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From the fourth millennium BCE to the early second millennium CE the world became a world of cities. This volume explores this critical transformation, from the appearance of the earliest cities in Mesopotamia and Egypt to the rise of cities in Asia and the Mediterranean world, Africa, and the Americas. Through case studies and comparative accounts of key cities across the world, leading scholars chart the ways in which these cities grew as nodal points of pilgrimages and ceremonies, exchange, storage and redistribution, and centres for defence and warfare. They show how in these cities, along with their associated and restructured countrysides, new rituals and ceremonies connected leaders with citizens and the gods, new identities as citizens were created, and new forms of power and sovereignty emerged. They also examine how this unprecedented concentration of people led to disease, violence, slavery and subjugations of unprecedented kinds and scales.
The translation of texts has played a formative role in Japan's history of cultural exchange as well as the development of literature, and indigenous legal and religious systems. This is the first book of its kind, however, to offer a comprehensive survey of the role of translation in Japan during the Tokugawa period, 1600-1868. By examining a wide range of translations into Japanese from Chinese, Dutch and other European texts, as well as the translation of classical Japanese into the vernacular, Rebekah Clements reveals the circles of intellectual and political exchange that existed in early modern Japan, arguing that, contrary to popular belief, Japan's 'translation' culture did not begin in the Meiji period. Examining the 'crisis translation' of military texts in response to international threats to security in the nineteenth century, Clements also offers fresh insights into the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868.
Roman Law in the State of Nature offers a new interpretation of the foundations of Hugo Grotius' natural law theory. Surveying the significance of texts from classical antiquity, Benjamin Straumann argues that certain classical texts, namely Roman law and a specifically Ciceronian brand of Stoicism, were particularly influential for Grotius in the construction of his theory of natural law. The book asserts that Grotius, a humanist steeped in Roman law, had many reasons to employ Roman tradition and explains how Cicero's ethics and Roman law - secular and offering a doctrine of the freedom of the high seas - were ideally suited to provide the rules for Grotius' state of nature. This fascinating new study offers historians, classicists and political theorists a fresh account of the historical background of the development of natural rights, natural law and of international legal norms as they emerged in seventeenth-century early modern Europe.
Over 850 letters between Darwin and worldwide correspondents, as he gathered information on human origins and the expression of emotion.
A crucial aspect of Hegel's practical philosophy is his theory of responsibility. This theory is both original and radical in its emphasis on the role and importance of social and historical conditions as a context for our actions. But even those who agree that there is something valuable in Hegel's emphasis on sociality are not in agreement about what that something is or about how Hegel argues for it. Mark Alznauer offers the first book-length account of the structure of the theory and its place within Hegel's thought as a whole. The reader is carefully walked through the psychological, social and historical aspects of responsibility in Hegel's texts. The book demonstrates that attention to the concept of responsibility reveals the true nature of Hegel's controversial claims about the inherent sociality of human action.
This book investigates the economic, strategic, and political importance of forests in early modern and modern Europe and shows how struggles over this vital natural resource both shaped and reflected the ideologies and outcomes of France's long revolutionary period. Until the mid-nineteenth century, wood was the principal fuel for cooking and heating and the primary material for manufacturing worldwide and comprised every imaginable element of industrial, domestic, military, and maritime activity. Forests also provided essential pasturage. These multifaceted values made forests the subject of ongoing battles for control between the crown, landowning elites, and peasantry, for whom liberty meant preserving their rights to woodland commons. Focusing on Franche-Comté, France's easternmost province, the book explores the fiercely contested development of state-centered conservation and management from 1669 to 1848. In emphasizing the environmental underpinnings of France's seismic sociopolitical upheavals, it appeals to readers interested in revolution, rural life, and common-pool-resource governance.
A comprehensive and authoritative account of the 'heretic' Marcion, this volume traces the development of the concept and language of heresy in the setting of an exploration of second-century Christian intellectual debate. Judith M. Lieu analyses accounts of Marcion by the major early Christian polemicists who shaped the idea of heresy, including Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Epiphanius of Salamis, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Ephraem Syrus. She examines Marcion's 'Gospel', 'Apostolikon', and 'Antitheses' in detail and compares his principles with those of contemporary Christian and non-Christian thinkers, covering a wide range of controversial issues: the nature of God, the relation of the divine to creation, the person of Jesus, the interpretation of Scripture, the nature of salvation, and the appropriate lifestyle of adherents. In this innovative study, Marcion emerges as a distinctive, creative figure who addressed widespread concerns within second-century Christian diversity.
To this day, Japan's modern ascendancy challenges many assumptions about world history, particularly theories regarding the rise of the west and why the modern world looks the way it does. In this engaging new history, Brett L. Walker tackles key themes regarding Japan's relationships with its minorities, state and economic development, and the uses of science and medicine. The book begins by tracing the country's early history through archaeological remains, before proceeding to explore life in the imperial court, the rise of the samurai, civil conflict, encounters with Europe, and the advent of modernity and empire. Integrating the pageantry of a unique nation's history with today's environmental concerns, Walker's vibrant and accessible new narrative then follows Japan's ascension from the ashes of World War II into the thriving nation of today. It is a history for our times, posing important questions regarding how we should situate a nation's history in an age of environmental and climatological uncertainties.
With over 200 types of cancer diagnosed to date, researchers the world over have been forced to rapidly update their understanding of the biology of cancer. In fact, only the study of the basic cellular processes, and how these are altered in cancer cells, can ultimately provide a background for rational therapies. Bringing together the state-of-the-art contributions of international experts, Systems Biology of Cancer proposes an ultimate research goal for the whole scientific community: exploiting systems biology to generate in-depth knowledge based on blueprints that are unique to each type of cancer. Readers are provided with a realistic view of what is known and what is yet to be uncovered on the aberrations in the fundamental biological processes, deregulation of major signaling networks, alterations in major cancers and the strategies for using the scientific knowledge for effective diagnosis, prognosis and drug discovery to improve public health.
This book pivots around two principal concerns in the modern world: the nature and practice of human rights in relation to religion, and the role of religion in perennial issues of war and peace. Taken collectively, the chapters articulate a vision for achieving a liberal peace and a just society firmly grounded in respect for human rights, while working in tandem with the constructive roles that religious ideas, leaders, and institutions can play even amid cultural difference. Topics covered include: the status and justification of human rights; the meaning and significance of religious liberty; whether human rights protections ought to be extended to other species; how the comparative study of religious ethics ought to proceed; the nature, limits, and future development of just war thinking; the role of religion and human rights in conflict resolution, diplomacy, and peace-building; and the tensions raised by religious involvement in public policy and state institutional practices. Featuring a group of distinguished contributors, this is a multifaceted and original exploration of the aforementioned themes.
Providing a comprehensive, pedagogical introduction to scattering amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers. It offers a smooth transition from basic knowledge of quantum field theory to the frontier of modern research. Building on basic quantum field theory, the book starts with an introduction to the spinor helicity formalism in the context of Feynman rules for tree-level amplitudes. The material covered includes on-shell recursion relations, superamplitudes, symmetries of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, twistors and momentum twistors, Grassmannians, and polytopes. The presentation also covers amplitudes in perturbative supergravity, 3D Chern-Simons matter theories, and color-kinematics duality and its connection to 'gravity=(gauge theory)x(gauge theory)'. Basic knowledge of Feynman rules in scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics is assumed, but all other tools are introduced as needed. Worked examples demonstrate the techniques discussed, and over 150 exercises help readers absorb and master the material.
Learn classical thermodynamics alongside statistical mechanics with this fresh approach to the subjects. Molecular and macroscopic principles are explained in an integrated, side-by-side manner to give students a deep, intuitive understanding of thermodynamics and equip them to tackle future research topics that focus on the nanoscale. Entropy is introduced from the get-go, providing a clear explanation of how the classical laws connect to the molecular principles, and closing the gap between the atomic world and thermodynamics. Notation is streamlined throughout, with a focus on general concepts and simple models, for building basic physical intuition and gaining confidence in problem analysis and model development. Well over 400 guided end-of-chapter problems are included, addressing conceptual, fundamental, and applied skill sets. Numerous worked examples are also provided together with handy shaded boxes to emphasize key concepts, making this the complete teaching package for students in chemical engineering and the chemical sciences.
Covering the fundamental mathematical underpinnings together with key principles and applications, this book provides a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of sampling from an engineering perspective. Beginning with traditional ideas such as uniform sampling in shift-invariant spaces and working through to the more recent fields of compressed sensing and sub-Nyquist sampling, the key concepts are addressed in a unified and coherent way. Emphasis is given to applications in signal processing and communications, as well as hardware considerations, throughout. With 200 worked examples and over 200 end-of-chapter problems, this is an ideal course textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students. It is also an invaluable reference or self-study guide for engineers and students across industry and academia.
Any list of Japan's greatest screenplay writers would feature Shinobu Hashimoto at or near the top. This memoir, focusing on his collaborations with Akira Kurosawa, a gifted scenarist in his own right, offers indispenable insider account for fans and students of the director's oeuvre and invaluable insights into the unique process that is writing for the screen. The vast majority of Kurosawa works were filmed from screenplays that the director co-wrote with a stable of steller writers, many of whom he discovered himself with his sharp eye for all things cinematic. Among these was Hashimoto, who caught the filmmaker's attention with a script that eventually turned into Roshamon. Thus joining Team Kurosawa the debutant immediately went on to paly an integral part in developing and writing two of the grandmaster's most impressive achievements, Ikiru and Seven Samurai.
Depressed because of complications of a head injury, Serena Manchester seeks solitude in the hometown she left almost twenty-five years before. Unknown to Serena, her hometown's landscape has changed and unseemly elements have seeped into the quaint Southern seaport town. One night Serena witnesses a gang-related crime. She thinks she recognizes one of the young men, but chooses not to identify him. What if her brain injury has altered her perceptions? Her estranged family has already reminded her why she left town in the first place. Drawing attention to herself and perhaps endangering her well-being is the last thing Serena needs. When tragedy strikes close to home, however, Serena can no longer keep her head in the sand. Serena feels responsible, and her reporter skills kick in. Much to the dismay of the local police, she decides to start her own investigation.
Jealousy, envy, and pure hateration. Maybe you've been there, or maybe you know someone who's going through it. Whatever the case, you know when things get rough, you can always count on your Sister Girls to be there for you. Take a look inside the lives and relationships of Crystal, Susan, Jewell, and Elsie. Their lives are laced with love, addiction, lust, and loyalty. Crystal must deal with a past she can't escape. Susan is in denial and needs to get real. Jewell is looking for a "good man," and Elsie is confused about her sexuality. When drama takes center stage, each woman is forced to confront her own set of issues. Their friendship is put to test numerous times and in ways that they never imagined. Together these four sisters take friendship to a new level that puts the realities of life's trials and tribulations into their proper perspective.
Regina has been craving attention from Mark, her common law husband of eight years. As far as she's concerned, he's a square, and she finds herself making excuses to stay out of the house and out of his sight. With no kids and feeling stuck with a man who has no intentions of marrying her in the eyes of God, she makes a decision that will only bring drama and confusion into her once predictable life. Regina's sudden cold shoulder toward Mark makes him wonder if his first and only love has changed her mind about spending the rest of their lives together. Although he's never felt the need to comply with society's standards and get a marriage certificate to prove he's committed, Mark disregards his beliefs and pops the question. Will he regret his decision? More importantly, since Regina has already found new pleasures to keep her content, is Mark's proposal too late?
Identical twins Kenya and London return in the highly addictive Essence bestselling Say U Promise series, and now things have gone from bad to worse for the tragically troubled sisters. They are caught in the middle of a deadly drug war that was started by one of them, and the streets run red as lives are drastically changed forever. With an illegitimate baby on the way and a price on her head, one twin fights to avoid the dangers of the game she despises, while facing the vindictive wrath of her sister for what is deemed to be the ultimate betrayal. This time around, no one is safe when it comes to revenge--not even an innocent child.
From New York Times bestselling author Marie Bostwick comes an emotionally rich, inspiring new novel about family, second chances--and the connections that bring women together in hope and healing. . .Years of long workdays and little sleep as a political campaigner are about to pay off now that Lucy Toomey's boss is entering the White House. But when her estranged older sister, Alice, unexpectedly dies, Lucy is drawn back to Nilson's Bay, her small, close-knit, Wisconsin hometown. An accident in her teens left Alice mentally impaired, and she was content to stay in Nilson's Bay. Lucy, meanwhile, got out and never looked back. But now, to meet the terms of Alice's eccentric will, Lucy has taken up temporary residence in her sister's cottage--and begins to see the town, and Alice's life, anew. Alice's diverse group of friends appears to have little in common besides an interest in quilting. Yet deep affection for Alice united them and soon Lucy, too, is brought into the fold as they share problems and stories. And as she finds warmth and support in this new circle, Lucy begins to understand this will be her sister's enduring gift--a chance to move beyond her difficult past, and find what she has long been missing. . .
One of Victorian London's most respected undertakers, Violet Harper has the new duty of accompanying coffins from various undertakers on the London Necropolis Railway for respectful funerals and burials in Surrey. But on her fateful first trip, the mournful silence of the train is shattered by the shrill ringing of a coffin bell--a device that prevents a person from being buried alive.Inside the noisome coffin Violet finds a man wide-eyed with fear, claiming he was falsely interred. When a second coffin bell is rung on another trip Violet grows suspicious. She voices her qualms to Inspector Hurst of Scotland Yard, only to receive a puzzling reply that, after all, it is not a crime to rise from the dead.But Violet's instincts are whispering that all is not well on the London Necropolis Railway's tracks. Is this all merely the result of clumsy undertaking, or is there something more sinister afoot? Determined to get to the heart of the matter, Violet uncovers a treacherous plot and villains who will stop at nothing to keep a lid on her search for the truth...
Give me your nerds, your freaks, your huddled outcasts yearning to breathe free. Stick them in Boy Scout uniforms and you'll have the Hurt Patrol--a sorry bunch of teen rejects who will never make Eagle. Welcome to the clubBeau has been scouting since first grade. Not because he loves it, but because his dad does. It's the only thing they've ever bonded over, what with Beau's dad being into sports, beer, and brawling. So when they move to yet another Midwest town, Beau expects the usual Boy Scout experience, filled with horribleness and insults. Instead he finds something else entirely. Kicked out of every other patrol, their little band of brothers is equal parts nuts and awesome. For the first time, people are watching Beau's back instead of throwing things at it. Nice. Novel. And also necessary, when you're dealing with parents splitting up, crushes, first love, and coming out.The first--and only--rule of Hurt Patrol: We are never going to win--but if you're outcast elsewhere, you'll do just fine here.
Kaaren Christopherson's brilliantly observed novel captures the glamour and grit of one of the world's most dazzling cities during one of its most tumultuous eras--as seen through the eyes of a singularly captivating heroine. . .In 1890s New York, beautiful, wealthy Francesca Lund is an intriguing prospect for worthy suitors and fortune hunters alike. Recently orphaned, she copes by working with the poor in the city's settlement movement. But a young woman of means can't shun society for long, and Francesca's long-standing acquaintance with dashing Edmund Tracey eventually leads to engagement. Yet her sheltered upbringing doesn't blind her to the indiscretions of the well-to-do. . .Among the fashionable circle that gathers around her there are mistresses, scandals, and gentlemen of ruthless ambition. And there is Connor O'Casey--an entirely new kind of New Yorker. A self-made millionaire of Irish stock, Connor wants more than riches. He wants to create a legacy in the form of a luxury Madison Avenue hotel--and he wants Francesca by his side as he does it. In a quest that will take her from impeccable Manhattan salons to the wild Canadian Rockies, Francesca must choose not only between two vastly different men, but between convention and her own emerging self-reliance.Rules Of DecorumA gentleman should not be presented to a lady without her permission being previously asked and granted. This formality is not necessary between men alone; but, still, you should not present any one, even at his own request, to another, unless you are quite well assured that the acquaintance will be agreeable to the latter. If you wish to avoid the company of any one that has been properly introduced, satisfy your own mind that your reasons are correct; and then let no inducement cause you to shrink from treating him with respect, at the same time shunning his company. No gentleman will thus be able either to blame or mistake you. The mode in which the avowal of love should be made, must of course, depend upon circumstances. It would be impossible to indicate the style in which the matter should be told. . .. Let it, however, be taken as a rule that an interview is best; but let it be remembered that all rules have exceptions. . .
Winging ItKera Watson never expected to face death behind a Los Angeles coffee shop. Not after surviving two tours lugging an M16 around the Middle East. If it wasn't for her hot Viking customer showing up too late to help, nobody would even see her die. In uncountable years of service to the Allfather Odin, Ludvig "Vig" Rundstrom has never seen anyone kick ass with quite as much style as Kera. He knows one way to save her life--but she might not like it. Signing up with the Crows will get Kera a new set of battle buddies: cackling, gossiping, squabbling, party-hearty women. With wings. So not the Marines. But Vig can't give up on someone as special as Kera. With a storm of oh-crap magic speeding straight for L.A., survival will depend on combining their strengths: Kera's discipline, Vig's loyalty... and the Crows' sheer love of battle. Boy, are they in trouble.
Spanning the 1930s to the present day, James Driggers' evocative Southern Gothic collection introduces the intriguing inhabitants of Morris, South Carolina--a small town where a mix of rich, poor, and in-between co-exist, grappling with desire, ambition, hope, and loneliness. . .Amid a landscaped dotted with farms, trailers, and genteel homes, there lives a talented baker who desperately needs to win a cooking contest but must team up with a down-on-her-heels society matron to do it. . .the Bramble sisters, whose husbands tend to be short-lived and wealthy, but whose latest prospect arrives with complications. . .a widow who becomes dangerously obsessed with a snake-charming televangelist. . .and a lonely florist who will do anything for the sake of a ruthless local mechanic. With wit and insight lurking beneath a palpable air of menace, James Driggers' debut is a tautly plotted, evocative exploration of love--and all that we do in its name. . .
"Day delivers a lively romance." --RT Book ReviewsThe Blue-Collar Lover SeriesMeet the Carter brothers, five hard-working men with a lot to offer. They may not be wealthy but they're rich in integrity and loyalty--not to mention sex appeal. They just need the right women to share their world. . .At thirty, eldest brother Byron hasn't dated seriously in a while--not since he became a single dad to his beloved baby girl. Besides, he's found that most women can't see past his job as a bus driver, and he's not interested in that type of superficial foolishness. When he meets Cynthia Hall, her disinterest is obvious. Still, there's something about her. . .Cynthia has been successful in her career and unlucky in love. But those two worlds collide when Byron ends up in her office on business. It's a coincidence that casts him in a very different light than she's previously seen. Too bad he's not the upscale professional Cynthia had in mind. Yet given the chance, she might discover that while money can't buy happiness--a loving and passionate man can. . .
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