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In 1880 the Jewish community in Palestine encompassed some 20,000 Orthodox Jews; within sixty-five years it was transformed into a secular proto-state with well-developed political, military, and economic institutions, a vigorous Hebrew-language culture, and some 600,000 inhabitants. The Origins of Israel, 1882-1948: A Documentary Historychronicles the making of modern Israel before statehood, providing in English the texts of original sources (many translated from Hebrew and other languages) accompanied by extensive introductions and commentaries from the volume editors. This sourcebook assembles a diverse array of 62 documents, many of them unabridged, to convey the ferment, dissent, energy, and anxiety that permeated the Zionist project from its inception to the creation of the modern nation of Israel. Focusing primarily on social, economic, and cultural history rather than Zionist thought and diplomacy, the texts are organized in themed chapters. They present the views of Zionists from many political and religious camps, factory workers, farm women, militants, intellectuals promoting the Hebrew language and arts-as well as views of ultra-Orthodox anti-Zionists. The volume includes important unabridged documents from the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict that are often cited but are rarely read in full. The editors, Eran Kaplan and Derek J. Penslar, provide both primary texts and informative notes and commentary, giving readers the opportunity to encounter voices from history and make judgments for themselves about matters of world-historical significance.
It is claimed that Zionism as a meta-narrative has been formed through contradiction to two alternative models, the Canaanite and crusader narratives. These narratives are the most daring and heretical assaults on Israeli-Jewish identity. The Israelis, according to the Canaanite narrative, are from this place and belong only here; according to the crusader narrative, they are from another place and belong there. The mythological construction of Zionism as a modern crusade describes Israel as a Western colonial enterprise planted in the heart of the East and alien to the area, its logic and its peoples. The nativist construction of Israel as neo-Canaanism demands breaking away from the chain of historical continuity. These are the greatest anxieties that Zionism and Israel needed to encounter and answer forcefully. The Origins of Israeli Mythology seeks to examine the intellectual archaeology of Israeli mythology, as it reveals itself through the Canaanite and crusader narratives.
Adapted from a series of lectures by Bronowski that deals with one of the pivotal paradoxes that has plagued scientific thought.
The Origins of Life and the Universe is the culmination of a university science professor's search for understanding and is based on his experiences teaching the fundamental issues of physics, chemistry, and biology in the classroom. What is life? Where did it come from? How can understanding the origins of life on Earth help us understand the origins of the universe, and vice versa? These are questions that have occupied us all. This is a book, then, about the beginning of things -- of the universe, matter, stars, and planetary systems, and finally, of life itself -- topics of profound interest that are rarely considered together. After surveying prescientific accounts of the origins of life, the book examines the concepts of modern physics and cosmology, in particular the two pillars of modern physics, relativity and quantum theory, and how they can be applied to the Big Bang model of the creation of the universe. The author then considers molecular genetics and DNA, the famed building block of life. In addition to assessing various hypotheses concerning the appearance of the first bacterial cells and their evolution into more complex eukaryotic cells, this section explains how "protocells" may have started a kind of integrated metabolism and how horizontal gene transfer may have speeded up evolution. Finally, the book discusses the possibility that life did not originate on planet Earth but first appeared on other solar planets, or perhaps in other star systems. How would such a possibility affect our understanding of the meaning of life, or of its ultimate fate in the universe? The book ends as it begins, with profound questions and penetrating answers, a state-of-the-art guide to unlocking the scientific mysteries of life and matter.
This concise and highly illustrated textbook traces the evolution of the Cosmos from the Big Bang to the development of intelligent life on Earth, conveying clear science in an engaging narrative. By mapping the history of the Universe for introductory science and astrobiology courses for non-science majors, this book allows many of the most fascinating questions in science to be explored. What is the origin of the Universe? How do stars and planets form? How does life begin? How did intelligence arise? Are we alone in the Cosmos? Physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geology are combined to create a chronicle of events in which the swirling vapors in the primordial cloud of the Universe evolved over billions of years into conscious life. Outlining, the latest discoveries in astrobiology, this textbook is suffused with the excitement of this fast-moving field. Instructor and student support is provided at www.cambridge.org/jastrow.
In this wide-ranging work, Caspar Hirschi offers new perspectives on the origins of nationalism and the formation of European nations. Based on extensive study of written and visual sources dating from the ancient to the early modern period, the author re-integrates the history of pre-modern Europe into the study of nationalism, describing it as an unintended and unavoidable consequence of the legacy of Roman imperialism in the Middle Ages. Hirschi identifies the earliest nationalists among Renaissance humanists, exploring their public roles and ambitions to offer new insight into the history of political scholarship in Europe and arguing that their adoption of ancient role models produced massive contradictions between their self-image and political function. This book demonstrates that only through understanding the development of the politics, scholarship and art of pre-modern Europe can we fully grasp the global power of nationalism in a modern political context.
Origins of Nationality in South Asia: Patriotism and Ethical Government in the Making of Modern Indiaby C. A. Bayly
This book considers the ideological and institutional antecedents of mature Indian nationalism. It argues that patriotism is a useful concept with which to understand India in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. It includes essays on swadeshi, Indian resistance, and "communalism."
Political extremism is one of the most pernicious, destructive, and nihilistic forms of human expression. During the twentieth century, in excess of 100 million people had their lives taken from them as the result of extremist violence. In this wide-ranging book Manus I. Midlarsky suggests that ephemeral gains, together with mortality salience, form basic explanations for the origins of political extremism and constitute a theoretical framework that also explains later mass violence. Midlarsky applies his framework to multiple forms of political extremism, including the rise of Italian, Hungarian and Romanian fascism, Nazism, radical Islamism, and Soviet, Chinese and Cambodian communism. Other applications include a rampaging military (Japan, Pakistan, Indonesia) and extreme nationalism in Serbia, Croatia, the Ottoman Empire and Rwanda. Polish anti-Semitism after World War II and the rise of separatist violence in Sri Lanka are also examined.
The Origins of Schizophrenia synthesizes key findings on a disorder that has been increasingly studied over the past decade. Advances in epidemiology, neuroscience technology, and molecular and statistical genetics have identified new putative environmental risk factors and candidate susceptibility genes, recasting schizophrenia's neurobiological nature. Providing the latest clinical and neuroscience research developments in a comprehensive volume, this collection by world-renowned investigators answers a pressing need for balanced, thorough information, while pointing to future directions in research and interdisciplinary collaboration.
This book offers the first complete analysis of the emergence of simultaneous interpretation of the Nuremburg Trail and the individuals who made the process possible. Gaiba offers new insight into this monumental event based on extensive archival research and interviews with interpreters, who worked at the trial.
Providing a new interpretation of the origins of the First World War, this textbook synthesises recent scholarship and introduces the major historiographical and political debates surrounding the outbreak of the war. William Mulligan argues that the war was a far from inevitable outcome of international politics in the early twentieth century and suggests instead that there were powerful forces operating in favour of the maintenance of peace. His fresh perspective on the pre-war international system takes account of new approaches to the study of international politics since the end of the Cold War and the acceleration of globalisation. Thematic chapters examine key issues, including the military, public opinion, economics, diplomacy and geopolitics, and analyse relations between the great powers, the role of smaller states, the disintegrating empires and the July crisis. This compelling account will significantly revise our understanding of diplomacy, political culture, and economic history from 1870 to 1914. Advanced praise for the Origins of the First World War Book jacket.
The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-first Centuryby Robert B. Marks
This clearly written and engaging book presents a global narrative of the origins of the modern world. Unlike most studies, which assume that the rise of the West is the story of the coming of the modern world, this history, drawing upon new scholarship on Asia, Africa, and the New World, constructs a story in which those parts of the world play major roles. Robert Marks defines the modern world as one marked by industry, the nation state, interstate warfare, a large and growing gap between the wealthiest and poorest parts of the world, and an escape from the biological old regime.
These are the tasks which a consideration of the origins of the war (or rather, wars) must face. But what is meant by 'origins' in this context? It is possible to seek the origins of the war in the events of diplomatic relations - the alliances and alignments of states, the activities of ambassadors and foreign ministers, conferences between statesmen. It may be, however, that such matters were merely superficial, eddies on the surface of a deep-running stream whose course was determined by more profound forces. If so, what were these forces? Obvious possibilities may be found in the movement of ideas and the clash of ideologies; in economic pressures and opportunities; and in changes in military technology and strategic thought. If we accept the importance of such developments, what were the links between them and the decisions of individual statesmen and the sentiments of peoples?
The Sunni-Shi'a schism is often framed as a dispute over the identity of the successor to Muhammad. In reality, however, this fracture only materialized a century later in the important southern Iraqi city of Kufa (present-day Najaf). This book explores the birth and development of Shi'i identity. Through a critical analysis of legal texts, whose provenance has only recently been confirmed, the study shows how the early Shi'a carved out independent religious and social identities through specific ritual practices and within separate sacred spaces. In this way, the book addresses two seminal controversies in the study of early Islam, namely the dating of Kufan Shi'i identity and the means by which the Shi'a differentiated themselves from mainstream Kufan society. This is an important, original and path-breaking book that marks a significant development in the study of early Islamic society.
Do you cringe when a talking head pronounces "niche" as NITCH? Do you get bent out of shape when your teenager begins a sentence with "and"? Do you think British spellings are more "civilised" than the American versions? If you answered yes to any of those questions, you're myth-informed. In Origins of the Specious, word mavens Patricia T. O'Conner and Stewart Kellerman reveal why some of grammar's best-known "rules" aren't--and never were--rules at all. This playfully witty, rigorously researched book sets the record straight about bogus word origins, politically correct fictions, phony français, fake acronyms, and more. Here are some shockers: "They" was once commonly used for both singular and plural, much the way "you" is today. And an eighteenth-century female grammarian, of all people, is largely responsible for the all-purpose "he." From the Queen's English to street slang, this eye-opening romp will be the toast of grammarphiles and the salvation of grammarphobes. Take our word for it.
Conventional wisdom traces Tarot cards to medieval Italy, but their roots go back much further in time and draw on a surprisingly rich variety of cultures and spiritual traditions. Combining pioneering scholarship with practical spiritual instruction, Origins of the Tarot is the first book to unveil the full range of the ancient streams of wisdom from which the Tarot emerged.The timeless principles of conscious realization and cosmological unfoldment underlying the Tarot have never been explored in a comparably extensive and detailed way: herein the teachings of a tremendous range of traditions, including Kabbalah, Western esotericism and alchemy, Buddhism, Taoism, yogic disciplines, Sufism, mystical Christianity, Gnosticism, and Neoplatonism, are masterfully incorporated and synthesized.Author Dai Léon explores a confluence of philosophical schools from East and West as they relate to the Tarot, giving each its due in the exposition of a universal procession of evolution and the soul's quest for enlightenment. In the process, the Tarot is seen as a unique exemplification of perennial teachings on the soul and its liberation, as well as a still-unfolding window into concealed currents of human history. The book's profound learning and unprecedented range of references are sure to attract close study among students both of the world's most enduring esoteric tradition and of esotericism itself.
Once America's "arsenal of democracy," Detroit over the last fifty years has become the symbol of the American urban crisis. In this reappraisal of racial and economic inequality in modern America, Thomas Sugrue explains how Detroit and many other once prosperous industrial cities have become the sites of persistent racialized poverty. He challenges the conventional wisdom that urban decline is the product of the social programs and racial fissures of the 1960s. Probing beneath the veneer of 1950s prosperity and social consensus, Sugrue traces the rise of a new ghetto, solidified by changes in the urban economy and labor market and by racial and class segregation.In this provocative revision of postwar American history, Sugrue finds cities already fiercely divided by race and devastated by the exodus of industries. He focuses on urban neighborhoods, where white working-class homeowners mobilized to prevent integration as blacks tried to move out of the crumbling and overcrowded inner city. Weaving together the history of workplaces, unions, civil rights groups, political organizations, and real estate agencies, Sugrue finds the roots of today's urban poverty in a hidden history of racial violence, discrimination, and deindustrialization that reshaped the American urban landscape after World War II.In a new preface, Sugrue discusses the ongoing legacies of the postwar transformation of urban America and engages recent scholars who have joined in the reassessment of postwar urban, political, social, and African American history.
Hannah Arendt's definitive work on totalitarianism and an essential component of any study of twentieth-century political history The Origins of Totalitarianism begins with the rise of anti-Semitism in central and western Europe in the 1800s and continues with an examination of European colonial imperialism from 1884 to the outbreak of World War I. Arendt explores the institutions and operations of totalitarian movements, focusing on the two genuine forms of totalitarian government in our time--Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia--which she adroitly recognizes were two sides of the same coin, rather than opposing philosophies of Right and Left. From this vantage point, she discusses the evolution of classes into masses, the role of propaganda in dealing with the nontotalitarian world, the use of terror, and the nature of isolation and loneliness as preconditions for total domination.
This work poses a straightforward - yet at the same time perplexing - question about World War I: Why did it happen? Several of the oft-cited causes are reviewed and discussed. The argument of the alliance systems is inadequate, lacking relevance or compelling force. The arguments of mass demands, those focusing on nationalism, militarism and social Darwinism, it is argued, are insufficient, lacking indications of frequency, intensity, and process (how they influenced the various decisions). The work focuses on decision-making, on the choices made by small coteries, in Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, Britain and elsewhere. The decisions made later by leaders in Japan, the Ottoman Empire, Italy, the Balkans, and the United States are also explored. The final chapters review the 'basic causes' once again. An alternative position is advanced, one focused on elites and coteries, their backgrounds and training, and on their unique agendas.
John O'Ryan is Orion - more than human, less than a god, cast away on the seas of Time to do battle among the Creators for the future of mankind
After a brief (but heroic) fling with all that is right and just, Asahel Frost has reverted to his true nature--undisciplined and feckless, according to the girlfriend who just dumped him. Now he is once again the legal nonentity known as Helmut Icicle, living the riverboat skipper life in a tiny galactic outpost with the rest of the ne'er-do-wells.That is until his sister Eve, herself genetically altered by the alien Haluk, begs Helmut to expose the Haluk's conspiracy, which threatens humans throughout the Spur worlds. Genetic alteration is tightly controlled, yet now it's running rampant. Helmut must find the culprits, but time is running out. Too many people have vanished into the secret empire where an evil genius reigns supreme. Worse yet, there's an unknown traitor in Helmut's own family who is quite willing to murder. Only one thing's clear: Helmut will emerge either triumphant . . . or dead.From the Paperback edition.
Anya and I would never be free to live as normal human beings. There would always be the Creators to pull my strings, never leaving us alone. Always a new task, a new enemy, a new time and place. But never a time and place for happiness. Not for me. Not for us. She sensed my soul's exhaustion. Stroking my brow with her cool, smooth fingers, Anya soothed, "Sleep, my darling. Rest and sleep." I slept. But only for the span of a few heartbeats. For I saw Set's satanic face, his red eyes burning, his sharp teeth gleaming in a devil's version of a smile. "I told you I would send you a punishment, Orion. The hour has come." I sat bolt upright, startling Anya. "What is it?" There was no need to answer. A terrified shriek split the night. From one of the caves. I grabbed at the spear lying near the cave's entrance and dashed out onto the narrow ledge of rock that formed a natural stairway down to the canyon floor. Others were spilling out of their caves, screaming, jumping to the rocks below. Kraal's men among them, running and shrieking in absolute terror, stumbling down the rough stone steps, leaping to certain injury or death in their panic to escape.
Project Orion. It's a revolutionary space-based defense shield, only weeks away from deployment. Promising global protection from missile attack by rogue nations, Orion offers an "umbrella" of security to a terror-stricken world. But even the loftiest aims often conceal darker intentions. Behind closed doors, insiders maneuver to control the new superweapon with an agenda that places all mankind at risk. When Angela Browning, an ambitious journalist, receives a mysterious computer disk from an anonymous source, she can't believe the information it contains: photos of ancient structures on the planet Mars. But after diligent research, Angela discovers that the images originated from the Mars Observer probe, a satellite declared "lost" over a decade before. Perhaps even more troubling than the artifacts themselves is the implication that somehow, somewhere in the corridors of power, it's been decided that the discovery of intelligent life on Mars must be suppressed. Angela's quest for the truth eventually leads her to Jake Deaver, the commander of the last Apollo mission to the moon. Deaver, a maverick his whole career, may be the only one who can help her shed light on a conspiracy that reaches into the darkest corners of Washington politics. But the pair's investigation takes them dangerously close to Project Orion, and a powerful cabal determined to prevent anyone from jeopardizing their plans. Now Jake and Angela must face the stark reality that pursuing the truth may put both their lives at risk. And the choice they make will change the world forever.
"Project Orion. It's a revolutionary space-based defense shield, only weeks away from deployment. Promising global protection from missile attack by rogue nations, Orion offers an "umbrella" of security to a terror-stricken world. But even the loftiest aims often conceal darker intentions. Behind closed doors, insiders maneuever to control the new superweapon with an agenda that places all mankind at risk." "When Angela Browning, an ambitious journalist, receives a mysterious computer disk from an anonymous source, she can't believe the information it contains: photographs of ancient structures on the planet Mars. But after diligent research, Angela discovers that the images originated from the Mars Observer probe, a satellite declared "lost" over a decade before. Perhaps even more troubling than the artifacts themselves is the implication that somehow, somewhere in the corridors of power, it's been decided that the discovery of intelligent life on Mars must be suppressed." "Angela's quest for the truth eventually leads her to Jake Deaver, the commander of the last Apollo mission to the moon. Deaver, a maverick his whole career, may be the only one who can help her shed light on a conspiracy that reaches into the darkest corners of Washington politics. But the pair's investigation takes them dangerously close to Project Orion, and a powerful cabal determined to prevent anyone from jeopardizing their plans. Now Jake and Angela must face the stark reality that pursuing the truth may put both their lives at risk. And the choice they make will change the world forever."
Essays that look at the positives and negatives of war, and at a war-free world in the distant future.
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