) bulbs Gaze into the future of intelligent lighting, including networked lighting systems

Google AdWords

by Anastasia Holdren

Do people really click the handful of text ads that accompany Google search results? Absolutely. Growth of Google AdWords continues to increase, as does online advertising in the United States. This book shows you how each piece of Google's advertising platform works, focusing on areas that impact the performance and cost of your ad campaigns. Learn how to create an AdWords account, and then dive into the particulars of setting up your first campaign, optimizing keywords, writing effective ads, and tracking conversions. Most advertisers don't understand how AdWords works. This book gives you an edge. Learn the advantages of proper account structure based on tightly knit themes Understand AdWords auction and the importance of keyword Quality Score Determine your preferred bidding model and daily ad budget Evaluate campaign performance by timeframe, keyword, and other criteria Hone your keyword list whenever search queries trigger your ads Add negative keywords to filter out irrelevant queries Outperform competitors and organic search results with targeted ad copy Determine conversion goals, and use AdWords tools to track them

Distributed Geolibraries: Spatial Information Resources Summary of a Workshop

by National Research Council

Presents the findings of the Workshop on Distributed Geolibraries: Spatial Information Resources, convened by the Mapping Science Committee of the National Research Council in June 1998

Twenty-Second Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics

by National Research Council

Conference held August 9-14, 1998 in Washington, D.C. Organized jointly by the Office of Naval Research, The NRC and the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division. Promotes the technical exchange of naval research developments of common interest to all the countries of the world.

Showing 42,376 through 42,400 of 70,972 results

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