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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification

by Committee on Use of Dietary Reference Intakes in Nutrition Labeling

Since 1997, the Institute of Medicine has issued a series of nutrient reference values that are collectively termed Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The DRIs offer quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets. Using the information from these reports, this newest volume in the DRI series focuses on how the DRIs, and the science for each nutrient in the DRI reports, can be used to develop current and appropriate reference values for nutrition labeling and food fortification. Focusing its analysis on the existing DRIs, the book examines the purpose of nutrition labeling, current labeling practices in the United States and Canada, food fortification practices and policies, and offers recommendations as a series of guiding principles to assist the regulatory agencies that oversee food labeling and fortification in the United States and Canada. The overarching goal of the information in this book is to provide updated nutrition labeling that consumers can use to compare products and make informed food choices. Diet-related chronic diseases are a leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States and Canada and helping customers make healthy food choices has never been more important.

Dietary Supplements for the Health and Quality of Cultured Fish

by Heisuke Nakagawa Minoru Sato Delbert M. Gatlin III

This book addresses current information on the effects of micronutrients and other efficacious substances from plants, animals and bacteria, with regard to quality and health of cultured fish. Each chapter contains tables, figures and is packed with many new references to help expand your knowledge of various aspects of fish culture technology.

The Dieter's Prayer Book: Spiritual Power and Daily Encouragement

by Heather Harpham Kopp

Friendly Support. Daily Encouragement. Spiritual Empowerment. Diets and diet books have never been more popular. At the same time, recent studies show that Americans have never been more overweight. It's no wonder, then, that women who are trying to lose weight--be it 10 or 100 pounds--are among the most frequently discouraged people around. Every day we are faced with fridge wars, bad mirror moments, diets that don't work, skinny friends who can eat whatever they like, and husbands who reminisce about the size 8 they married. Yet victory can be yours. Increasingly, scientific studies are indicating that in health matters, prayer works--and inThe Dieter's Prayer Book, you'll find that daily ounce of spiritual encouragement you need. Not tied to any one particular diet,The Dieter's Prayer Bookcan be used in conjunction with any healthy-eating program, or on its own. Each day, these upbeat prayers will remind you what really matters, make you feel less alone, and empower you to achieve your goal of healthful living.

Dieting for Dummies (2nd edition)

by Jane Kirby

Does the world really need another book on dieting? More important, do you? Plenty of diet books make promises that this one doesn't. Lots tell you that losing weight and keeping it off is easy when you know their secrets. Well, here's a secret that the other books won't tell you: Dieting gimmicks, like banning pasta, don't work. And that's precisely why you need this book. It's not about fad plans or take-it-off-quick schemes. It's about balancing healthful eating and exercise for a lifetime. This second edition of Dieting For Dummies is for anyone who has eaten too much and wants to lose weight. The information presented here is appropriate for someone wanting to lose 10 pounds or 100 pounds. You can use it as a guide for eating healthfully, and not only a way to lose weight. Because, when you discover how to eat the healthy way, you will lose weight. The material in Dieting For Dummies is grouped so that you don't have to start at the beginning - although that's a nice place to start. If you'd rather, you can flip right to the chapter that contains the information you need. You'll discover information on Understanding what a healthy weight is and how to find yours Getting over overeating Formulating a plan for healthy eating Shopping, cooking, and dining out to make eating healthy easier Finding and working with health-care professionals you can trust, for when you can't seem to go it alone People come in a wide range of heights, weights, and girths. One is not better than another. But staying within your healthiest weight range can help you achieve optimal health and well-being. Let this book help you see through the fog of fads and myths. Then read on and find out how you can stop dieting and start living healthfully.

The Different Girl

by Gordon Dahlquist

Veronika. Caroline. Isobel. Eleanor. One blond, one brunette, one redhead, one with hair black as tar. Four otherwise identical girls who spend their days in sync, tasked to learn. But when May, a very different kind of girl-the lone survivor of a recent shipwreck-suddenly and mysteriously arrives on the island, an unsettling mirror is about to be held up to the life the girls have never before questioned. Sly and unsettling, Gordon Dahlquist's timeless and evocative storytelling blurs the lines between contemporary and sci-fi with a story that is sure to linger in readers' minds long after the final page has been turned. .

Different Loving

by William Brame Jon Jacobs Gloria Brame

A breakthrough in sexual literature, this work is a complete, comprehensive user-friendly guide to and tour through the world of alternative sexual lifestyles. While the topics are exotic and erotic, the authors handle each one in a sensitive, thorough, analytical, and fascinating way and manage to explain a secret world to those who might wish to visit.From the Trade Paperback edition.

Different Strokes

by Jie Mao Steven Boorstein

"Strokes are the third-leading cause of death in America, and for the 'lucky' stroke victims who don't die, about half will spend the rest of their lives trying to recover." Roughly 700,000 American suffer a stroke each year and around 140,000 of them are fatal. Different Strokes is an in-depth look at what surviving, or not surviving, a stroke can mean. And Steven Boorstein should know-at age fifty-two, he suffered a stroke after a hit on the ski slopes of Vail. Part-memoir, part-how-to, Steven Boorstein's book will help you to recover from a stroke, whether you were the victim of one or had to watch a loved one suffer.Dividing the book into three distinct sections, Boorstein first focuses on his personal experience with a stroke, how he recovered, and his controversial use of medical marijuana to help resurrect his damaged mind and wracked body. The second part of this book explores how others have dealt with a stroke. Hear first-hand from stroke survivors and their loved ones about what effect a stroke had on their marriage, sex life, careers, relationships (with children, relatives, strangers), and more. The finale of the book covers tools and helpful resources-therapies, therapeutic tools, and exercises; organizations for survivors; and key words-for people who have had a stroke, been diagnosed as being at risk, or for those whose loved ones are at risk or are recovering. This is an essential book for anyone who's ever had, or been hurt by, a stroke.

A Different Way of Seeing: Youth with Visual Impairments and Blindness (Youth With Special Needs)

by Patricia Souder

Kyla passed the ball to her teammate, then raced up the court. Somehow, she lost track of the orange globe and didn't see it again until right before it smashed into her left cheek. Kyla's head snapped. At courtside, a paramedic asked her to close her left eye and see with her right. "How's everything look?" "Just fine." The paramedic instructed her to close her right eye and look with her left. "How about now?" "I see bright, flashing lights, some black specks, and a dark cloud right where you should be." "In that case, you win some eye shields and a trip to the emergency room." In A Different Way of Seeing: Youth with Visual Impairments and Blindness, you will learn about many different visual disorders, what can cause them, and resources to help deal with the challenges visual impairments can bring. As you follow Kyla's story, you will learn what it is like to be visually impaired. Along the way, you will also learn about the resources and adaptive devices - like white canes, guide dogs, Braille, blind camps, music programs, and sports opportunities - available to help youth with blindness or vision impairment. People with vision impairments have many stories to tell - stories of determination, hope, and accomplishment.

Differential Diagnosis and Management for the Chiropractor: Protocols and Algorithms

by Thomas A. Souza

The Fifth Edition of this best-selling reference is a compendium of evidence-based approaches to the most common presenting complaints. Covering both musculoskeletal and visceral complaints, this text is intended to direct the chiropractor toward an appropriate plan of approach in both diagnostic evaluation and care. Highlighting these approaches are flowcharts (algorithms), relevant historical questioning, and summaries of common conditions related to the presenting complaint. What's New in the 5th Edition?* Additional disorders added to Selected Causes at the conclusion of chapters* Addition of Likelihood Ratio graphics * Addition of approximately 500 new references * New Appendix: Evidence Based Approach to the Literature* Expanded Appendix: Pharmacology for the Chiropractor includes newer drugs and further explains the classifications of medications mechanisms* Translation into Practice Summary (TIPS) for most of the orthopedic chapters* Updated Algorithms: Cervical spine, Lumbar spine, Shoulder, Knee

The Digest Diet

by Liz Vaccariello

The Digest Diet is a 21-day weight-loss plan based on groundbreaking science and newly discovered foods and habits that help your body to release fat. Reader's Digest sifted through all the weight-loss science to pick the foods, recipes, and habits that truly slim you down quickly and safely. We reviewed cutting-edge nutrition advances and myth-busting articles. We discovered some new reasons fat creeps on--and reliable ways to get it to fade away quickly. The Digest Diettargets surprising fat increasers in three key areas--eating, environment and exercise--and gives you the tools you need to turn the tables and shift your body into fat release mode.The eating plan is organized in three basic stages: Fast Release, Fade Away, and Finish Strong. Every phase loads you up on fat releasers. But the calorie and macronutrient ratios shift in each so as to maximize fat release--and results!Fast Release (12-minute exercise routine) is a four-day fat releasing jump start. The Fat-Release Workout combines both strength training and HIIT (high intensity interval training) into a 12-minute workout that's amazingly effective for fat burn and muscle growth.Fade Away transitions you into lean proteins and micronutrient-rich greens. For this 10-day stretch, you continue to have a shake a day, but the lean-and-green focus gives your body what it needs to help you release fat and build muscle, while lowering your intake of carbohydrates for faster fat fade.Finish Strong is the last week of the plan. The meals and recipes show you how to enjoy a balanced, healthy, wholefoods diet rich in fat releasers.The Digest Diet provides a list of 13 fat releasers, which include Vitamin C, Calcium, Protein and Coconut Oil, as well as an easy cheat sheet of fat releasing foods that can be eaten during the diet, such as broccoli, grapefruit, mozzarella cheese, almonds, fish, beef, red wine, dark chocolate and avocados, to name a few.Inside the Digest Diet, you will also find a 21 day meal-plan, 50 fat releasing recipes with full color photos, a 12 minute fat release workout, a fat release workout calendar, before and after success stories, "laugh it off" sidebars to help keep perspective and sanity, and a free online destination for tips, videos, shopping lists and daily food and exercise journals to help make your weight loss goals easy and achievable. www.digestdiet.comTo prove the 21-day eating plan truly works, we put a dozen men and women on the diet--and their results will astound and inspire you. Our top tester lost 26 pounds in 3 weeks!This enhanced e-book edition includes video featuring the inspiring stories of the Digest Diet test panelists, as well as interactive shopping and activity lists and new recipe variations!

The Digest Diet

by Liz Vaccariello

The Digest Diet is a 21-day weight-loss plan based on groundbreaking science and newly discovered foods and habits that help your body to release fat. Reader's Digest sifted through all the weight-loss science to pick the foods, recipes, and habits that truly slim you down quickly and safely. We reviewed cutting-edge nutrition advances and myth-busting articles. We discovered some new reasons fat creeps on--and reliable ways to get it to fade away quickly. The Digest Diet targets surprising fat increasers in three key areas--eating, environment and exercise--and gives you the tools you need to turn the tables and shift your body into fat release mode.The eating plan is organized in three basic stages: Fast Release, Fade Away, and Finish Strong. Every phase loads you up on fat releasers. But the calorie and macronutrient ratios shift in each so as to maximize fat release--and results!Fast Release (12-minute exercise routine) is a four-day fat releasing jump start. The Fat-Release Workout combines both strength training and HIIT (high intensity interval training) into a 12-minute workout that's amazingly effective for fat burn and muscle growth.Fade Away transitions you into lean proteins and micronutrient-rich greens. For this 10-day stretch, you continue to have a shake a day, but the lean-and-green focus gives your body what it needs to help you release fat and build muscle, while lowering your intake of carbohydrates for faster fat fade.Finish Strong is the last week of the plan. The meals and recipes show you how to enjoy a balanced, healthy, wholefoods diet rich in fat releasers.The Digest Diet provides a list of 13 fat releasers, which include Vitamin C, Calcium, Protein and Coconut Oil, as well as an easy cheat sheet of fat releasing foods that can be eaten during the diet, such as broccoli, grapefruit, mozzarella cheese, almonds, fish, beef, red wine, dark chocolate and avocados, to name a few.Inside the Digest Diet, you will also find a 21 day meal-plan, 50 fat releasing recipes with full color photos, a 12 minute fat release workout, a fat release workout calendar, before and after success stories, "laugh it off" sidebars to help keep perspective and sanity, and a free online destination for tips, videos, shopping lists and daily food and exercise journals to help make your weight loss goals easy and achievable. www.digestdiet.comTo prove the 21-day eating plan truly works, we put a dozen men and women on the diet--and their results will astound and inspire you. Our top tester lost 26 pounds in 3 weeks!

The Digest Diet Cookbook

by Liz Vaccariello

Eat up and slim down with this companion to the phenomenally successful The Digest Diet.In The Digest Diet, Liz Vaccariello and the editors of Reader's Digest sifted through the latest weight-loss science to develop a groundbreaking 21-day eating plan demonstrated to help you drop the pounds. Real-life men and women who tried the plan--and lost up to 26 pounds!The Digest Diet Cookbook will give readers 150 all-new fat releasing recipes so they can branch out with new foods but still maintain their weight loss results. In addition, the book will include: Buying and storing tips for the 13 amazing fat-releasing foods Guidelines on how to mix and match recipes to make your own menus Quick and easy tips on organizing your kitchen and pantry to make cooking easier, shopping for and storing fat releasers, and scaling recipes to feed just the right number of people More than 50 full-color photographs Daily Menus for vegetarians, cooks on a budget, and other special needs Inspirational stories from our testersWhether you're new to The Digest Diet or looking to maintain your fabulous success, The Digest Diet Cookbook is all you need to get and stay thin and healthy for life.

Digest Diet Dining Out Guide

by Liz Vaccariello

Each year, millions of Americans sit down to meals that are loaded with fat increasers, hidden ingredients, and unnecessary calories. With The Digest Diet Dining Out Guide, readers learn how to navigate the world of restaurants, cafes, diners and delis while staying on track with the fat-releasing power of the Digest Diet.About the plan: New York Times bestseller The Digest Diet is a 21-day weight-loss plan based on groundbreaking science and newly discovered foods and habits that help your body to release fat.This companion dining guide is pocket-sized for everyday use at work or evenings out. It includes:· Details about the 3 phases of plan: Fast Release, Fade Away, and Finish Strong· 10 shortcuts and tips for ordering healthy meals· How to find fat-releasing foods on a menu· How to spot (and avoid) fat increasers· The best meals for each phase of the diet at national fast food and casual dining restaurants· New portable snack ideas for when you're traveling, running errands, or just short on time· Easy comparison chart so you know how to estimate portion sizes like ounces, cups, tablespoons, and moreLosing weight doesn't have to mean giving up dinners out with friends and family. At its heart, the Digest Diet is about foods you can enjoy without guilt-it all comes down to eating the right foods. The Digest Diet Dining Out Guide supports you as you lose weight and maintain the results... without giving up your favorite foods.

Digestive Intelligence

by Irina Matveikova

Digestive Intelligence tells the fascinating story of how our digestive systems are the centre of our bodies' second brain and how we think and live our emotions via our stomachs.Not impossible when you consider there is something equivalent to the size of a village football pitch hiding inside our bellies - that's the incredible magnitude of our digestive systems. They contain an extensive network of nerve cells, called neurons, which carry information to the brain and thus have a profound effect upon our intellectual, emotional and immune processes.Dr Matveikova answers the obvious questions: "How?" and "Why can this be so?" by explaining, in straight forward layman's language, that the digestive system contains more than one million neurones, identical to those in the brain and is responsible for producing 90% of the body's hormone, serotonin, the all-important hormone which makes us feel happy and full of wellbeing. It follows, that if our stomachs are "out of sorts" we can feel irritable, in a bad mood, lacking in energy and those feelings will block our intellectual productivity, tend to disorientate us and completely change our thought patterns and physical processes.

Digital Dharma

by Steven Vedro

There is an Infosphere, an electronic web produced by our multiple telecommunications technologies, pulsating all around us. These technologies, as many human inventions, can be viewed as a product of the creative collective mind and therefore encoded with core lessons of human evolution and transformation. Laptops, cell phones, PDAs, GPS locators, HDTV, and wireless Internet offer new ways of communicating with our inner selves and with others.Techno-aficionado Steven Vedro says putting this newfound wisdom into spiritual practice as a collective society is our Digital Dharma, our path toward greater self-awareness and enlightenment. Practicing this path helps us recognize the impact of technology on our inner life and teaches us to overcome the challenges presented by modern media.Vedro uses the seven chakras-the basic energy centers in the body that spiral upward along the spinal column used by many ancient yogic traditions to link our physical selves to higher levels of consciousness and developmental stages of life-as a model for achieving Digital Dharma. Vedro further explains that practicing this new spiritual awareness, what he also terms "Yoga of Teleconsciousness," allows us to see both the universal light and shadow side of technology and then apply that knowledge to our communication with one another and to our own personal work of spiritual evolution and understanding.Digital Dharma has something for everyone. It is for technology experts and yoga fanatics alike. Whether you're simply seeking the spiritual, already practicing a spiritual tradition, or a Body-Mind-Spirit reader with ambivalent feelings about your computer and cell phone, this book will guide you on the path toward a new consciousness. Similarly, novices of the digital world, media junkies, and technology "utopians" who understand at some level there is much yet to be learned from the Infosphere, will all find intriguing, useful material here.

Digital Medicine

by Darrell M. West Edward Alan Miller

Information technology has dramatically changed our lives in areas ranging from commerce and entertainment to voting. Now, policy advocates and government officials hope to bring the benefits of enhanced information technology to health care. Already, consumers can access a tremendous amount of medical information online. Some physicians encourage patients to use email or web messaging to manage simple medical issues. Increasingly, health care products can be purchased electronically.Yet the promise of e-health remains largely unfulfilled. Digital Medicine investigates the factors limiting digital technology's ability to remake health care. It explores the political, social, and ethical challenges presented by online health care, as well as the impact that racial, ethnic, and other disparities are having on the e-health revolution. It examines the accessibility of health-related websites for different populations and asks how we can close access gaps and ensure the reliability and trustworthiness of the information presented online.Darrell West and Edward Miller use multiple sources, including original survey research and website analysis, to study the content, sponsorship status, and public usage of health care-related websites, as well as the relationship between e-health utilization and attitudes about health care in the United States. They also explore the use of health information technology in other countries. The result is an important contribution to our understanding of health information innovation in America and around the world.

Digital Medicine

by Darrell M. West Edward Alan Miller

Information technology has dramatically changed our lives in areas ranging from commerce and entertainment to voting. Now, policy advocates and government officials hope to bring the benefits of enhanced information technology to health care. Already, consumers can access a tremendous amount of medical information online. Some physicians encourage patients to use email or web messaging to manage simple medical issues. Increasingly, health care products can be purchased electronically.Yet the promise of e-health remains largely unfulfilled. Digital Medicine investigates the factors limiting digital technology's ability to remake health care. It explores the political, social, and ethical challenges presented by online health care, as well as the impact that racial, ethnic, and other disparities are having on the e-health revolution. It examines the accessibility of health-related websites for different populations and asks how we can close access gaps and ensure the reliability and trustworthiness of the information presented online. Darrell West and Edward Miller use multiple sources, including original survey research and website analysis, to study the content, sponsorship status, and public usage of health care-related websites, as well as the relationship between e-health utilization and attitudes about health care in the United States. They also explore the use of health information technology in other countries. The result is an important contribution to our understanding of health information innovation in America and around the world.

Dimensions of Forgiveness: Psychological Research and Theological Perpsectives

by Everett L. Worthington Jr.

"This is the first in a projected series of collected symposia presentations on research into the scientific foundations of effective living--how positive mindsets and virtues enhance the lives of individuals and, ultimately, the well-being of society. ... This series of investigations begins with an exploration of the profound value of the multiple dimensions of forgiveness in our lives. In October, 1997, the John Templeton Foundation invited more than forty scholars to participate in a conference on the scientific study of forgiveness, entitled"AJourney to Hope: A ResearchWorkshop to Launch the John Templeton Foundation's Program to Encourage the Scientific Study of Forgiveness," held at Hope College in Holland, Michigan. ... I commend this volume to those investigating forgiveness, not only to provide scholars with a sound research foundation, but also to provide the general knowledge and tools that can touch the lives and spirits of us all. ... As Dryden said in the epigraph that begins this book, to forgive is our"prerogative." Indeed, it is one of the most life-affirming choices we can make."

Dimensions of Human Behavior: The Changing Life Course (3rd Edition)

by Elizabeth D. Hutchison

Hutchison (social work, Virginia Commonwealth University) examines the life-course in nine age-grade periods, from infancy through young, late, and very late adulthood. This third edition features material that places the human life course in a global context, and incorporates insights from neuroscience throughout the chapters. Greater attention has been given to the role of fathers, and there is new material on the effects of gender, race, ethnicity, social class, sexual orientation, and disability on life course trajectories. Learning features include composite cases, key points and glossary terms, summaries of implications for social work practice, exercises, and discussion questions. The text was developed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses on human behavior in the social environment, in departments of social work and psychology. Its companion volume is Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment. Annotation ©2007 Book News, Inc. , Portland, OR (booknews. com)

Dinner a Day for People with Diabetes

by Pamela Rice Hahn Brierley E Wright

Today, more than ever, families are sitting down to eat dinner together and share the events of their days. But when one or more family members has diabetes, it's hard to find a fun and creative meal that everyone can enjoy - until now! With this cookbook, family cooks no longer have to struggle to create delicious and healthy meals for all to enjoy. With a dinner recipe for every night of the year, this one-of-a-kind cookbook offers everything from well-balanced family favorites to cultural treats. This book features recipes like: Sweet Potato Flour Crepes; Honey and Cider Glaze for Baked Chicken; Crunchy "Fried" Catfish Fillets; Pasta and Smoked Trout with Lemon Pesto; Cinnamon Grilled Pork Tenderloin; Roasted Butternut Squash Pasta; and other tasty, low sugar treats! Finally, diabetes-friendly dishes don't have to be boring - and they're easier than ever to fix!

Dinner a Day for People with Diabetes Cookbook

by Pamela Rice Hahn Brierley E. Wright

Today, more than ever, families are sitting down to eat dinner together and share the events of their days. But when one or more family members has diabetes, it's hard to find a fun and creative meal that everyone can enjoy - until now! With this cookbook, family cooks no longer have to struggle to create delicious and healthy meals for all to enjoy. With a dinner recipe for every night of the year, this one-of-a-kind cookbook offers everything from well-balanced family favorites to cultural treats. This book features recipes like: Sweet Potato Flour Crepes; Honey and Cider Glaze for Baked Chicken; Crunchy 'Fried' Catfish Fillets; Pasta and Smoked Trout with Lemon Pesto; Cinnamon Grilled Pork Tenderloin; Roasted Butternut Squash Pasta; and other tasty, low sugar treats! Finally, diabetes-friendly dishes don't have to be boring - and they're easier than ever to fix!

The Dinner Diaries: Raising Whole Wheat Kids in a White Bread World

by Betsy Block

"I'd always thought food was pretty straightforward: you're hungry, you eat; you're not, you don't. Then I became a mother." So begins Betsy Block's humorous, life-changing book on the ultimate of all makeovers: improving the family meal. But how is her plan even possible when eleven-year old Zack's favorite food is Halloween candy; little Maya is so picky that she'll only eat cut squares of white bread; and her husband's idea of a gift is an electric fryer? Determined not to give up the good-food fight, Betsy comes up with a creative ten-step makeover plan. She consults experts, visits farms, and shows how she and her family manage the pitfalls, struggles, and triumphs of eating well when busy schedules, surreptitious lunch trades, snack machines, permissive grandparents, and willful temptations intervene. With helpful charts, food lists, recipes, tips, and suggested culinary and farm programs for kids, "The Dinner Diaries" chronicles one family's intrepid ten-month challenge to change the way they eat--one forkful at a time.

The Dinosaur Man: Tales of Madness and Enchantment from the Back Ward

by Susan Baur

The author asks questions about survival, love as perceived by chronically mentally delusional patients and by the rest of us including those who care for them and are their families friends and members of the society in which they and we live.

Dioscorides on Pharmacy and Medicine

by John M. Riddle

For 1,600 years Dioscorides (ca. ad 40-80) was regarded as the foremost authority on drugs. He knew mild laxatives and strong purgatives, analgesics for headaches, antiseptics for wounds, emetics to rid one of ingested poisons, chemotherapy agents for cancer treatments, and even oral contraceptives. Why, then, have his works remained obscure in recent centuries? Because of one small oversight (Dioscorides himself thought it was self-evident): he failed to describe his method for organizing drugs by their affinities. This omission led medical authorities to use his materials as a guide to pharmacy while overlooking Dioscorides'' most valuable contribution--his empirically derived method for observing and classifying drugs by clinical testing. Dioscorides'' De materia medica, a five-volume work, was written in the first century. Here revealed for the first time is the thesis that Dioscorides wrote more than a lengthy guide book. He wrote a great work of science. He had said that he discovered the natural order and would demonstrate it by his arrangement of drugs from plants, minerals, and animals. Until John M. Riddle''s pathfinding study, no one saw the genius of his system. Botanists from the eighteenth century often attempted to find his unexplained method by identifying the sequences of his plants according to the Linnean system but, while there are certain patterns, there remained inexplicable incoherencies. However, Dioscorides'' natural order as set down in De materia medica was determined by drug affinities as detected by his acute, clinical ability to observe drug reactions in and on the body. So remarkable was his ability to see relationships that, in some cases, he saw what we know to be common chemicals shared by plants of the same and related species and other natural product drugs from animal and mineral sources. Western European and Islamic medicine considered Dioscorides the foremost authority on drugs, just as Hippocrates is regarded as the Father of Medicine. They saw him point the way but only described the end of his finger, despite the fact that in the sixteenth century alone there were over one hundred books published on him. If he had explained what he thought to be self-evident, then science, especially chemistry and medicine, would almost certainly have developed differently. In this culmination of over twenty years of research, Riddle employs modern science and anthropological studies innovatively and cautiously to demonstrate the substance to Dioscorides'' authority in medicine. For 1,600 years Dioscorides (ca. AD 40-80) was regarded as the foremost authority on drugs. He knew mild laxatives and strong purgatives, analgesics for headaches, antiseptics for wounds, emetics to rid one of ingested poisons, chemotherapy agents for cancer treatments, and even oral contraceptives. Why, then, have his works remained obscure in recent centuries? Because of one small oversight (Dioscorides himself thought it was self-evident): he failed to describe his method for organizing drugs by their affinities. This omission led medical authorities to use his materials as a guide to pharmacy while overlooking Dioscorides'' most valuable contribution--his empirically derived method for observing and classifying drugs by clinical testing. Dioscorides'' De materia medica, a five-volume work, was written in the first century. Here revealed for the first time is the thesis that Dioscorides wrote more than a lengthy guide book. He wrote a great work of science. He had said that he discovered the natural order and would demonstrate it by his arrangement of drugs from plants, minerals, and animals. Until John M. Riddle''s pathfinding study, no one saw the genius of his system. Botanists from the eighteenth century often attempted to find his unexplained method by identifying the sequences of his plants according to the Linnean system but, while there are certain patterns, there remained inexplicable incoherencies. However, Dioscorides'' natural order as set down in De materia medica was determ...

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