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With the explosion of information on autophagy in cancer, this is an opportune time to speed the efforts to translate our current knowledge about autophagy regulation into better understanding of its role in cancer. This book will cover the latest advances in this area from the basics, such as the molecular machinery for autophagy induction and regulation, up to the current areas of interest such as modulation of autophagy and drug discovery for cancer prevention and treatment. The text will include an explanation on how autophagy can function in both oncogenesis and tumor suppression and a description of its function in tumor development and tumor suppression through its roles in cell survival, cell death, cell growth as well as its influences on inflammation, immunity, DNA damage, oxidative stress, tumor microenvironment, etc. The remaining chapters will cover topics on autophagy and cancer therapy. These pages will serve as a description on how the pro-survival function of autophagy may help cancer cells resist chemotherapy and radiation treatment as well as how the pro-death functions of autophagy may enhance cell death in response to cancer therapy, and how to target autophagy for cancer prevention and therapy -- what to target and how to target it.
This title will focus on the study of human interphase chromosomes and its relation to health and disease. Orchestrated organization and human genome function in interphase nuclei at the chromosomal level have been repeatedly shown to play a significant role in a variety of basic biological processes involved in realization and inheritance of genetic information within and between species. Current biomedical sciences of post-genomic era refocus basic and applied studies of interphase nuclei genetics and genomics with special attention to interphase chromosome behavior in health and disease. Additionally, related processes are a target of studies elucidating the role of interphase chromosome behavior during development, chromosome/DNA replication, DNA reparation etc. Studies of interphase nuclei have an appreciable impact on different areas of biomedical sciences such as cell biology, neurobiology, cancer research, developmental biology, epigenetics, cytogenetics, and medical genetics, as a whole. Moreover, development of innovative and emergent technologies to analyze interphase nuclei are closely associated with application of these techniques in clinical, diagnostic and research practice to solve reproductive problems (including infertility and spontaneous abortions), to investigate congenital malformations (including those produced by aneuploidy and other chromosome abnormalities); genetic diseases (including cardiac, immune, neurological and psychiatric diseases), and cancer. This title will serve as a source of new valuable information and promising ideas for a wide audience of professionals in biomedicine including researchers, scientists, and healthcare professionals in human genetics, cytogenetics, and developmental biology.
The turbulent year of 2011 has brought the appearance of mass popular unrest and the collapse of long lived autocratic regimes in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and possibly Syria. The sudden and unanticipated fall of these regimes - often thought of as exemplars of authoritarian resilience - has brought much of the conventional wisdom on the durability and vulnerability of nondemocratic regimes into question. This book seeks to advance the existing literature by treating the autocratic state not as a unitary actor characterized by strength or weakness but rather as a structure or terrain that can alternatively inhibit or facilitate the appearance of national level forms of protests. In the mode of the Arab Spring, the color revolutions of the former Soviet Union, and the people power movement of the Philippines, such movements overcome the daunting impediments presented by autocrats, appeal to likeminded counterparts across society, and overwhelm the ability of regimes to maintain order. Conversely, in other settings, such as contemporary China, decentralized state structures provide an inhospitable environment for national-level protest, leading collective actors to opt for more local and parochial forms of contention. This outcome produces paradoxical situations, such as in the PRC, where protests are frequent but national-level mobilization and coordination is absent.
The Handbook of Crisis Intervention and Developmental Disabilities synthesizes a substantive range of evidence-based research on clinical treatments as well as organizational processes and policy. This comprehensive resource examines the concept of behavioral crisis in children and adults with special needs and provides a data-rich trove of research-into-practice findings. Emphasizing continuum-of-care options and evidence-based best practices, the volume examines crisis interventions across diverse treatment settings, including public and private schools, nonacademic residential settings as well as outpatient and home-based programs. Key coverage includes: Assessment of problem behaviors.Co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disabilities.Family members' involvement in prevention and intervention.Intensive treatment in pediatric feeding disorders.Therapeutic restraint and protective holding.Effective evaluation of psychotropic drug effects. The Handbook of Crisis Intervention and Developmental Disabilities is a must-have resource for researchers, scientist-practitioners, and graduate students in clinical child, school, developmental, and counseling psychology, clinical social work, behavior therapy/analysis, and special education as well as other related professionals working across a continuum of service delivery settings.
Endocytosis and vesicular trafficking determine the landscape of the cell's exterior, namely the density of surface molecules, such as receptors for growth factors and cytokines, adhesion molecules like integrins and cadherins, and a plethora of nutrient carriers. Hence, endocytosis is involved in signal transduction, cell adhesion and migration, as well as metabolism. To exploit these fundamental processes, malignancies subtly and multiply manipulate the endocytosis and the subsequent trafficking of protein cargoes. This is achieved by simultaneously altering the cytoskeleton, vesicle budding, cargo sorting and intracellular degradation. By highlighting the underlying molecular processes and concentrating on specific examples, this book reviews the recent emergence of derailed endocytosis and vesicular trafficking as a landmark of cancer. In-depth understanding of this common feature of tumors might lead the way to drug-induced strategies, able to rectify intracellular trafficking in cancer.
Robotic Renal Surgery: Benign and Cancer Surgery for the Kidneys and Ureters provides a comprehensive review of the role of and technical considerations regarding robotic surgery for conditions of the kidney and associated conditions of the upper urinary tract. In addition to serving as a reference regarding indications, preoperative and postoperative management, complications, and evidence-based outcomes, this text also serves as a practical guide for surgeons in how to perform the complete array of robotic kidney and upper tract surgery. Included are detailed descriptions of positioning, instrumentation, and surgical steps for the surgeon newly adopting robotic surgery or for those refining their techniques. All chapters are written by recognized and published experts in the various techniques, creating an authoritative text on the subject. Robotic Renal Surgery: Benign and Cancer Surgery for the Kidneys and Ureters will be of great value to urologists, robotic surgeons, fellows in urologic oncology or endourology as well as urology residents in training and surgical nurses and other surgery team members involved in these procedures.
Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants--water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.
This book surveys the outstanding work of physical-layer (PHY) security, including the recent achievements of confidentiality and authentication for wireless communication systems by channel identification. A practical approach to building unconditional confidentiality for Wireless Communication security by feedback and error correcting code is introduced and a framework of PHY security based on space time block code (STBC) MIMO system is demonstrated. Also discussed is a scheme which combines cryptographic techniques implemented in the higher layer with the physical layer security approach using redundant antennas of MIMO systems to provide stronger security for wireless networks. The channel responses between communication peers have been explored as a form of fingerprint with spatial and temporal uniqueness. Finally, the book develops a new lightweight method of channel identification for Sybil attack and node clone detection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs).
Operations research tools are ideally suited to providing solutions and insights for the many problems health policy-maker's face. Indeed, a growing body of literature on health policy analysis, based on operations research methods, has emerged to address the problems mentioned above and several others. The research in this field is often multi-disciplinary, being conducted by teams that include not only operations researchers but also clinicians, economists and policy analysts. The research is also often very applied, focusing on a specific question driven by a decision-maker and many times yielding a tool to assist in future decisions. The goal of this volume was to bring together a group of papers by leading experts that could showcase the current state of the field of operations research applied to health-care policy. There are 18 chapters that illustrate the breadth of this field. The chapters use a variety of techniques, including classical operations research tools, such as optimization, queuing theory, and discrete event simulation, as well as statistics, epidemic models and decision-analytic models. The book spans the field and includes work that ranges from highly conceptual to highly applied. An example of the former is the chapter by Kimmel and Schackman on building policy models, and an example of the latter is the chapter by Coyle and colleagues on developing a Markov model for use by an organization in Ontario that makes recommendations about the funding of new drugs. The book also includes a mix of review chapters, such as the chapter by Hutton on public health response to influenza outbreaks, and original research, such as the paper by Blake and colleagues analyzing a decision by Canadian Blood Services to consolidate services. This volume could provide an excellent introduction to the field of operations research applied to health-care policy, and it could also serve as an introduction to new areas for researchers already familiar with the topic. The book is divided into six sections. The first section contains two chapters that describe several different applications of operations research in health policy and provide an excellent overview of the field. Sections 2 to 4 present policy models in three focused areas. Section 5 contains two chapters on conceptualizing and building policy models. The book concludes in Section 6 with two chapters describing work that was done with policy-makers and presenting insights gained from working directly with policy-makers.
In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association published the 5th edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Often referred to as the "bible" of psychiatry, the manual only classifies mental disorders and does not explain them or guide their treatment. While science should be the basis of any diagnostic system, to date, there is no knowledge on whether most conditions listed in the manual are true diseases. Moreover, in DSM-5 the overall definition of mental disorder is weak, failing to distinguish psychopathology from normality. In spite of all the progress that has been made in neuroscience over the last few decades, the psychiatric community is no closer to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of mental disorders than it was fifty years ago. In Making the DSM-5, prominent experts delve into the debate about psychiatric nosology and examine the conceptual and pragmatic issues underlying the new manual. While retracing the historic controversy over DSM, considering the political context and economic impact of the manual, and focusing on what was revised or left unchanged in the new edition, this timely volume addresses the main concerns of the future of psychiatry and questions whether the DSM legacy can truly improve the specialty and advance its goals.
Recent evidence demonstrates that normal prostate tissue contains stem cells. There is also accumulating evidence that prostate cancer contains a population of cells with stem cell-like characteristics referred to as cancer stem cells, or tumor initiating cells. Both the normal prostate stem cell and cancer stem cell populations have important implications for the generation, therapeutic targeting, and prevention of prostate cancer. The purpose of this book is to explore the role of stem cells in prostate cancer, which is becoming an increasingly hot trend in cancer research.
The prerequisite to investigating the underlying causes behind mass extinction is a profound understanding of the evolutionary history of both living and dead species. It is especially important to appreciate the significance of such studies in extinct organisms; especially in organisms that were abundant in a certain geologic era, but have subsequently dwindled or become extinct. Such studies should help to accurately evaluate patterns of evolution in extinct species lineages and help predict the same in its modern analogs. The book includes cutting edge research in evolutionary biology that should serve as a starting point for conservation.
This book describes an alternative method of realizing accurate on-chip frequency references in standard CMOS processes. This method exploits the thermal-diffusivity of silicon, i.e. the rate at which heat diffuses through a silicon substrate. This is the first book describing the design of such electrothermal frequency references. It includes the necessary theory, supported by practical realizations that achieve inaccuracies as low as 0.1% and thus demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The book also includes several circuit and system-level solutions to the precision circuit design challenges encountered during the design of such frequency references.
When a spirited young Southerner travels to London on a secret mission, she captures the attention--and the heart--of a Viscount who is searching for a Confederate spy.
Serena Allen has taken refuge at her uncle's country house ever since a scandalous seduction left her reputation in tatters. But her aunt has never given up hope of making a match for her and is delighted when the handsome, aristocratic Julien Clermont arrives at Boulton Park expressing an interest in the earl's famous butterfly collection-and interest of a different kind in Serena. Serena herself views the guest with misgivings. Can a man be too charming? And can it be coincidence that important foreign documents entrusted to the earl have begun to disappear and reappear in odd places?Julien is indeed on a top-secret-and personal-mission, one that prevents him from disclosing his real identity to Serena. But the truth will out, and with it comes a devilish choice-betray the lovely, quick-witted woman who has won his heart, or risk forfeiting his own life. . .
Some SecretsWhen Liv Dugan ducks out of work for lunch, it's just an ordinary day. When she returns, she stumbles onto a massacre. All her colleagues at Zuma Software have been shot. Only luck has left Liv unscathed, and that might be running out. . . Will Follow YouLiv suspects the shootings are tied to her past--and to the package she recently received from her long-dead adoptive mother. Sensing she's being followed, Liv jumps into a stranger's car and orders him to drive. Her "hostage" complies, listening carefully as her story unwinds. Skeptical at first, he ultimately begins to believe all Liv's fears are justified. . . To Your GraveTogether, Liv and her unlikely confidant try to uncover the truth about her adoptive family, her birth parents, and her troubled childhood. Because somewhere in Liv's past is a secret worth killing for, and a nightmare she can never outrun. . . There Are Sins"Do unto others. . . " Carefully, he carves the words into their flesh. The victims are all young, brunette, pretty. But she's the one he really wants. The others are just a way to ease the rage that has festered for years, until the only thing that calms him is his knife slicing through skin. . . You Never LiveDetective September Rafferty--Nine to her friends--recognizes the artwork that arrives in the mail. She created it back in second grade. Now a killer's words are slashed across it in what looks like blood. He knows her. September's investigation leads to her old classmate, Jake Westerly. She wants to believe Jake is innocent. But trusting anyone could be her last mistake. . . To RegretEvery slight, every slur, he remembers them all. They turned him into a monster, and now they will suffer for it. Starting with September, he'll show them that the past can never stay hidden, and the time of vengeance is at hand. . . The GuiltyShe senses their twisted desires before she meets them. It's as if fate is helping her stop these monsters from preying on others the way she was preyed upon. And after she has delivered brutal justice, she'll let the whole world see their guilt. Will Atone"I must pay for what I've done. " The first victim--naked, bound, frozen to death--wore the note strung around his neck. Now there's another note--this one attached to Detective September Rafferty's own stepbrother. Stefan survives, but September is sure he knows more than he's saying. Someone is eliminating suspected sexual predators. And the only thing more dangerous than a madman is a killer who's ruthlessly sane.
Mary Jo Putney's Lost Lord Bundle: Loving a Lost Lord, Never Less Than A Lady, Nowhere Near Respectable, No Longer a Gentleman & Sometimes A Rogueby Mary Jo Putney
Never Less Than A Lady New York Times bestselling author Mary Jo Putney continues her stunning Lost Lords series with this stirring, sensual story of a rebellious nobleman drawn to a lovely widow with a shocking past. As the sole remaining heir to the Earl of Daventry, Alexander Randall knows his duty: find a wife and sire a son of his own. The perfect bride for a man in his position would be a biddable young girl of good breeding. But the woman who haunts his imagination is Julia Bancroft--a village midwife with a dark secret that thrusts her into Randall's protection. Nowhere Near Respectable Mary Jo Putney's riveting Lost Lords series unleashes a high stakes royal plot--which may prove easier for Damian Mackenzie to handle than his own unruly desire. . . He's a bastard and a gambler and society's favorite reprobate. But to Lady Kiri Lawford he's a hero--braver than the smugglers he rescues her from, more honorable than any lord she's ever met, and far more attractive than any man has a right to be. How can she not fall in love. . . ' No Longer a Gentleman Grey Sommers, Lord Wyndham, never met a predicament he couldn't charm his way out of. Then a tryst with a government official's wife during a bit of casual espionage in France condemns him to a deCAe in a dungeon, leaving him a shadow of his former self. Yet his greatest challenge may be the enigmatic spy sent to free his body--the only woman who might heal his soul. Sometimes. . . Even the most proper young lady yearns for adventure. But when the very well bred Miss Sarah Clarke-Townsend impulsively takes the place of her pregnant twin, it puts her own life at risk. If the kidnappers after her sister discover they've abducted Sarah instead, she will surely pay with her life. . . A Rogue. . . Rob Carmichael survived his disastrous family by turning his back on his heritage and becoming a formidable Bow Street Runner with a talent for rescuing damsels in distress. But Sarah is one damsel who is equal to whatever comes. Whether racing across Ireland with her roguish rescuer or throwing herself into his arms, she challenges Rob at every turn.
In Amanda Ashley's compelling, lushly sensual novels, vampires exist alongside humans--but their desires are not relegated to the shadows. Now, a timeless passion is shattered by dangerous immortal ambition--unless an eternal kiss can hold back the darkness of true death. . . He Will Not Lose Her Again When artist Tracy Warner purchases the rambling seaside house built above Dominic St. John's hidden lair, he recognizes in her spirit the woman he has loved countless times over the centuries. Drawing her into the fascinating, seductive world of the vampire, he aches to believe that this time she will not refuse his Dark Gift. But when Dominic's ancient rival appears in Sea Cliff, hungry for territory and power, Tracy becomes a pawn in a deadly game. To save her--and the passion that burns between them--Dominic must offer. . . A Whisper Of Eternity.
An updated edition of Moorcroft's 2003 volume, this new work reflects recent scientific advances in the area of sleep and disorders. As in the previous book, Understanding Sleep and Dreaming, this new edition serves as a compact overview for now sleep experts, covering physiological sleep mechanisms, brain function, psychological ramifications of sleep, dimensions of dreaming, and clinical disorders associated with sleep. It is accessibly written with specially boxed material that enhances the text. It also offers a good foundation for those who will continue sleep studies, while at the same time offering enough information for those who will apply this knowledge in other ways such as clinicians private practices or researchers. It is an excellent text for courses on sleep at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The section on sleep labs will show how computers have replaced former models of data collection and storage; includes the new area of the genetics of sleep; add a new box on teen sleep; insert a new box on the emerging information about how technology use affects sleep; emphasize the controversy over rampart, wide-spread sleep deprivation; and include a new box covering the connection between sleep loss and weight gain. Additional inclusions might incorporate current "hot topics," such as the effect of shift work on sleep, sleep problems in adolescents, and nightmare treatment for people suffering from PTSD.
As prevalent as anxiety is as a diagnosis, clinically complex cases are even more so. At the same time that it is recognized as a spectrum of disorders with many possibilities for intervention, it is most often seen with variations that further complicate treatment. The Handbook of Treating Variants and Complications in Anxiety Disorders explains in clear detail how and why clinical factors present challenges to clinicians treating clients with these disorders. Comorbid conditions often found in children, adolescents, and adults with anxiety, including developmental disabilities and personality disorders, are analyzed in the context of treatment. Case examples and literature reviews illustrate the relative merits of integrated versus sequential treatment, the importance of prioritizing behaviors, age-related considerations, and therapist issues. This best-practices approach guides readers in choosing current evidence-based options for treatment that is tailored to the individual and effective in the short and long term. Included in the Handbook: Prognostic indicators of treatment response for children and adults with anxiety disorders.Treatment of comorbid anxiety and disruptive behavior in youth.Treatment of PTSD with comorbid borderline personality disorder.Limited motivation, patient-therapist mismatch, and the therapeutic alliance.Assessment and treatment of comorbid anorexia nervosa and obsessive compulsive disorder.Treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders across the lifespan. Developed as a companion reference to the Handbook of Assessing Variants and Complications in Anxiety Disorders, the Handbook of Treating Variants and Complications in Anxiety Disorders is of immediate relevance to researchers, scientist-practitioners, and graduate students in clinical child, school, and developmental psychology; social work; psychiatry; psychotherapy; counseling; and pediatrics.
The Handbook of Assessing Variants and Complications in Anxiety Disorders assembles current findings on assessment methods and applies them to common complicating factors, including comorbid personality and behavioral problems. Chapters examine innovative approaches to assessment of anxiety in children and adults, provide leading insights into timely topics (e.g., school refusal, self-injurious behaviors), and analyze strengths and weaknesses of widely used assessment tools. In clarifying the assessment process, contributors give readers a clear perspective on choosing treatment options in keeping with the trend toward targeted, evidence-based practice, and pinpoint needs for further research. The Handbook's coverage spans the anxiety spectrum, including areas such as: Assessment of social and generalized anxiety disorder.Neuropsychological assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.Intelligence testing and treatment planning with children.Assessment of substance abuse and dependence in anxiety disorders.Personality disorder assessment in clients with anxiety disorders.Functional assessment of comorbid and secondary disorders: identifying conditions for primary treatment.The Handbook of Assessing Variants and Complications in Anxiety Disorders is an essential reference for researchers, scientist-practitioners, and graduate students in clinical child, school, and developmental psychology; social work; psychiatry; psychotherapy; counseling; and pediatrics. And its companion volume, the Handbook of Treating Variants and Complications in Anxiety Disorders, translates these findings to the next stage of care.
Survey sampling is fundamentally an applied field. The goal in this book is to put an array of tools at the fingertips of practitioners by explaining approaches long used by survey statisticians, illustrating how existing software can be used to solve survey problems, and developing some specialized software where needed. This book serves at least three audiences: (1) Students seeking a more in-depth understanding of applied sampling either through a second semester-long course or by way of a supplementary reference; (2) Survey statisticians searching for practical guidance on how to apply concepts learned in theoretical or applied sampling courses; and (3) Social scientists and other survey practitioners who desire insight into the statistical thinking and steps taken to design, select, and weight random survey samples. Several survey data sets are used to illustrate how to design samples, to make estimates from complex surveys for use in optimizing the sample allocation, and to calculate weights. Realistic survey projects are used to demonstrate the challenges and provide a context for the solutions. The book covers several topics that either are not included or are dealt with in a limited way in other texts. These areas include: sample size computations for multistage designs; power calculations related to surveys; mathematical programming for sample allocation in a multi-criteria optimization setting; nuts and bolts of area probability sampling; multiphase designs; quality control of survey operations; and statistical software for survey sampling and estimation. An associated R package, PracTools, contains a number of specialized functions for sample size and other calculations. The data sets used in the book are also available in PracTools, so that the reader may replicate the examples or perform further analyses.
In statistics, the Behrens-Fisher problem is the problem of interval estimation and hypothesis testing concerning the difference between the means of two normally distributed populations when the variances of the two populations are not assumed to be equal, based on two independent samples. In his 1935 paper, Fisher outlined an approach to the Behrens-Fisher problem. Since high-speed computers were not available in Fisher's time, this approach was not implementable and was soon forgotten. Fortunately, now that high-speed computers are available, this approach can easily be implemented using just a desktop or a laptop computer. Furthermore, Fisher's approach was proposed for univariate samples. But this approach can also be generalized to the multivariate case. In this monograph, we present the solution to the afore-mentioned multivariate generalization of the Behrens-Fisher problem. We start out by presenting a test of multivariate normality, proceed to test(s) of equality of covariance matrices, and end with our solution to the multivariate Behrens-Fisher problem. All methods proposed in this monograph will be include both the randomly-incomplete-data case as well as the complete-data case. Moreover, all methods considered in this monograph will be tested using both simulations and examples.
This book brings together a set of approaches to the study of individual-species ecology based on the analysis of spatial variations of abundance. Distribution ecology assumes that ecological phenomena can be understood when analyzing the extrinsic (environmental) or intrinsic (physiological constraints, population mechanisms) that correlate with this spatial variation. Ecological processes depend on geographical scales, so their analysis requires following environmental heterogeneity. At small scales, the effects of biotic factors of ecosystems are strong, while at large scales, abiotic factors such as climate, govern ecological functioning. Responses of organisms also depend on scales: at small scales, adaptations dominate, i.e. the ability of organisms to respond adaptively using habitat decision rules that maximize their fitness; at large scales, limiting traits dominate, i.e., tolerance ranges to environmental conditions.
SmartData empowers personal data by wrapping it in a cloak of intelligence such that it now becomes the individual's virtual proxy in cyberspace. No longer will personal data be shared or stored in the cloud as merely data, encrypted or otherwise; it will now be stored and shared as a constituent of the binary string specifying the entire SmartData agent. This agent proactively builds-in privacy, security and user preferences, right from the outset, not as an afterthought. SmartData: Privacy Meets Evolutionary Robotics includes the advances made in the technology of simulating virtual worlds, together with the ideas emerging from fields of evolutionary robotics and embodied cognition within a framework of dynamical systems as an approach toward this ultimate goal. The book brings together top researchers in the field and addresses current personal data privacy challenges in the online-world.
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