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If policies aimed at large reductions of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are enacted, more carbon capture and storage will be needed. RAND researchers explored the ability of the industrial base supporting the transportation and sequestration of CO2 to expand, assessing the industrial base for transportation and injection of CO2 for both geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery.
In its 3rd edition, this comprehensive book offers all relevant information on catalytic processes in industry, including many recent examples. Perfectly suited for self-study, it is the ideal companion for scientists who want to get into the field or refresh existing knowledge.
The World Bank, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Research Institute, and the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID), in collaboration with researchers affiliated with the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), recently conducted a study on Africa's domestic enterprises to improve the understanding of the constraints micro and small enterprises in Africa face in improving productivity and expanding their markets. In Africa, there are stark performance gaps between domestically owned enterprises and foreign-owned enterprises in terms of sales performance, productivity, and ability to reach distant markets. Among others, size appears to be a dominant factor in explaining the gap. Against this background, the study analyzes how naturally formed industrial clusters-concentrations of enterprises engaged in same or closely related industrial activities in specific locations-could potentially mitigate constraints Africa's micro and small enterprises face and enhance their business performance. The study is one of the first comprehensive quantitative inquiries on industrial clusters in Africa. The analysis specifically focuses on the role of spontaneously grown clusters of light manufacturing industries based on a set of original case studies of industrial clusters conducted for this research project. One of the key findings from the case studies was that cluster-based micro and small enterprises are performing better than similar micro and small enterprises outside of the clusters in terms of sales performance and ability to reach distant markets. Market access is a leading reason for cluster-based enterprises to choose their current locations. However, cluster-based enterprises face another set of unique growth constraints. By the very nature of spontaneous agglomeration, new enterprises continue to flow to the clusters seeking the profit opportunities and better access to markets at such locations. The result can be intense competition in addition to increased congestion. Space constraints often impede growth within clusters. The lack of alternative locations available for industrial activities in the same cities, generic infrastructure bottlenecks, and unclear zoning policies and their unpredictable changes limit firms' location choices and constrain their mobility. While competition should improve efficiency, lack of capacity among those competing cluster-based enterprises to invest and innovate does not generate growth out of the competition. The vast majority of naturally formed clusters of light manufacturing industries in Africa are still at a "survival" level, where agglomeration externalities are only limited to expand quantity but not quality as we observe in more advanced innovation-oriented clusters in elsewhere in the world. Existing studies on such natural industrial clusters in Africa have found that the lack of managerial skills among entrepreneurs running micro and small enterprises is a major constraint for innovation and growth in the clusters. As a part of this study, pilot managerial skills training programs were conducted in two industrial clusters on an experimental basis, where a group of randomly selected entrepreneurs within the clusters were given three-week long crush course of based management such as bookkeeping, marketing, business planning, and production management. The impact evaluation of the experiments showed significant positive impacts of the training programs on value added and gross profits of enterprises. Raising the current survival-type industrial clusters, which have been formed as a coping mechanism to weak investment climate, into more dynamic innovating clusters will be an important avenue for fostering growth of micro and small enterprises in Africa. While national efforts to improve investment climate and investments in human capital are undoubtedly important, there could be more targeted policies to be formulated, in complementing general policies, to support growth of micro and small domestic enterprises using exi...
The ongoing discussion about reaching the "peak-oil point" (maximal delivery rate with conventional methods) emphasizes a fundamental change of the frame conditions of oil-based basic products. The alternative with the largest potential is the use of coal. Coal gasification is the production of coal gas (a mixture of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from coal adding agents like steam/water and oxygen, which can be used in a number of industrial processes (e.g. hydroformulation and Fischer-Tropsch process). Many different kinds of coal do naturally occur, and due to shrinking natural resources, there has been a substantial gain of interest in poor, ash-rich coal. Beside the quality of coal, there is a number of other parameters influencing the efficiency of coal gasification, such as temperature, pressure, and reactor type. Although several books dealing with the subject of gasification have recently been published, few are strictly focussed on coal as feedstock. This monograph provides the reader with the necessary chemical background on coal gasification. Several types of coal (baseline coal and ash-rich coal) are compared systematically, pointing out the technological efforts achieved so far to overcome this challenge. Using a new, innovative order scheme to evaluate the gasification process at a glance (the ternary diagram), the complex network of chemistry, engineering, and economic needs can be overviewed in a highly efficient way. This book is a must-have for Chemical and Process Engineers, Engineering Students, as well as Scientists in the Chemical Industry.
This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The work describes in detail the fundamentals as well as the latest developments in research, in particular to be able to work extensively in the far-reaching fields of industrial color physics.
The book discusses the identification of plant species with desired traits, their cultivation to obtain the needed raw materials, methods utilized in producing different finished products, current and future research in crop production and processing, and the present status and future prospects of the industry.
Industrial Design: Materials and Manufacturing Guide, Second Edition provides the detailed coverage of materials and manufacturing processes that industrial designers need without the in-depth and overly technical discussions commonly directed toward engineers. Author Jim Lesko gives you the practical knowledge you need to develop a real-world understanding of materials and processes and make informed choices for industrial design projects.In this book, you will find everything from basic terminology to valuable insights on why certain shapes work best for particular applications. You'll learn how to extract the best performance from all of the most commonly used methods and materials.
With input from a diverse range of industry experts/designers, theorists, critics, historians, and curators, this anthology is the first to focus exclusively on the history of industrial design. This pioneering guide traces the entire history of industrial design, industrialization, and mass production from 1850 until today. Sixty comprehensive essays written by designers, theorists, advertisers, historians, and curators detail the most crucial movements, issues, and accomplishments of industrial design. They combine news reports on the very first design workshops, aesthetic manifestos, lectures, and more from the biggest names in the field: William Morris, Henry Dreyfuss, and Victor Papanek, to name only a few. The Industrial Design Reader is an excellent resource for educators, students, and practicing designers.
The Spanish Conference of Industrial Engineering /Ingeniería de Organización Industrial (CIO) is an annual meeting promoted by Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Ingeniería de Organización/ Industrial Engineers Association (ADINGOR). The aim of CIO is to establish a forum for the open and free exchange of ideas, opinions and academic experiences about research, technology transfer or successful business experiences in the field of Industrial Engineering. The Scientific Committee is composed by 68 international referees and we foresee the attendance of some 200 people from more than 15 countries and following the rotation of venue and organization between various Spanish universities, the 2011 Conference will be the fifteenth National Conference and the fifth International Conference in Cartagena. During three days the 2011 Conference will include the participation of European and other foreign countries researchers and practitioners that will presenting communications, reproduced in this volume, on a range of topics including: Production and Operations Business Management Supply Chain Management Economic environment Technological and Organizational Innovation and Management and Innovation in Education The Conference on Industrial Engineering (CIO) and its proceedings are an excellent platform for the dissemination of the outputs of the scientific projects developed in the frame of the European, national or regional Research and Development plans.
Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics is a corporate-focused analysis that brings clarity and practicality to the complex issues of environmental metrics in industry. The book examines the metrics implications to businesses as their responsibilities expand beyond the factory gate--upstream to suppliers and downstream to products and services. It examines implications that arise from greater demand for comparability of metrics among businesses by the investment community and environmental interest groups. The controversy over what sustainable development means for businesses is also addressed.Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics identifies the most useful metrics based on case studies from four industries--automotive, chemical, electronics, and pulp and paper--and includes specific corporate examples. It contains goals and recommendations for public and private sector players interested in encouraging the broader use of metrics to improve industrial environmental performance and those interested in addressing the tough issues of prioritization, weighting of metrics for meaningful comparability, and the longer term metrics needs presented by sustainable development.
In Small is Possible Lyle Estill introduced the compelling story of the creation of a strong local economy by several committed entrepreneurs. Industrial Evolution shows how these same entrepreneurs kept their local economy alive in the face of economic downturn and uncertain times, emerging with a model of how industry might adapt and thrive in a post carbon future.
Industrial ecology is a concept that has emerged in response to growing public concern about the impact of industry on the environment. In this framework the natural flow (or circulation) of materials and energy that takes place in biological ecosystems becomes a model for more efficient industrial "metabolism." What industrial ecology is and how it may be applied to corporate environmentalism are the subject of The Industrial Green Game.This volume examines industrial circulation of materials, energy efficiency strategies, "green" accounting, life-cycle analysis, and other approaches for preventing pollution and improving performance. Corporate leaders report firsthand on "green" efforts at Ciba-Geigy, Volvo, Kennecott, and Norsk Hydro. And an update is provided on the award-winning industrial symbiosis project in Kalundborg, Denmark.The Industrial Green Game looks at issues of special concern to business, such as measuring and shaping public perceptions and marketing "green" products to consumers. It offers discussions of the appropriate roles of government and private business.
This book examines the complex interplay between industrial heritage and tourism. It serves to stimulate meaningful dialogue about the socioeconomic values of industrial sites and the use of tourism for the growth of the creative economy, and to better understand how the collective social memory and local identity connected to these sites have been shaped by different social groups over time. The volume presents a conceptual framework underpinned by case studies drawn from Asia, North America, Australasia and Europe and advocates the creation of mixed-use spaces and stakeholder collaboration to develop tourism at industrial heritage sites. These theoretical and practical perspectives will be of use to researchers and students of heritage tourism, urban and regional planning and tourism marketing.
Consumer networks have revolutionized the way companies understand and reach their customers, making possible intricate measurement and accurate prediction at every step of every transaction. The same revolution is underway in our infrastructure, where new generations of sensor-laden power plants, cars and medical devices will generate vast quantities of data that could bring about improvements in quality, reliability and cost. Big machines will enter the modern era of big data, where they'll be subject to constant analysis and optimization. The promise of the industrial internet is that it will bring intelligence to industries that are capital-intensive and create broad value that all of the industrial internet's participants will share. This report examines the industrial internet across several industries. It describes both near-term efforts as well as the longer-term development that will emerge as software and machines further integrate.
Due to the large number of uses of ion sources in academia and industry, those who utilize these sources need up to date and coherent information to keep themselves abreast of developments and options, and to chose ideal solutions for quality and cost-effectiveness. This book, written by an author with a strong industrial background and excellent standing, is the comprehensive guide users and developers of ion sources have been waiting for. Providing a thorough refresher on the physics involved, this resource systematically covers the source types, components, and the operational parameters.
Meet the smart, sexy -- supernatural -- women of the otherworld. This is not your mother's coven...Kelley Armstrong returns with the eagerly awaited follow-up to Dime Store Magic. Paige Winterbourne, a headstrong young woman haunted by a dark legacy, is now put to the ultimate test as she fights to save innocents from the most insidious evil of all.. . .In the aftermath of her mother's murder, Paige broke with the elite, ultraconservative American Coven of Witches. Now her goal is to start a new Coven for a new generation. But while Paige pitches her vision to uptight thirty-something witches in business suits, a more urgent matter commands her attention.Someone is murdering the teenage offspring of the underworld's most influential Cabals -- a circle of families that makes the mob look like amateurs. And none is more powerful than the Cortez Cabal, a faction Paige is intimately acquainted with. Lucas Cortez, the rebel son and unwilling heir, is none other than her boyfriend. But love isn't blind, and Paige has her eyes wide open as she is drawn into a hunt for an unnatural-born killer. Pitted against shamans, demons, and goons, it's a battle chilling enough to make a wild young woman grow up in a hurry. If she gets the chance.From the Paperback edition.
Meet the Smart, Sexy-Supernatural-Women of the Otherworld. This is Not Your Mother's Coven. . . . Kelley Armstrong returns with the eagerly awaited follow-up to Dime Store Magic. Paige Winterbourne, a headstrong young woman haunted by a dark legacy, is now put to the ultimate test as she fights to save innocents from the most insidious evil of all. . . . In the aftermath of her mother's murder, Paige broke with the elite, ultraconservative American Coven of Witches. Now her goal is to start a new Coven for a new generation. But while Paige pitches her vision to uptight thirty-something witches in business suits, a more urgent matter commands her attention. Someone is murdering the teenage offspring of the underworld's most influential Cabals-a circle of families that makes the mob look like amateurs. And none is more powerful than the Cortez Cabal, a faction Paige is intimately acquainted with. Lucas Cortez, the rebel son and unwilling heir, is none other than her boyfriend. But love isn't blind, and Paige has her eyes wide open as she is drawn into a hunt for an unnatural-born killer. Pitted against shamans, demons, and goons, it's a battle chilling enough to make a wild young woman grow up in a hurry. If she gets the chance.
Avoid common pitfalls in large-scale projects using these smart strategies Over half of large-scale engineering and construction projects-off-shore oil platforms, chemical plants, metals processing, dams, and similar projects-have miserably poor results. These include billions of dollars in overruns, long delays in design and construction, and poor operability once finally completed. Industrial Megaprojects gives you a clear, nontechnical understanding of why these major projects get into trouble, and how your company can prevent hazardous and costly errors when undertaking such large technical and management challenges. Clearly explains the underlying causes of over-budget, delayed, and unsafe megaprojects Examines effects of poor project management, destructive team behaviors, weak accountability systems, short-term focus, and lack of investment in technical expertise Author is the CEO of the leading consulting firm for evaluating billion-dollar projects Companies worldwide are rethinking their large-scale projects. Industrial Megaprojects is your essential guide for this rethink, offering the tools and principles that are the true foundation of safe, cost-effective, successful megaprojects.
During the past decade and a half, the National Research Council, through its Committee on National Statistics, has carried out a number of studies on the application of statistical methods to improve the testing and development of defense systems. These studies were intended to provide advice to the Department of Defense (DOD), which sponsored these studies. The previous studies have been concerned with the role of statistical methods in testing and evaluation, reliability practices, software methods, combining information, and evolutionary acquisition. Industrial Methods for the Effective Testing and Development of Defense Systems is the latest in a series of studies, and unlike earlier studies, this report identifies current engineering practices that have proved successful in industrial applications for system development and testing. This report explores how developmental and operational testing, modeling and simulation, and related techniques can improve the development and performance of defense systems, particularly techniques that have been shown to be effective in industrial applications and are likely to be useful in defense system development. In addition to the broad issues, the report identifies three specific topics for its focus: finding failure modes earlier, technology maturity, and use of all relevant information for operational assessments.
Moisture analysis covers a variety of methods for measuring high levels of moisture, as well as trace amounts, in solids, liquids, or gases. There are many applications where trace moisture measurements are indispensable for manufacturing and for process quality assurance. Trace moisture in solids must be controlled for plastics, pharmaceuticals and heat treatment processes. Measurement applications in gases and liquids include, for example, drying processes, hydrocarbon processing, pure gases in the semiconductor industry, natural gas pipeline transport, the conditioning of food and other products.Written by experts with over 20 years of experience in the field, this one-stop guide covers all aspects of these measurements, including both the theory and a wealth of practical know-how. As such, it includes guidelines on installation, on the realization of standards for absolute and relative humidity, verification and traceability measurements, equipment calibration methods and the latest research developments.Backed by numerous case studies, this practical book serves the needs of those working in the industry tasked with performing or developing new techniques and processes for moisture and humidity measurement. As a result, the scientist or engineer has all the information required for accurate, reliable, economically viable and efficient moisture measurement.
An essential introduction to the organic chemicals industry--in the context of globalization, advances in technology, and environmental concerns Providing 95 percent of the 500 billion pounds of organic chemicals produced in the world, the petroleum and natural gas industries are responsible for products that ensure our present quality of life. Products as diverse as gasoline, plastics, detergents, fibers, pesticides, tires, lipstick, shampoo, and sunscreens are based on seven raw materials derived from petroleum and natural gas. In an updated and expanded Third Edition, Industrial Organic Chemicals examines why each of these chemical building blocks--ethylene, propylene, C4 olefins (butenes and butadiene), benzene toluene, the xylenes, and methane--is preferred over another in the context of an environmental issue or manufacturing process, as well as their individual chemistry, derivatives, method of manufacture, uses, and economic significance. The new edition details the seismic shifts in the world's chemistry industry away from the United States, Western Europe and Japan, transforming the Middle East and Asia-Pacific region, especially China, into major players. The book also details: The impact of globalization on the patterns of worldwide transportation of chemicals, including methods of shipping chemicals The technological advances in the area of polymerization and catalysis, including catalyst design and single-site catalysts Chemicals for electronics, with much new material on conducting polymers, photovoltaic cells, and related materials The discovery of vast reserves of shale gas and shale oil, altering long-term predictions of resource depletion in the United States and other countries Commercial and market aspects of the chemical industry, with coverage of emerging new companies such as INEOS, Formosa Plastics, LyondellBasell, and SABIC With expanded coverage on the vital role of green chemistry, renewables, chemicals and fuels on issues of sustainability and climate change, Industrial Organic Chemicals offers an unparalleled examination of what is at the heart of this multi-billion dollar industry, how globalization has transformed it, and its ever growing role in preserving the Earth and its resources.
Digital technology has dramatically changed the structure of many industrial sectors. The rise of the Internet and increased broadband access have given rise to new business models andstrategies for firms dealing with both electronic and physical goods. Industrial Organization andthe Digital Economy focuses on changes in the two industries most affected by the new technology:software and music. The book offers the theoretical and factual grounding necessary forunderstanding the changes in industrial organization brought about by the digital economy, with thechapters together providing an accessible and interesting cross-fertilization of fact and theory. Moreover, two chapters demonstrate the relevance of the emerging literature on two-sided markets forthe digital economy. The contributors consider such topics as the innovation value of software;empirical evidence and theoretical analysis regarding the impact of file sharing on music sales; theability of firms to modify their products and offer them in different versions; the practice ofpreannouncing information goods; the effects of electronic commerce on both consumers and retailers;and price-setting by electronic mediators. The studies in Industrial Organization and the DigitalEconomy provide a valuable starting point for future research on other aspects of the subject,including the open-source movement and trust and reputation. Contributors:Paul Belleflamme, Jay PilChoi, Emin M. Dinlersoz, David S. Evans, Chaim Fershtman, Neil Gandal, Amit Gayer, Andrei Hagiu,Gerhard Illing, Bruno Jullien, Eirik Gaard Kristiansen, Stan J. Liebowitz, Jae Nahm, Martin Peitz,Pedro Pereira, Richard Schmalensee, Oz Shy, Patrick Waelbroeck
The academic literature commonly examines issues relating to bank behavior, market structure, or bank regulation by abstracting from interrelationships among these factors. From a policy perspective, however, these elements of the industrial organization of banking are inextricably linked. The goal of this book is to provide a complete overview, exposition, and evaluation of the interplay among bank behavior, market structure, and regulation. It also considers implications for a variety of public policy issues, including bank competition and risk, market discipline, antitrust issues, capital regulation, and regulatory restructuring. The book can serve as a learning tool and reference for graduate students and academics, as well as bankers and policymakers studying the industrial organization of the banking sector and interested in the impacts of banking regulations.
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