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This book reviews the shift in the historiography of computing from inventors and innovations to a user-perspective, and examines how the relevant sources can be created, collected, preserved, and disseminated. The text describes and evaluates a project in Sweden that documented the stories of around 700 people. The book also provides a critical discussion on the interpretation of oral evidence, presenting three case studies on how this evidence can inform us about the interaction of computing with large-scale transformations in economies, cultures, and societies. Features: describes a historiography aimed at addressing the question of how computing shaped and transformed Swedish society between 1950 and 1980; presents a user-centered perspective on the history of computing, after explaining the benefits of such an approach; examines the documentation of users, describing novel and innovative documentation methods; discusses the pros and cons of collaborative projects between academia and industry.
A textbook for composition teachers, examining technology and literature in a digital environment
Explains the different parts of a computer and how they work.
This booklet guides a scout through many aspects of computers. It includes historical info, technical info, and usage info. It is intended to be used for a scout to obtain his computer meritbadge.
The depiction of computers on the various "Star Trek" series has ranged from lame to breathtakingly imaginative. This book covers the gamut, and makes lucid and entertaining comparison of these fictional computers with those that now exist or are likely to inhabit our future. Throughout its history, "Star Trek" has been an accurate reflection of contemporary ideas about computers and their role in our lives. Affectionately but without illusions, The Computers of Star Trek shows how those ideas compare with what we now know we can and will do with computers.
The book introduces students to the key information technology concepts and the vital technical skills that can help improve their personal and professional lives. Studying this book will help prepare students for the workplace of today--and tomorrow--in which some level of computer skills is often an essential requirement for employment.
The history of computing could be told as the story of hardware and software, or the story of the Internet, or the story of "smart" hand-held devices, with subplots involving IBM, Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, and Twitter. In this concise and accessible account of the invention and development of digital technology, computer historian Paul Ceruzzi offers a broader and more useful perspective. He identifies four major threads that run throughout all of computing's technological development: digitization--the coding of information, computation, and control in binary form, ones and zeros; the convergence of multiple streams of techniques, devices, and machines, yielding more than the sum of their parts; the steady advance of electronic technology, as characterized famously by "Moore's Law"; and the human-machine interface. Ceruzzi guides us through computing history, telling how a Bell Labs mathematician coined the word "digital" in 1942 (to describe a high-speed method of calculating used in anti-aircraft devices), and recounting the development of the punch card (for use in the 1890 U. S. Census). He describes the ENIAC, built for scientific and military applications; the UNIVAC, the first general purpose computer; and ARPANET, the Internet's precursor. Ceruzzi's account traces the world-changing evolution of the computer from a room-size ensemble of machinery to a "minicomputer" to a desktop computer to a pocket-sized smart phone. He describes the development of the silicon chip, which could store ever-increasing amounts of data and enabled ever-decreasing device size. He visits that hotbed of innovation, Silicon Valley, and brings the story up to the present with the Internet, the World Wide Web, and social networking.
This book synthesizes the findings of three workshops on research issues in high-performance computing and communications (HPCC). It focuses on the role that computing and communications can play in supporting federal, state, and local emergency management officials who deal with natural and man-made hazards (e.g., toxic spills, terrorist bombings). The volume also identifies specific research challenges for HPCC in meeting unmet technology needs in crisis management and other nationally important application areas, such as manufacturing, health care, digital libraries, and electronic commerce and banking.
Computing Essentials 2013 allows you to Make IT Work for You through relevant Explorations, Ethics and Environment themes throughout each chapter.
Computing is revolutionizing the practice of biology. This book, which assumes no prior computing experience, provides students with the tools to write their own Python programs and to understand fundamental concepts in computational biology and bioinformatics. Each major part of the book begins with a compelling biological question, followed by the algorithmic ideas and programming tools necessary to explore it: the origins of pathogenicity are examined using gene finding, the evolutionary history of sex determination systems is studied using sequence alignment, and the origin of modern humans is addressed using phylogenetic methods. In addition to providing general programming skills, this book explores the design of efficient algorithms, simulation, NP-hardness, and the maximum likelihood method, among other key concepts and methods. Easy-to-read and designed to equip students with the skills to write programs for solving a range of biological problems, the book is accompanied by numerous programming exercises, available at www. cs. hmc. edu/CFB.
Computing for the Older & Wiser is a simple-to-follow user friendly guide aimed at the older generation introducing the basics of mastering a computer. Covering the latest release of Windows Vista Home Premium(TM) and Windows XP(TM), this book is designed for people who want straightforward instructions on how to use their home PC.Written in plain English, using no unintelligible 'computer speak' Adrian guides you step-by-step through the basics of computing including chapters on:Use of the keyboard and mouseEmail and the InternetCustomising your desktopWord processingDigital photographyUseful websitesand much moreUseful tips and tricks and a question and answer revision section in each chapter will build your confidence, get you up-to-date and technologically savvy in no time!If you want to learn how to search and shop online, email or chat to family and friends, and you have the enthusiasm to learn a new skill then this book is for you.With explanatory screenshots in full colourEasy to read fontSupplementary website - including additional exercises to help improve your PC skills, further online hints and tips, and a directory of useful resources. www.pcwisdom.co.uk"Computing for the Older & Wiser will take readers comfortably through getting started on their home PC. The content is similar to what we would take our clients through if they were to attend a class, which is exactly the right level."--Faye Lester, Computer Training Coordinator, Age Concern Camden, UK"I have not had so much fun for years"--Renee Moore, 79, pupil at Age Concern, Colchester, UK
Computers now impact almost every aspect of our lives, from our social interactions to the safety and performance of our cars. How did this happen in such a short time? And this is just the beginning. . . . In this book, Tony Hey and Gyuri Pápay lead us on a journey from the early days of computers in the 1930s to the cutting-edge research of the present day that will shape computing in the coming decades. Along the way, they explain the ideas behind hardware, software, algorithms, Moore's Law, the birth of the personal computer, the Internet and the Web, the Turing Test, Jeopardy's Watson, World of Warcraft, spyware, Google, Facebook, and quantum computing. This book also introduces the fascinating cast of dreamers and inventors who brought these great technological developments into every corner of the modern world. This exciting and accessible introduction will open up the universe of computing to anyone who has ever wondered where his or her smartphone came from.
A mind-blowing glimpse into the near future, where quantum computing will have world-transforming effects.The quantum computer is no longer the stuff of science fiction. Pioneering physicists are on the brink of unlocking a new quantum universe which provides a better representation of reality than our everyday experiences and common sense ever could. The birth of quantum computers - which, like Schrödinger's famous "dead and alive" cat, rely on entities like electrons, photons, or atoms existing in two states at the same time - is set to turn the computing world on its head.In his fascinating study of this cutting-edge technology, John Gribbin updates his previous views on the nature of quantum reality, arguing for a universe of many parallel worlds where "everything is real." Looking back to Alan Turing's work on the Enigma machine and the first electronic computer, Gribbin explains how quantum theory developed to make quantum computers work in practice as well as in principle. He takes us beyond the arena of theoretical physics to explore their practical applications - from machines which learn through "intuition" and trial and error to unhackable laptops and smartphones. And he investigates the potential for this extraordinary science to create a world where communication occurs faster than light and teleportation is possible.This is an exciting insider's look at the new frontier of computer science and its revolutionary implications.
Computing with Windows® 7 for the Older & Wiser is a user friendly guide that takes you step-by-step through the basics of using a computer. Written in an easy-to-understand, jargon free language, it is aimed at complete beginners using PCs running on Microsoft Windows® 7. Inside, you will find step-by-step guidance on:Using the keyboard & the mouseNavigating files and foldersCustomising your desktopUsing Email and the InternetWord processingOrganising your digital photosSafely downloading files from the InternetFinding useful websites and much more
Randomized algorithms have become a central part of the algorithms curriculum, based on their increasingly widespread use in modern applications. This book presents a coherent and unified treatment of probabilistic techniques for obtaining high probability estimates on the performance of randomized algorithms. It covers the basic toolkit from the Chernoff-Hoeffding bounds to more sophisticated techniques like martingales and isoperimetric inequalities, as well as some recent developments like Talagrand's inequality, transportation cost inequalities and log-Sobolev inequalities. Along the way, variations on the basic theme are examined, such as Chernoff-Hoeffding bounds in dependent settings. The authors emphasise comparative study of the different methods, highlighting respective strengths and weaknesses in concrete example applications. The exposition is tailored to discrete settings sufficient for the analysis of algorithms, avoiding unnecessary measure-theoretic details, thus making the book accessible to computer scientists as well as probabilists and discrete mathematicians.
The concept generation process seems like an intuitional thought: difficult to capture and perform, although everyone is capable of it. It is not an analytical process but a synthetic process which has yet to be clarified. Furthermore, new research methods for investigating the concept generation process--a very difficult task since the concept generation process is driven by inner feelings deeply etched in the mind--are necessary to establish its theory and methodology. Concept Generation for Design Creativity - A Systematized Theory and Methodology presents the concept generation process both theoretically and methodologically. Theoretically, the concept generation process is discussed by comparing metaphor, abduction, and General Design Theory from the notions of similarities and dissimilarities. Analogy, blending, and integration by thematic relation have been explained methodologically. So far, these theories and methods have been discussed independently, and the relations among them have not been clarified. Two newly developed research methods to investigate the concept generation process are clearly explained: the explanation-based protocol analysis and constructive simulation. By reading Concept Generation for Design Creativity - A Systematized Theory and Methodology, students, researchers and lecturers in design disciplines (including engineering design, industrial design, software design, CHI, design education, and cognitive science ) can obtain a clear picture of the advanced research findings and the outline of the theories and methods for concept generation. Furthermore, readers are expected to achieve the competence to generate new concepts.
This innovative text presents computer programming as a unified discipline in a way that is both practical and scientifically sound. The book focuses on techniques of lasting value and explains them precisely in terms of a simple abstract machine. The book presents all major programming paradigms in a uniform framework that shows their deep relationships and how and where to use them together. After an introduction to programming concepts, the book presents both well-known and lesser-known computation models ("programming paradigms"). Each model has its own set of techniques and each is included on the basis of its usefulness in practice. The general models include declarative programming, declarative concurrency, message-passing concurrency, explicit state, object-oriented programming, shared-state concurrency, and relational programming. Specialized models include graphical user interface programming, distributed programming, and constraint programming. Each model is based on its kernel language--a simple core language that consists of a small number of programmer- significant elements. The kernel languages are introduced progressively, adding concepts one by one, thus showing the deep relationships between different models. The kernel languages are defined precisely in terms of a simple abstract machine. Because a wide variety of languages and programming paradigms can be modeled by a small set of closely related kernel languages, this approach allows programmer and student to grasp the underlying unity of programming. The book has many program fragments and exercises, all of which can be run on the Mozart Programming System, an Open Source software package that features an interactive incremental development environment.
This textbook presents a thorough foundation to the theory of computation. Combining intuitive descriptions and illustrations with rigorous arguments and detailed proofs for key topics, the logically structured discussion guides the reader through the core concepts of automata and languages, computability, and complexity of computation. Topics and features: presents a detailed introduction to the theory of computation, complete with concise explanations of the mathematical prerequisites; provides end-of-chapter problems with solutions, in addition to chapter-opening summaries and numerous examples and definitions throughout the text; draws upon the author's extensive teaching experience and broad research interests; discusses finite automata, context-free languages, and pushdown automata; examines the concept, universality and limitations of the Turing machine; investigates computational complexity based on Turing machines and Boolean circuits, as well as the notion of NP-completeness.
A Concise Introduction to Languages, Machines and Logic provides an accessible introduction to three key topics within computer science: formal languages, abstract machines and formal logic. Written in an easy-to-read, informal style, this textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of programming on the part of the reader. The approach is deliberately non-mathematical, and features: - Clear explanations of formal notation and jargon, - Extensive use of examples to illustrate algorithms and proofs, - Pictorial representations of key concepts, - Chapter opening overviews providing an introduction and guidance to each topic, - End-of-chapter exercises and solutions, - Offers an intuitive approach to the topics. This reader-friendly textbook has been written with undergraduates in mind and will be suitable for use on course covering formal languages, formal logic, computability and automata theory. It will also make an excellent supplementary text for courses on algorithm complexity and compilers.
Traditional logic as a part of philosophy is one of the oldest scientific disciplines and can be traced back to the Stoics and to Aristotle. Mathematical logic, however, is a relatively young discipline and arose from the endeavors of Peano, Frege, and others to create a logistic foundation for mathematics. It steadily developed during the twentieth century into a broad discipline with several sub-areas and numerous applications in mathematics, informatics, linguistics and philosophy. This book treats the most important material in a concise and streamlined fashion. The third edition is a thorough and expanded revision of the former. Although the book is intended for use as a graduate text, the first three chapters can easily be read by undergraduates interested in mathematical logic. These initial chapters cover the material for an introductory course on mathematical logic, combined with applications of formalization techniques to set theory. Chapter 3 is partly of descriptive nature, providing a view towards algorithmic decision problems, automated theorem proving, non-standard models including non-standard analysis, and related topics. The remaining chapters contain basic material on logic programming for logicians and computer scientists, model theory, recursion theory, Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems, and applications of mathematical logic. Philosophical and foundational problems of mathematics are discussed throughout the text. Each section of the seven chapters ends with exercises some of which of importance for the text itself. There are hints to most of the exercises in a separate file Solution Hints to the Exercises which is not part of the book but is available from the author's website.
The only PRINCE2(R) checklist you'll ever need! Written by a former Chief Examiner for PRINCE2(R), this pocket guide contains all you need to prompt your memory at the crucial time. It is laid out in a clear and comprehensible format with helpful diagrams and tables, and will enable you to: bring to mind the information you need, just when you need it keep the key principles at the forefront of your mind focus on what you are trying to achieve follow the correct processes, in the right order tailor the system to suit your needs and objectives manage a successful project from beginning to end add value to your business.
The Cookbook-style recipes allow you to go both directly to your topic of interest or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge. This practical Cookbook will cater to the needs of both intermediate and advanced concrete5 developers.This book is geared towards intermediate to advanced PHP developers who would like to learn more about the concrete5 content management system. Developers already familiar with concrete5 will learn new time-saving tricks and will find the book to be a great reference tool.
Whether you have had some previous experience with concrete5 or are entirely new to it, this book will help you understand all that you need to know in order to get started with concrete5 development. A background in PHP is required; some knowledge of HTML/CSS is needed in order to fully grasp the concepts underlying concrete5 theme development.
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