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'Metaphor', a form of figurative language in which one thing or idea is expressed in terms of another, is becoming an increasingly popular area of study, as it is relevant to the work of semanticists, pragmatists, discourse analysts and also those working at the interface of language and literature and in other disciplines such as philosophy and psychology. This book provides a summary, critique and comparison of the most important theories on how metaphors are used and understood, drawing on research from linguistics, psychology and other disciplines. In order to ground the discussion in actual language use, the book uses examples from discourse, including casual conversations, political speeches, literature, humor, religion and science. Written in a non-technical style, the book includes clear definitions, examples, discussion questions and a glossary, making it ideal for graduate-level seminars.
The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"--metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.
Winner of the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for History, a riveting, original book about the creation of modern American thought. The Metaphysical Club was an informal group that met in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1872, to talk about ideas. Its members included Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., future associate justice of the United States Supreme Court; William James, the father of modern American psychology; and Charles Sanders Peirce, logician, scientist, and the founder of semiotics. The Club was probably in existence for about nine months. No records were kept. The one thing we know that came out of it was an idea -- an idea about ideas.
Some of the most eminent and enduring philosophical questions concern matters of priority: what is prior to what? What 'grounds' what? Is, for instance, matter prior to mind? Recently, a vivid debate has arisen about how such questions have to be understood. Can the relevant notion or notions of priority be spelled out? And how do they relate to other metaphysical notions, such as modality, truth-making or essence? This volume of new essays, by leading figures in contemporary metaphysics, is the first to address and investigate the metaphysical idea that certain facts are grounded in other facts. An introduction introduces and surveys the debate, examining its history as well as its central systematic aspects. The volume will be of wide interest to students and scholars of metaphysics.
In this classic, exciting, and thoughtful text, Metaphysics, Peter van Inwagen examines three profound questions: What are the most general features of the world? Why is there a world? and What is the place of human beings in the world? Metaphysics introduces to readers the curious notion that is metaphysics, how it is conceived both historically and currently. The author's work can serve either as a textbook in a university course on metaphysics or as an introduction to metaphysical thinking for the interested reader. This second edition, revised though not fundamentally changed, includes the basis of the first edition with a new chapter on the nature of time.
Metaphysics: Contemporary Readings is a comprehensive anthology that draws together leading philosophers writing on the major themes in Metaphysics. Chapters appear under the headings: Universals Particulars Modality and Possible Worlds Causation Time Persistence Realism and Anti-Realism. Each section is prefaced by an introductory essay by the editor which guides students gently into each topic. Articles by the following leading philosophers are included: Allaire, Anscombe, Armstrong, Black, Broad, Casullo, Dummett, Ewing, Heller, Hume, Kripke, Lewis, Mackie, McTaggart, Mellor, Merricks , Parfit, Plantinga, Price, Prior, Putnam, Quine, Russell, Smart, Swinburne, Taylor , Van Cleve, van Inwagen, Williams. Featuring a new section on causation, this new edition is highly accessible and provides a broad-ranging exploration of the subject. Ideal for any philosophy student, this reader will prove essential reading for any metaphysics course. The sections and selections of readings have been updated to complement Michael Loux's textbook Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction, third edition.
If moral principles apply to everyone, in every situation, at all times, they must be based on concepts of reason rather than on culture or individual personality. "The Metaphysics of Morals" uncovers the principles that guide moral duties and determine the moral compass for good will. By explaining why actions are moral only if they are intentionally moral (not for ulterior motive) and why intention is more important than the outcome of an act (with respect to morality), Kant makes the case for a definable basis for human morality.
These are the dreams of the Asimovs and the Heinleins, the Bears and the Brins. Now Tony Daniel brilliantly dreams the future- and reinvents humanity itself- in an epic chronicle of civil war and transcendence that plays out on an enormous stage encompassing the solar system in its entirety- its asteroids, its comets, and all its people, transmuted into astounding forms and living astonishing lives. The human race has extended itself into the far reaches of our solar system- and, in doing so, has developed into something remarkable and diverse and perhaps transcendent. The inner system of the Met- with its worlds connected by a vast living network of cables- is supported by the repression and enslavement of humanity's progeny, nano-technological artificial intelligences- beings whom the tyrant AmÉs has declared non-human. There is tolerance and sanctuary in the outer system beyond the Jovian frontier. Yet few of the oppressed ever make it post the dictator's well-patrolled boundaries. But the longing for freedom cannot be denied, whatever the risk.A priest of the mystical religion called the Greentree Way senses catastrophe approaching. A vision foretells that the future of our bitterly divided solar system rests in the hands of a mysterious man of destiny and doom who has vanished into the backwater of the Met in search of his lost love. But the priest is not the only one who grasps this man's importance. The despot Amseacute is after the some quarry- and until now there has been no power in the inner solar system willing to oppose Ames and his fearsome minions. But now a line has been drawn of Neptune's moon Triton. Roger Sherman, a retired military commander from Earth's West Point and a Greentree ally, will not let AmÉs prevail. Though dwarfed by the strength and wealth of the Met, the cosmos under Sherman's jurisdiction will remain free at all cost- though defiance will ensure the unspeakable onslaught of the dictator AmÉs's wrath- a rage that will soon ravage the solar system. A rage that will plunge all of humankind into the fury of total war.With Metaplanetary, author Tony Daniel fulfills the great promise of his critically acclaimed earlier works. A new master has reached for the stars, with a stunning speculative masterwork of enormous scope and conceptual daring- an adventure of grand victories and horrific villainy, both human and meta-human alike.
Now available together as an ebook boxed set, four action-packed urban fantasy novels (Trance, Changeling, Tempest, and Chimera) about an X-Men-like group of young people with superpowers. In a future America thate(tm)s been devastated by battles between Rangers (Metas using their powers for good), Banes (Metas using their power to wreak havoc), and the military, the now-grown surviving children of Rangers are regranted powers by a mysterious force. Facing threats from every side, the Metas must work together to keep the peace.
British jet fighters initiated jet vs. jet warfare when they fought Hitler's Nazi German V-1 attacks on London in World War II.The V1 attack on London began on the night of 13/14 June 1944 from bases in Normandy. On 29 March 1945 the last one to fall on Britain was shot down by gunners in Suffolk. A total of 10,500 missiles were launched, of which 3957 were destroyed by the defences - 3531 reached England, 2420 falling in the London area. No fewer than 6184 people were killed and 17,981 seriously injured. Indeed, it could have been much worse, for by the end of the war the Germans had manufactured close to 32,000 flying bombs. The defences put forward to guard against the V1 were formidable - 23,000 men and women with their guns, radar and communications networks were installed on coastal sites. Squadrons of Britain's newest Spitfires, the F XIVs, and Hawker Tempest Vs were kept at home to battle the new menace. While the Spitfire F XIV and Tempest V had excellent low-level speed and were able to catch the V1, there was one aircraft that was much faster. Rushed into action on 22 July 1944 to help counter the V1 threat, Britain's Gloster Meteor I was the first jet fighter to enter RAF service. At low and medium altitudes the Meteor was faster than its piston-engined contemporaries, which in turn made it perfectly suited to 'anti-Diver' V1 operations. On 4 August the Meteor scored its first V1 victory. Having just closed in on a flying bomb, Flg Off Dean of No 616 Sqn squeezed the trigger but his guns jammed. Using the Meteor's superior speed, he was able overtake the missile and, using his wing tip, he tipped the craft over and sent it crashing into the ground. This was the first time a jet-powered enemy aircraft had been destroyed by a jet fighter without a shot being fired! It was also the world's first jet versus jet encounter. As the only jet fighter squadron in Allied service in Europe, No 616 Sqn would go on to shoot down 13 V1s. A small number perhaps, but the interceptions between the V1 and Britain's Gloster Meteor were historic, and ushered in a new era of aerial combat.From the Trade Paperback edition.
The dramatic story of the methamphetamine epidemic as it sweeps the American heartland; a timely, moving, very human account of one community's attempt to battle its way to a brighter future. Crystal methamphetamine is widely considered to be the most dangerous drug in the world, and nowhere is that more true than in the small towns of the American heartland. Methland tells the story of Oelwein, Iowa (pop. 6,159), which, like thousands of other small towns across the country, has been left in the dust by the consolidation of the agricultural industry, a depressed local economy, and an out-migration of people. As if this weren't enough to deal with, an incredibly cheap, long-lasting, and highly addictive drug has rolled into town. Over a period of four years, journalist Nick Reding brings us into the heart of Oelwein through a cast of intimately drawn characters, including: Clay Hallburg, the town doctor, who fights meth even as he struggles with his own alcoholism; Nathan Lein, the town prosecutor, whose caseload is filled almost exclusively with meth-related crime; and Jeff Rohrick, a meth addict, still trying to kick the habit after twenty years. Tracing the connections between the lives touched by the drug and the global forces that set the stage for the epidemic, Methland offers a vital and unique perspective on a pressing contemporary tragedy.
This indispensable manual for present-day players of the one-keyed flute is the first complete method written in modern times. Janice Dockendorff Boland has compiled a manual that can serve as a self-guiding tutor or as a text for a student working with a teacher. Referencing important eighteenth-century sources while also incorporating modern experience, the book includes nearly 100 pages of music drawn from early treatises along with solo flute literature and instructional text and fingering charts. Boland also addresses topics ranging from the basics of choosing a flute and assembling it to more advanced concepts such as tone color and eighteenth-century articulation patterns.
This book presents the first comprehensive introduction to arts-based research (ABR) practices, which scholars in multiple disciplines are fruitfully using to reveal information and represent experiences that traditional methods cannot capture. Each of the six major ABR genres--narrative inquiry, poetry, music, performance, dance, and visual art--is covered in chapters that introduce key concepts and tools and present an exemplary research article by a leading ABR practitioner. Patricia Leavy discusses the kinds of research questions these innovative approaches can address and offers practical guidance for applying them in all phases of a research project, from design and data collection to analysis, interpretation, representation, and evaluation. Chapters include checklists to guide methodological decision making, discussion questions, and recommended print and online resources.
The Methodists and Revolutionary America is the first in-depth narrative of the origins of American Methodism, one of the most significant popular movements in American history. Placing Methodism's rise in the ideological context of the American Revolution and the complex social setting of the greater Middle Atlantic where it was first introduced, Dee Andrews argues that this new religion provided an alternative to the exclusionary politics of Revolutionary America. With its call to missionary preaching, its enthusiastic revivals, and its prolific religious societies, Methodism competed with republicanism for a place at the center of American culture.Based on rare archival sources and a wealth of Wesleyan literature, this book examines all aspects of the early movement. From Methodism's Wesleyan beginnings to the prominence of women in local societies, the construction of African Methodism, the diverse social profile of Methodist men, and contests over the movement's future, Andrews charts Methodism's metamorphosis from a British missionary organization to a fully Americanized church. Weaving together narrative and analysis, Andrews explains Methodism's extraordinary popular appeal in rich and compelling new detail.
In November 2000, the Board on International Comparative Studies in Education (BICSE) held a symposium to draw on the wealth of experience gathered over a four--decade period, to evaluate improvement in the quality of the methodologies used in international studies, and to identify the most pressing methodological issues that remain to be solved. Since 1960, the United States has participated in 15 large--scale cross--national education surveys. The most assessed subjects have been science and mathematics through reading comprehension, geography, nonverbal reasoning, literature, French, English as a foreign language, civic education, history, computers in education, primary education, and second--language acquisition. The papers prepared for this symposium and discussions of those papers make up the volume, representing the most up--to--date and comprehensive assessment of methodological strengths and weaknesses of international comparative studies of student achievement. These papers answer the following questions: (1) What is the methodological quality of the most recent international surveys of student achievement? How authoritative are the results? (2) Has the methodological quality of international achievement studies improved over the past 40 years? and (3) What are promising opportunities for future improvement?
Divided into four parts, the first section touches on the nature of social research; the second discusses fieldwork; the third reviews different survey methods; and the final section grapples with issues of ethics in research.
In a work with far-reaching implications, Chela Sandoval does no less than revise the genealogy of theory over the past thirty years, inserting what she terms "U.S. Third World feminism" into the narrative in a way that thoroughly alters our perspective on contemporary culture and subjectivity. What Sandoval has identified is a language, a rhetoric of resistance to postmodern cultural conditions. U.S liberation movements of the post-World War II era generated specific modes of oppositional consciousness. Out of these emerged a new activity of consciousness and language Sandoval calls the "methodology of the oppressed". This methodology -- born of the strains of the cultural and identity struggles that currently mark global exchange -- holds out the possibility of a new historical moment, a new citizen-subject, and a new form of alliance consciousness and politics. Utilizing semiotics and U.S. Third World feminist criticism, Sandoval demonstrates how this methodology mobilizes love as a category of critical analysis. Rendering this approach in all its specifics, Methodology of the Oppressed gives rise to an alternative mode of criticism opening new perspectives on a theoretical, literary, aesthetic, social movement, or psychic expression.
For teachers at the elementary and secondary levels, this guide outlines strategies for teaching gifted learners. Karnes (curriculum, instruction, and special education, U. of Southern Mississippi) and Bean (education, Mississippi U. for Women) bring together 23 chapters that cover the characteristics and needs of gifted learners, curricular design, process skills development, instructional units, evaluating outcomes, supporting and enhancing gifted programs, and practices such as problem-based learning, creative teaching strategies, independent study, mentorships, and classroom simulations. Chapter authors are scholars, researchers, and consultants in gifted education in the US. In addition to being revised and expanded, this edition includes teacher statements and discussion questions in each chapter. Annotation ©2009 Book News, Inc. , Portland, OR (booknews. com)
The Methods and Skills of History: A Practical Guide, is a dynamic text/workbook that combines theory with "hands on" practice, providing engaging essays, documents, and exercises designed to make history more meaningful and accessible to student readers--whether they are majoring in history, taking a history course as an elective, or simply reading history on their own--as well as strengthen their critical-thinking and communication skills.
Straightforward and practical, this is the first book to provide detailed guidance for using neurobiological methods in the study of human social behavior, personality, and affect. Each chapter clearly introduces the method at hand, provides examples of the method's applications, discusses its strengths and limitations, and reviews concrete experimental design considerations. Written by acknowledged experts, chapters cover neuroimaging techniques, genetic measurement, hormonal methods, lesion studies, startle eyeblink responses, facial electromyography, autonomic nervous system responses, and modeling based on neural networks.
Argumentation, which can be abstractly defined as the interaction of different arguments for and against some conclusion, is an important skill to learn for everyday life, law, science, politics, and business. The best way to learn it is to try it out on real instances of arguments found in everyday conversational exchanges and legal argumentation. The introductory chapter of this book gives a clear general idea of what the methods of argumentation are and how they work as tools that can be used to analyze arguments. Each subsequent chapter then applies these methods to a leading problem of argumentation. Today the field of computing has embraced argumentation as a paradigm for research in artificial intelligence and multi-agent systems. Another purpose of this book is to present and refine tools and techniques from computing as components of the methods that can be handily used by scholars in other fields.
A new edition of this book is available This book is designed as an introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and gives an overview of the various theories and methods associated with this sociolinguistic approach. It also introduces the reader to the leading figures in CDA and the methods to which they are most closely related. The text aims to provide a comprehensive description of the individual methods, an understanding of the theories to which methods refer and a comparative treatment of each of these methods so that students may be able to determine which is the most appropriate to select for their particular research question. Given the balance between theory and application, plus the intended audience - no previous knowledge of CDA is assumed - Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis should be useful reading for both students and researchers in the fields of linguistics, sociology, social psychology and the social sciences in general.
This book covers the method of metric distances and its application in probability theory and other fields. The method is fundamental in the study of limit theorems and generally in assessing the quality of approximations to a given probabilistic model. The method of metric distances is developed to study stability problems and reduces to the selection of an ideal or the most appropriate metric for the problem under consideration and a comparison of probability metrics. After describing the basic structure of probability metrics and providing an analysis of the topologies in the space of probability measures generated by different types of probability metrics, the authors study stability problems by providing a characterization of the ideal metrics for a given problem and investigating the main relationships between different types of probability metrics. The presentation is provided in a general form, although specific cases are considered as they arise in the process of finding supplementary bounds or in applications to important special cases. Svetlozar T. Rachev is the Frey Family Foundation Chair of Quantitative Finance, Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, SUNY-Stony Brook and Chief Scientist of Finanlytica, USA. Lev B. Klebanov is a Professor in the Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. Stoyan V. Stoyanov is a Professor at EDHEC Business School and Head of Research, EDHEC-Risk Institute--Asia (Singapore). Frank J. Fabozzi is a Professor at EDHEC Business School. (USA)
This well-known text and reference contains an account of those mathematical methods that have applications in at least two branches of physics. The authors give examples of the practical use of the methods taken from a wide range of physics, including dynamics, hydrodynamics, elasticity, electromagnetism, heat conduction, wave motion and quantum theory. They pay particular attention to the conditions under which theorems hold. Helpful exercises accompany each chapter.
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