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Biofuel Crops

by Bharat Singh Ratikanta Maiti Pratik Satya J G Isebrands Surinder S Banga Sujata Bhargava T K Biswas S Wani Steven E Mckeand Toshihiko Yamada Ralph Sims Ismail Dweikat Natalie S Betts Caitlin S Byrt L A Moraes S Hemaiswarya C Dana Nelson Belum V Reddy Jagannath Vishnu Patil Holger Schuhmann Somashekhar Punnuri Gary Stephan Banuelos N K Fageria John H Fike C M Williams Martin Weih Robert B Rummer Rachel A Burton Isabel S Carvalho P Srinivasa Rao Eric J Jokela Donald L Rockwood M Czako Ryan P Viator Peer M Schenk Bill Kovarik Leslie H Groom K C Falk A Moreira Kossonou Guillaume Anzoua Eric Obeng Christopher Q Lan Karaj Singh Dhillon R Raja C Ganesh Kumar A V Umakanth Masazumi Kayama David J Parrish Naser Farrokhi Anna Hale Gary F Peter R Ravikumar Serge Bracconnier Hari P Singh P J Minogue Kurt H Johnsen C Eynck L Marton K Muthukumarappan

Providing comprehensive coverage on biofuel crop production and the technological, environmental and resource issues associated with a sustainable biofuel industry, this book is ideal for researchers and industry personnel. Beginning with an introduction to biofuels and the challenges they face, the book then includes detailed coverage on crops of current importance or with high future prospects, including sections on algae, sugar crops and grass, oil and forestry species. The chapters focus on the genetics, breeding, cultivation, harvesting and handling of each crop.

Biofuels

by John Tabak

Energy and the Environment is a six-volume set that examines the history, technology, science, and environmental and social implications (including issues of environmental justice) associated with the acquisition and production of energy. Designed to complement science curricula, each volume describes comprehensively one or more sources of energy and the technology needed to make it useful. The books emphasize the science on which such technology is based, the limitations of each technology, the environmental implications of its use, questions of availability and cost, and the way that government policies and energy markets interact.

Biogas from Waste and Renewable Resources: An Introduction

by Angelika Steinhauser Dieter Deublein

The leading book on the market just got better: With its unique approach covering all aspects of setting up and running a biogas plant, this new edition has been expanded to include recent advances in biomass processing.The author is a key player in the field, who has designed numerous small- and industrial-scale biogas plants, and who is also a long-time lecturer on biogas production, thus combining didactical skill with real-life expertise. As such, he covers both the biological and technical aspects of biogas generation. The full range of biogas substrates and processing modes is explained, from agricultural and industrial waste to marine algae and sediment. On-site use of biogas for conversion into electricity, fuel and heat is also discussed, as are safety and regulatory issues. Many real-life examples of European biogas plants already in operation illustrate the contents, as do numerous schemes, diagrams and summary tables.For this new edition, biogas analytics and quality control required for feeding biogas into natural gas networks are included, as is a completely new chapter on the microbiology of biogas-producing bacterial communities.

Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach

by Barry Cox Peter D. Moore

Through eight successful editions, and over nearly 40 years, Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach has provided a thorough and comprehensive exploration of the varied scientific disciplines and research that are essential to understanding the subject. The text has been praised for its solid background in historical biogeography and basic biology, that is enhanced and illuminated by discussions of current research.This new edition incorporates the exciting changes of the recent years, and presents a thoughtful exploration of the research and controversies that have transformed our understanding of the biogeography of the world. It also clearly identifies the three quite different arenas of biogeographical research: continental biogeography, island biogeography and marine biogeography. It is the only current textbook with full coverage of marine biogeography. It reveals how the patterns of life that we see today have been created by the two great Engines of the Planet - the Geological Engine, plate tectonics, which alters the conditions of life on the planet, and the Biological Engine, evolution, which responds to these changes by creating new forms and patterns of life.

Biographical Dictionary of Congressional Women

by Karen Foerstel

This comprehensive reference guide to women who have served in Congress provides detailed biographies of each of the 200 women who have held office on Capitol Hill over the past 80 years.

Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers

by Diane Collinson Stuart Brown

A hefty dictionary of over 1,000 entries featuring brief biographies of the lives and work of influential philosophers during the 20th century. The editors have also included thinkers who perhaps would not be strictly considered "philosopher," but have nonetheless made important intellectual contributions (Hannah Arendt, Noam Chomsky, Umberto Eco, C.G. Jung, Julia Kristeva, Max Weber). Besides the comprehensive and consistent scope of the dictionary, the volume also features a bibliography for each entry, a glossary containing short accounts of the origins, development and features of the major schools, movements and traditions in philosophy, and cross referenced indices. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

Biography and the Black Atlantic

by John Wood Sweet Lisa A. Lindsay

In Biography and the Black Atlantic, leading historians in the field of Atlantic studies examine the biographies and autobiographies of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century African-descended people and reflect on the opportunities and limitations these life stories present to studies of slavery and the African diaspora. The essays remind us that historical developments like slavery and empire-building were mostly experienced and shaped by men and women outside of the elite political, economic, and military groups whom historians often turn to as sources.Despite the scarcity of written records and other methodological challenges, the contributors to Biography and the Black Atlantic have pieced together vivid glimpses into lives of remarkable, through previously unknown, enslaved and formerly enslaved people who moved, struggled, and endured in different parts of Africa, the Americas, and Europe. From the woman of Fulani origin who made her way from Revolutionary Haiti to Louisiana to the free black American who sailed for Liberia and the former slave from Brazil who became a major slave trader in Angola, these stories render the Atlantic world as a densely and sometimes unpredictably interconnected sphere. Biography and the Black Atlantic demonstrates the power of individual stories to illuminate history: though the life histories recounted here often involved extraordinary achievement and survival against the odds, they also portray the struggle for self-determination and community in the midst of alienation that lies at the heart of the modern condition.Contributors: James T. Campbell, Vincent Carretta, Roquinaldo Ferreira, Jean-Michel Hébrard, Martin Klein, Lloyd S. Kramer, Sheryl Kroen, Jane Landers, Lisa A. Lindsay, Joseph C. Miller, Cassandra Pybus, João José Reis, Rebecca J. Scott, Jon Sensbach, John Wood Sweet.

Biography and the Sociological Imagination: Contexts and Contingencies

by Michael J. Shanahan Ross Macmillan

Because life course sociology is an imaginative framework, Biography and the Sociological Imagination is less about "what we know" about the life course and more about "how to think" about changing societies and aging by drawing on life course ideas. Drawing from the latest research and using stories of real people, Shanahan and Macmillan spur readers to imagine alternative ways of organizing society and the implications of these alternatives for the biography.

Biography of a Bird Dog: A Labrador Retriever in Wyoming

by Garry Wallace

As you might expect, Biography of a Bird Dog is the story of a man and his dog. But it is more than that, it's a memoir of not only a puppy's first year of life, but of a middle-aged man's appraisal of his own life and career in a small town in Wyoming. <P><P> As Ebenezer, his bird dog, is nearing the end of his hunting career, the author decides to add a new puppy to the family, with the intention of using all he has learned to train her to achieve the full potential of her breed, a process that turns out to be filled with both joy and frustration. When tragedy strikes, he must re-evaluate his own plans along with his dog's future.

Biography of an Idea

by Edward L. Bernays

The father of public relations looks back on a landmark life spent shaping trends, preferences, and general opinion A twentieth-century marketing visionary, Edward L. Bernays brilliantly combined mastery of the social sciences with a keen understanding of human psychology to become one of his generation's most influential social architects. In Biography of an Idea, Bernays traces the formative moments of his career, from his time in the Woodrow Wilson administration as one of the nation's key wartime propagandists to his consultancy for such corporate giants as Procter & Gamble, General Electric, and Dodge Motors. While working with the American Tobacco Company, Bernays launched his now-infamous Lucky Strike campaign, which effectively ended the long-standing taboo against women smoking in public. With his vast knowledge of the psychology of the masses, Bernays was in great demand, advising high-profile officials and counseling the tastemakers of his generation. His masterful and at times manipulative techniques had longstanding influences on social and political beliefs as well as on cultural trends. Biography of an Idea is a fascinating look at the birth of public relations--an industry that continues to hold sway over American society.

The Biography of Ancient Israel

by Ilana Pardes

The nation--particularly in Exodus and Numbers--is not an abstract concept but rather a grand character whose history is fleshed out with remarkable literary power. In her innovative exploration of national imagination in the Bible, Pardes highlights the textual manifestations of the metaphor, the many anthropomorphisms by which a collective character named "Israel" springs to life. She explores the representation of communal motives, hidden desires, collective anxieties, the drama and suspense embedded in each phase of the nation's life: from birth in exile, to suckling in the wilderness, to a long process of maturation that has no definite end. In the Bible, Pardes suggests, history and literature go hand in hand more explicitly than in modern historiography, which is why the Bible serves as a paradigmatic case for examining the narrative base of national constructions. Pardes calls for a consideration of the Bible's penetrating renditions of national ambivalence. She reads the rebellious conduct of the nation against the grain, probing the murmurings of the people, foregrounding their critique of the official line. The Bible does not provide a homogeneous account of nation formation, according to Pardes, but rather reveals points of tension between different perceptions of the nation's history and destiny. This fresh and beautifully rendered portrayal of the history of ancient Israel will be of vital interest to anyone interested in the Bible, in the interrelations of literature and history, in nationhood, in feminist thought, and in psychoanalysis.

Biography Of A Battalion: The Life And Times Of An Infantry Battalion In Europe In World War II

by Major James A. Huston

During World War II, James A Huston served as an operations officer in the 3rd Battalion, 134th Infantry, a unit that helped to liberate or capture dozens of cities across France, Belgium, and Germany. From July 1944 through April 1945, the regiment captured 8,974 prisoners of war and covered over 1,500 combat miles, but lost 10,046 men in the process."Biography of a Battalion" recreates the action and provides an account of the war from one soldier who lived through it.

The Biography of J. R. R. Tolkien, Architect of Middle-Earth

by Daniel Grotta

A biography of J.R.R. Tolkien, the author of the Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, and many more!

Biography of the Dollar

by Craig Karmin

Will the sun set on the greatest currency in the history of the world? For decades the dollar has been the undisputed champ. It's not only the currency of America but much of the world as well, the fuel of global prosperity. As the superengine of the world's only superpower, it's accepted everywhere. When an Asian company trades with South America, those transactions are done in dollars, the currency of international business. But for how much longer? Economists fear America is digging a hole with an economy based on massive borrowing and huge deficits that cloud the dollar's future. Will the buck be eclipsed by the euro or even China's renminbi? Should Americans worry when the value of the mighty U. S. dollar sinks to par with the Canadian "loonie"? Craig Karmin's in-depth "biography" of the dollar explores these issues. It also examines the green-back's history, allure, and unique role as a catalyst for globalization, and how the American buck became so almighty that $ became perhaps the most powerful symbol on earth. Biography of the Dollarexplores every aspect of its subject: the power of the Federal Reserve, the inner sanctums of foreign central banks that stockpile the currency, and the little-known circles of foreign exchange traders that determine a currency's worth. It traces the dollar's ascendancy, including one incredibly important duck-hunting trip and the world-changing Bretton Woods Conference. With its watermark, color-shifting inks, and a presidential portrait that glows under ultraviolet light, the dollar has obsessed foreign governments, some of which have tried to counterfeit it. Even Saddam Hussein, who insisted on being paid in euros for oil, had $750,000 in hundred-dollar bills when captured. Yet if a worldwide currency has enabled a global economy to flourish, it's also allowed the United States to owe unbelievable, shocking amounts of money--paying hundreds of millions of dollars every single day just in interest on foreign debt; that's raised concerns that the dollar standard may not be sustainable. Any threat to the dollar's privileged status would do much more than hurt American pride. It would mean U. S. companies and citizens would not be able to borrow at the low rates they have become accustomed to. The dollar's demise would impact the rest of the world, too, boosting the costs of trade and investment if no other currency was able to play the same crucial role. Ultimately the dollar system may weaken, but it should endure--a while longer, at least; it's in few people's interest to see it fail, and there is still no credible alternative. Biography of the Dollaris must reading for anyone who wants to understand what truly makes the world go 'round--and whether it will continue to spin the way we want it to. From the Hardcover edition.

Biohazard

by Stephen Handelman Ken Alibek

Imagine a hot zone in which Ebola is being spliced--using the latest techniques of genetic engineering--with smallpox, the most infectious disease known to man. Now imagine that cocktail is meant for you. For fifty years, while the world stood in terror of a nuclear war, Russian scientists hidden in heavily guarded secret cities refined and stockpiled a new kind of weapon of mass destruction--an invisible weapon that would strike in silence and could not be traced. It would leave hundreds of thousands dead in its wake and would continue to spread devastation long after its release. The scientists were bioweaponeers, working to perfect the tools of a biological Armageddon. They called it their Manhattan Project. It was the deadliest and darkest secret of the cold war. What you are about to read has never before been made public. Ken Alibek began his career as a doctor wanting to save lives and ended up running the Soviet biological weapons program--a secret military empire masquerading as a pharmaceutical company. At its peak, the program employed sixty thousand people at over one hundred facilities. Seven reserve mobilization plants were on permanent standby, ready to produce hundreds of tons of plague, anthrax, smallpox, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis, to name only a few of the toxic agents bred in Soviet labs. Almost every government ministry was implicated, including the Academy of Sciences and the KGB. Biohazard is a terrifying, fast-paced account of tests and leaks, accidents and disasters in the labs, KGB threats and assassinations. The book is full of revelations--evidence of biowarfare programs in Cuba and India, actual deployments at Stalingrad and in Afghanistan, experiments with mood-altering agents, a contingency plan to attack major American cities, and the true story behind the mysterious anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk. But beyond these is a twisted world of lies and mirrors, and the riveting parable of the greatest perversion of science in history. No one knows the actual capabilities of biological weapons better than Dr. Alibek. Many of the scientists who worked with him have been lured away from low-paying Russian labs to rogue regimes and terrorist groups around the world. In our lifetime, we will most likely see a terrorist attack using biological weapons on an American city. Biohazard tells us--in chilling detail--what to expect and what we can do. Not since Arthur Koestler's Darkness at Noon has there been such a book--a report from inside the belly of the beast.Praise for Biohazard "Harrowing . . . richly descriptive . . . [an] absorbing account."--The New York Times Book Review "Remarkable . . . terrifying revelations . . . [Ken Alibek's] overall message is ignored at great national peril."--Newsday "Read and be amazed. . . . An important and fascinating look into a terrifying world of which we were blissfully unaware."--Robin Cook, author of ContagionFrom the Hardcover edition.

Bioinformatics and Biomarker Discovery

by Francisco Azuaje

This book is designed to introduce biologists, clinicians and computational researchers to fundamental data analysis principles, techniques and tools for supporting the discovery of biomarkers and the implementation of diagnostic/prognostic systems.The focus of the book is on how fundamental statistical and data mining approaches can support biomarker discovery and evaluation, emphasising applications based on different types of "omic" data. The book also discusses design factors, requirements and techniques for disease screening, diagnostic and prognostic applications.Readers are provided with the knowledge needed to assess the requirements, computational approaches and outputs in disease biomarker research. Commentaries from guest experts are also included, containing detailed discussions of methodologies and applications based on specific types of "omic" data, as well as their integration. Covers the main range of data sources currently used for biomarker discoveryCovers the main range of data sources currently used for biomarker discoveryPuts emphasis on concepts, design principles and methodologies that can be extended or tailored to more specific applicationsOffers principles and methods for assessing the bioinformatic/biostatistic limitations, strengths and challenges in biomarker discovery studiesDiscusses systems biology approaches and applicationsIncludes expert chapter commentaries to further discuss relevance of techniques, summarize biological/clinical implications and provide alternative interpretations

Bioinformatics and Systems Biology

by Frederick Marcus

Collaborative research in bioinformatics and systems biology is a key element of modern biology and health research. This book highlights and provides access to many of the methods, environments, results and resources involved, including integral laboratory data generation and experimentation and clinical activities. Collaborative projects embody a research paradigm that connects many of the top scientists, institutions, their resources and research worldwide, resulting in first-class contributions to bioinformatics and systems biology. Central themes include describing processes and results in collaborative research projects using computational biology and providing a guide for researchers to access them. The book is also a practical guide on how science is managed. It shows how collaborative researchers are putting results together in a way accessible to the entire biomedical community.

Bioinformatics Challenges at the Interface of Biology and Computer Science: Mind the Gap

by David Thorne Teresa K. Attwood Stephen R. Pettifer

This innovative book provides a completely fresh exploration of bioinformatics, investigating its complex interrelationship with biology and computer science. It approaches bioinformatics from a unique perspective, highlighting interdisciplinary gaps that often trap the unwary. The book considers how the need for biological databases drove the evolution of bioinformatics; it reviews bioinformatics basics (including database formats, data-types and current analysis methods), and examines key topics in computer science (including data-structures, identifiers and algorithms), reflecting on their use and abuse in bioinformatics. Bringing these disciplines together, this book is an essential read for those who wish to better understand the challenges for bioinformatics at the interface of biology and computer science, and how to bridge the gaps. It will be an invaluable resource for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, and for lecturers, researchers and professionals with an interest in this fascinating, fast-moving discipline and the knotty problems that surround it.

Bioinformatics for Immunomics

by Shoba Ranganathan Matthew Davies Darren D.R. Flower

The field of Immunomics has developed within the post-genomic era as a response to the massive amount of biological and immunological data now available to researchers. Immunomics crosses the disciplines of immunology, genomics, proteomics and computational biology and address some fundamental problems in biological and medical research. This book covers some of the rich sources of immunological data that are currently available and describes the various bioinformatics techniques that have been utilized to aid our understanding of the immune system. It also describes the nature of the self/non-self distinction that forms the basis of immunological theory and how computational modeling can help to clarify our understanding of how the immune system works. This is the fourth volume in a series that will be dedicated to publishing advances in immunomics particularly those focusing on systemic and integrative approaches in basic and clinical immunology, immunoinformatics, and immunologically relevant instrumentation and high-throughput screening methods.

Bioinformatics for Omics Data

by Bernd Mayer

Presenting an area of research that intersects with and integrates diverse disciplines, including molecular biology, applied informatics, and statistics, among others, Bioinformatics for Omics Data: Methods and Protocols collects contributions from expert researchers in order to provide practical guidelines to this complex study. Divided into three convenient sections, this detailed volume covers central analysis strategies, standardization and data-management guidelines, and fundamental statistics for analyzing Omics profiles, followed by a section on bioinformatics approaches for specific Omics tracks, spanning genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome levels, as well as an assortment of examples of integrated Omics bioinformatics applications, complemented by case studies on biomarker and target identification in the context of human disease. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters contain introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and accessible, Bioinformatics for Omics Data: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide to scientists of all backgrounds and aims to convey the appropriate sense of fascination associated with this research field.

Bioinformatics Programming Using Python

by Mitchell L Model

Powerful, flexible, and easy to use, Python is an ideal language for building software tools and applications for life science research and development. This unique book shows you how to program with Python, using code examples taken directly from bioinformatics. In a short time, you'll be using sophisticated techniques and Python modules that are particularly effective for bioinformatics programming. Bioinformatics Programming Using Python is perfect for anyone involved with bioinformatics -- researchers, support staff, students, and software developers interested in writing bioinformatics applications. You'll find it useful whether you already use Python, write code in another language, or have no programming experience at all. It's an excellent self-instruction tool, as well as a handy reference when facing the challenges of real-life programming tasks. Become familiar with Python's fundamentals, including ways to develop simple applications Learn how to use Python modules for pattern matching, structured text processing, online data retrieval, and database access Discover generalized patterns that cover a large proportion of how Python code is used in bioinformatics Learn how to apply the principles and techniques of object-oriented programming Benefit from the "tips and traps" section in each chapter

Bioinformatics with Python Cookbook

by Tiago Antao

If you have intermediate-level knowledge of Python and are well aware of the main research and vocabulary in your bioinformatics topic of interest, this book will help you develop your knowledge further.

Bioinformatics with R Cookbook

by Paurush Praveen Sinha

This book is an easy-to-follow, stepwise guide to handle real life Bioinformatics problems. Each recipe comes with a detailed explanation to the solution steps. A systematic approach, coupled with lots of illustrations, tips, and tricks will help you as a reader grasp even the trickiest of concepts without difficulty.This book is ideal for computational biologists and bioinformaticians with basic knowledge of R programming, bioinformatics and statistics. If you want to understand various critical concepts needed to develop your computational models in Bioinformatics, then this book is for you. Basic knowledge of R is expected.

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