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The Condor Legion

by Ramiro Bujeiro Carlos Jurado

Osprey's examination of German forces prior to World War II (1939-1945). The Condor Legion was the expeditionary force of soldiers and airmen sent by Hitler to aid Franco's Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The Germans used the war as an opportunity to develop equipment and tactics, and their force included not only instructors, but also combat units of artillery, tanks and aircraft. These units tested guns, tanks and planes and perfected techniques which were used in the 1940 Blitzkrieg. Many of the officers prominent in the early campaigns of World War II won their first successes in Spain. This book details the Legion and its unique uniform and insignia.

Conduct And Support Of Amphibious Operations From United States Submarines In World War II

by LCDR Brian J. Haggerty USN

The U.S. Navy is building Virginia class submarines, and recently completed the conversion of four Ohio class submarines from Trident Ballistic Missile Submarines (SSBN's) to Guided Missile Submarines (SSGNs). The Virginia class is the first nuclear powered fast attack submarine (SSN) that shipyards designed with SOF capability without requiring conversion. The SSGN conversion of the first four Ohio class submarines included substantial SOF capability. These construction and conversion projects represent a significant investment in SOF and amphibious capabilities, and they follow a long line of submarine conversions that began early in World War II. By analyzing three World War II operations, this monograph argues that knowing what actually happened in amphibious operations conducted and supported by American submarines in World War II provides valuable insight about the scope of capabilities, challenges and benefits of submarines for these kinds of missions in naval warfare. The first operation is an amphibious raid on Makin Atoll. The second involves the amphibious landings on the northwest Africa coast as part of Operation Torch. The final operation includes the landings on Attu Island in the Aleutian chain.

The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict

by Yoram Dinstein

This is the seminal textbook on the law of international armed conflict, written by a leading commentator on the subject. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, taking into account new developments in combat, numerous recent judicial cases (especially decisions rendered by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia), as well as topical studies and instruments. The text clarifies complex issues, offering solutions to practical combat dilemmas that have emerged in present-day battlefield situations. Several current (and controversial) subjects are examined in depth, including direct participation in hostilities, human shields, and air and missile warfare. Useful definitions and explanations have been added, making intricate problems easier to comprehend. The book is designed not only for students of international law, but also as a tool for the instruction of military officers.

Conduct Of The Partisan War In The Revolutionary War South

by L-Cmdr Kristin E. Jacobsen

The partisan war in the Revolutionary War South demonstrated the vital linkage between the civil and military authorities. In the policies created to persuade the people of the righteousness of the American cause and neutralize opposition, the civil leadership of South Carolina inadvertently set the conditions for a violent civil war. The experiences derived from a century's worth of almost constant conflict, both internal and external, determined the nature of the ensuing civil war. Upon the occupation by the British in 1780, the calm that settled over the Southern colonies was brief, as British military leaders addressed the political problem in such a way as to lead to renewed revolt and an effective partisan campaign. The civil war became intertwined with the overall campaigns of the American and British forces, with the nature of the leaders having equal effect on the concurrent civil war.

The Conduct of the War Of Sea - An Essay

by Großadmiral Karl Dönitz

Admiral Dönitz' essay on the Conduct of the War at Sea is published... for several reasons. It has historical significance as a review of the German Navy's participation in World War II. Also, from the standpoint of naval science, the opinions of an enemy naval officer of Dönitz' caliber merit study and consideration. Still more important is the forceful presentation of Hitler's fatal error in disregarding or underestimating the necessity of sea power as a prerequisite to a major political power engaging successfully in war of any magnitude - or, by the same token, defending successfully its own political and economic boundaries and rights.In order to assist in the analysis of the essay, this publication includes a biographical sketch of the author, introductory remarks concerning the essay's background and contents and a list of subjects in the form of a table of contents Doenitz was interrogated in order to amplify certain portions and theories of the essay, and his interrogation is also published herewith . His reaction to such interrogation and to analyses made of the essay is set forth in the Introduction.

Conduct Unbecoming: Lesbians and Gays in the U.S. Military

by Randy Shilts

The bestselling author of the definitive history of the AIDS epidemic, And the Band Played On, provides the most thorough analysis yet of the place of gay men and women in the US military <P> Published during the same year the American military instituted Don't Ask, Don't Tell, and eighteen years before President Barack Obama repealed it, Conduct Unbecoming is a landmark work of social justice and a searing indictment of the military establishment's historic bigotry toward its gay servicemen and women. Randy Shilts's eye-opening book describes the bravery, both exceptional and everyday, not only of gay soldiers throughout history, but also of gay men and women serving in our modern military. With each anecdote and investigation, Shilts systematically dismantles the arguments against allowing gays to serve in the military. <P> At once a history of the American military and an account of the gay rights movement, Conduct Unbecoming is a remarkable testament to the progress achieved for gays in the military--and a revealing look at how far we have yet to go.

Conduct Under Fire

by John A. Glusman

The fierce, bloody battles of Bataan and Corregidor in the Philippines are legendary in the annals of World War II. Those who survived faced the horrors of life as prisoners of the Japanese. In Conduct Under Fire, John A. Glusman chronicles these events through the eyes of his father, Murray, and three fellow navy doctors captured on Corregidor in May 1942. Here are the dramatic stories of the fall of Bataan, the siege of "the Rock," and the daily struggles to tend the sick, wounded, and dying during some of the heaviest bombardments of World War II. Here also is the desperate war doctors and corpsmen waged against disease and starvation amid an enemy that viewed surrender as a disgrace. To survive, the POWs functioned as a family. But the ties that bind couldn't protect them from a ruthless counteroffensive waged by American submarines or from the B-29 raids that burned Japan's major cities to the ground. Based on extensive interviews with American, British, Australian, and Japanese veterans, as well as diaries, letters, and war crimes testimony, this is a harrowing account of a brutal clash of cultures, of a race war that escalated into total war. Like Flags of Our Fathers and Ghost Soldiers, Conduct Under Fire is a story of bravery on the battlefield and ingenuity behind barbed wire, one that reveals the long shadow the war cast on the lives of those who fought it.

Conduct Under Fire: Four American Doctors and Their Fight for Life as Prisoners of the Japanese, 1941-1945

by John A. Glusman

The fierce, bloody battles of Bataan and Corregidor in the Philippines are legendary in the annals of World War II. Those who survived faced the horrors of life as prisoners ofthe Japanese.In Conduct Under Fire, John A. Glusman chronicles these events through the eyes of his father, Murray, and three fellow navy doctors captured on Corregidor in May 1942. Here are the dramatic stories of the fall of Bataan, the siege of "the Rock," and the daily struggles to tend the sick, wounded, and dying during some of the heaviest bombardments of World War II. Here also is the desperate war doctors and corpsmen waged against disease and starvation amid an enemy that viewed surrender as a disgrace. To survive, the POWs functioned as a family. But the ties that bind couldn't protect them from a ruthless counteroffensive waged by American submarines or from the B-29 raids that burned Japan's major cities to the ground. Based on extensive interviews with American, British, Australian, and Japanese veterans, as well as diaries, letters, and war crimes testimony, this is a harrowing account of a brutal clash of cultures, of a race war that escalated into total war.Like Flags of Our Fathers and Ghost Soldiers, Conduct Under Fire is a story of bravery on the battlefield and ingenuity behind barbed wire, one that reveals the long shadow the war cast on the lives of those who fought it.

Confederate Agent: A Discovery In History

by James D. Horan

With never-before published contemporary photographs, facsimile documents and other illustrations...The true story of the conspiracy that came close to destroying the Union from within, getting Illinois, Indiana and Ohio to join the Confederacy while New York City was in flames. Chicago was ready for rebellion, 100,000 Northern Confederates stood ready to strike. Based on official papers hitherto suppressed by the U.S. War Dept.--the secret and unpublished diaries of Capt. Thomas H. Hines, C.S.A., official agent of the Confederate government and mastermind of its underground.-- Print Ed.

The Confederate Army, A Regiment: An Analysis Of The Forty-Eighth Tennessee Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 1861-1865

by Major Kincaid Gerald

The performance of an army is often evaluated by its achievements as a whole, or by that of its commanders or perhaps even its divisions. Often lost in the equation is the small unit. After the great plans are complete and the logistics preparations are accomplished, it is the collective performance of the small unit that ultimately decides the battle.This thesis analyses the campaigns, soldiers, organization, equipment, and performance of just one regiment: the 48th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry. Material concerning the 48th includes numerous primary sources: the Official Records, Confederate Veteran, The Southern Historical Papers, Southern Bivouac, local histories, and the CARL microfiche library of unit histories (Note: the 48th is not included in these unit histories). Other primary references include war diaries of two officers, three enlisted men, and copies of the 48th's Quartermaster records.This thesis concludes that, while training and equipment of the 48th was sometimes poor, it was effective in numerous engagements, despite its relative small size. The ultimate demise of the unit was due to personnel losses.

Confederate Artilleryman 1861-65

by Bill Younghusband Philip Katcher

In the heady days of the rush to arms in 1861, comparatively few Southern men volunteered for service in the artillery: most preferred the easily accessible glory of the infantry or cavalry. Yet those that did, quickly earned the respect of their fellow soldiers, and a reputation for being able to "pull through deeper mud, ford deeper springs, shoot faster, swear louder ... than any other class of men in the service" during the American Civil War (1861-1865). Given that field artillery was invariably deployed in front of the troops that it was supporting, the artillerymen were exposed to a high level of enemy fire, and losses were significant. This title guides the reader through the life and experiences of the Confederate cannoneer - where he came from; how he trained and lived; how he dressed, ate and was equipped; and how he fought.

Confederate Cavalry At Chickamauga - What Went Wrong?

by Major Lawyn C. Edwards

This study investigates General Braxton Bragg's use of cavalry during the pivotal Tullahoma and Chickamauga Campaigns. As army commander, Bragg was responsible for organizing units, selecting commanders, and assigning missions. His decisions had significant impact upon the tactical and operational fortunes of the Army of Tennessee and on Confederate strategy.First, this investigation defines the unique heritage of American cavalry. Second, it addresses the actual employment of cavalry in the United States of America. Did these roles coincide with those of European cavalry? Did available army and cavalry leadership play a crucial part in the successes and failures of Confederate plans? Do the careers of Generals Bragg, Wheeler, and Forrest offer clues to their efforts at Chickamauga? Also, how did the elements of national power (political, military, economic, geographic, and national will), contribute to Confederate cavalry performance?This study concludes that blame is to be shared between the commanders involved and the system within which they fought. This study presents an in depth view of the performance of Confederate cavalry in this "victory" at the "River of Death".

Confederate Cavalryman vs Union Cavalryman: Eastern Theater 1861-65

by Peter Dennis Ron Field

This gripping study offers key insights into the tactics, leadership, combat performance, and subsequent reputations of Union and Confederate mounted units fighting in three pivotal cavalry actions of the Civil War - Second Bull Run/Manassas (1862), Buckland Mills (1863), and Tom's Brook (1864). During the intense, sprawling conflict that was the Civil War, both Union and Confederate forces fielded substantial numbers of cavalry, which carried out the crucial tasks of reconnaissance, raiding, and conveying messages. The perception was that cavalry's effectiveness on the battlefield would be drastically reduced in this age of improved mass infantry firepower. This book demonstrates how cavalry's lethal combination of mobility and dismounted firepower meant it was still very much a force to be reckoned with in battle. It also charts the swing in the qualitative difference of the cavalry forces fielded by the two sides as the war progressed, as the enormous initial superiority enjoyed by Confederate cavalry was gradually eroded, through the Union's outstanding improvements in training and tactics, and the bold and enterprising leadership of men such as Philip Sheridan. Featuring full-color artwork, specially drawn maps, and archive illustrations.

Confederate Command During The Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862

by Major Gott Kendall

This study investigates the decisive factors that affected the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson campaign in February 1862. The thesis is relevant not only to the study of history, but as a series of lessons for all commanders.In the final analysis, the ultimate failure of the Confederates during this campaign can be attributed directly to the actions of General Albert Sidney Johnston. He failed to develop an adequate strategy to meet the expected invasion from the North or to insure that each subordinate command in his department was prepared for the onslaught. Johnston also failed to establish a command structure to support his Department. Most damaging of all, Johnston neglected the defenses of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, which served as invasion routes through the center of his department.Ironically, one of the worst generals of the Confederacy correctly saw Fort Donelson as the key to stopping Grant and protecting Nashville. Had he been better supported by his superiors and by the officers serving at the fort with him, the Confederates may have won a victory at Fort Donelson and secured the Western Department for several months.

The Confederate Command During The Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862

by Major Kendall D. Gott

This study investigates the decisive factors that affected the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson campaign in February 1862. The thesis is relevant not only to the study of history, but as a series of lessons for all commanders.In the final analysis, the ultimate failure of the Confederates during this campaign can be attributed directly to the actions of General Albert Sidney Johnston. He failed to develop an adequate strategy to meet the expected invasion from the North or to insure that each subordinate command in his department was prepared for the onslaught. Johnston also failed to establish a command structure to support his Department. Most damaging of all, Johnston neglected the defenses of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, which served as invasion routes through the center of his departmentIronically, one of the worst generals of the Confederacy correctly saw Fort Donelson as the key to stopping Grant and protecting Nashville. Had he been better supported by his superiors and by the officers serving at the fort with him, the Confederates may have won a victory at Fort Donelson and secured the Western Department for several months.

Confederate Currency

by Pierre Fricke

With the outbreak of the U. S. Civil War in 1861, the Confederate States of America began issuing its own paper money. Over the years, seven different series of currency were issued. Counterfeiting became a significant problem for the South, as did depreciation and inflation. By the end of the war, the notes were worthless, but within the decade their collectability was on the rise. Today, some notes can easily garner thousands of dollars. Uniquely designed and hand-signed, the paper money of the South tells the story of the new nation. Confederate currency expert Pierre Fricke illustrates the history of the South's money in Confederate Currency. Neither a price guide nor a catalog per se (see Collecting Confederate Paper Money by Pierre Fricke), Confederate Currency explains the origins of the various notes issued by the South, putting the money into historical context. Fricke also briefly discusses the dissolution of the Union and examines the collectability of Confederate Currency.

Confederate Defense Of Vicksburg: A Case Study Of The Principle Of The Offensive In The Defense

by Major Robert Timothy Howard

This study concerns an analysis of the Confederate defense of Vicksburg with respect to one of the nine principles of war, the principle of the offensive. The loss of Vicksburg in the American Civil War was a mortal blow to the Confederacy in that it split the south in two and resulted in the opening of the Mississippi River to the Union forces. During the Campaign for Vicksburg General Grant, leading a Union army engaged General Pemberton, commanding a Confederate army, and proceeded to win one of the most brilliant military successes in history. A distinct contrast in aggressiveness appeared to exist between Grant and Pemberton during this campaign; because once Grant landed his army in Confederate territory, he retained the initiative and kept Pemberton at his mercy. Pemberton was unable to overcome the difficulties he experienced and received little help from outside his command. Finally, because of despair among his men, he surrendered Vicksburg to the Union on July 4, 1863...Certain "actions" that can be taken by a commander relative to the principle of the offensive in the defense and certain "factors" which may prevent his taking these actions are identified and employed in the analysis. Among the more important conclusions of the thesis are: 1.) The Confederate commander at Vicksburg applied the principle of the offensive against Grant's initial probes into Mississippi and against Federal cavalry raids into Vicksburg area. 2.) The Confederate commander at Vicksburg did not apply the principle of the offensive against Grant's army during the final Union thrust for Vicksburg (May 1 to July 4, 1863). Several of General Pemberton's subordinate commanders, however, did apply the principle during this same period. 3.) The primary reasons for Pemberton's failures with respect to the application of the principle of the offensive were his lack of intelligence resulting from his lack of cavalry and interference with his command decisions from higher authority.

Confederate Delaying Action At The Battle Of Port Gibson, 1 May 1863

by Major George E. Cone Jr.

This study is a historical analysis of Confederate Major General John S. Bowen's delaying action during the Battle of Port Gibson. This research looks at how a numerically inferior force can successfully delay a numerically superior force. This American Civil War battle during the Vicksburg Campaign pitted Bowen's diminutive forces against the numerically superior Union forces under Major General Ulysses S. Grant. The resulting delaying action on 1 May 1863 is referred to as the Battle of Port Gibson.This successful Confederate delaying action has been overlooked in many historical contexts. Most historians emphasize Grant's audacity in conducting an amphibious operation south of Vicksburg, Mississippi. The Confederate perspective is often referred to as a gamble. Yet, against the odds, Bowen masterfully deployed his numerically inferior force to delay a Union force four times larger. Bowen's forces effectively utilized the terrain to buy precious time for the arrival of additional reinforcements from the Vicksburg garrison. Bowen welded his composite division into a formidable fighting force. Confederate battle tactics were characterized by a strong sense of urgency and superb leadership. Bowen yielded to superior Union forces after a protracted day of bitter fighting.

Confederate Generals of the Civil War (Collective Biographies)

by Carl R. Green William R. Sanford

Among the ten generals who led the the armies of the South are the very famous and the little known. Included here are: Robert E. Lee, Nathan Forrest, William Hardee, Ambrose Hill, John Hood, "Stonewall" Jackson, Joseph Johnston, James Longstreet, George Pickett of Pickett's charge, and "Jeb" Stuart. Their childhoods, education, and military training are given along with their roles in the Civil War.

Confederate High Command At Shiloh

by Major Thomas K. Hall

This is a study of the actions of the senior Confederate commanders at the battle of Shiloh. The senior commander, General Albert Sidney Johnston and his second in command, General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, did not come to a complete agreement on how to fight the battle. This disconnect between the two generals was the main reason for the South's failure to achieve victory. The research method consisted of comparing the official records to other sources. These sources included books, biographies, telephone interviews, and one unpublished paper from the Shiloh National Military Park Library. Official records sometimes did not survive the test of scrutiny, particularly General Braxton Bragg's assertion of actions at the close of April 6. The most important lesson that a student of military history can learn from this study is that commanders at all levels must ensure that the commander's intent is clearly understood. Failure to do so almost guarantees confusion up and down the chain of command which will, most likely, result in defeat.

Confederate Ironclad vs Union Ironclad

by Howard Gerrard Ron Field

The Ironclad was a revolutionary weapon of war. Although iron was used for protection in the Far East during the 16th century, it was the 19th century and the American Civil War that heralded the first modern armored self-propelled warships. With the parallel pressures of civil war and the industrial revolution, technology advanced at a breakneck speed. It was the South who first utilized ironclads as they attempted to protect their ports from the Northern blockade. Impressed with their superior resistance to fire and their ability to ram vulnerable wooden ships, the North began to develop its own rival fleet of ironclads. Eventually these two products of this first modern arms race dueled at the battle of Hampton Roads in a clash that would change the face of naval warfare. Fully illustrated with cutting-edge digital artwork, rare photographs and first-person perspective gun sight views, this book allows the reader to discover the revolutionary and radically different designs of the two rival Ironclads - the CSS Virginia and USS Monitor - through an analysis of each ship's weaponry, ammunition and steerage. Compare the contrasting training of the crews and re-live the horrors of the battle at sea in a war which split a nation, communities and even families.From the Trade Paperback edition.

Confederate King Of Battle :: A Comparison Of The Field Artillery Corps Of The Army Of Northern Virginia And The Army Of Tennessee

by Major William J. Daniels

This thesis compares and contrasts the field artillery corps of the Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of Tennessee. The purpose is to determine which field artillery corps was more effective on the battlefield and why. To answer this question several areas will be examined. The foundation of each army and its field artillery corps is one of these areas. The foundation includes militia forces, strength, recruiting, and governmental roles in the foundation of each army. The senior leadership of each army and its relationship with the Confederate government will be reviewed. Ordnance, equipment, logistics, and training of each army's field artillery corps are other areas that will be addressed. Finally, artillery leadership, organization, and tactics of each field artillery corps will be examined.

Confederate Minds: The Struggle for Intellectual Independence in the Civil War South

by Michael T. Bernath

During the Civil War, Confederates fought for much more than their political independence. They also fought to prove the distinctiveness of the Southern people and to legitimate their desire for a separate national existence through the creation of a uniquely Southern literature and culture. In this important new book, Michael Bernath follows the activities of a group of Southern writers, thinkers, editors, publishers, educators, and ministers--whom he labels Confederate cultural nationalists--in order to trace the rise and fall of a cultural movement dedicated to liberating the South from its longtime dependence on Northern books, periodicals, and teachers. During the Civil War, Confederates fought for much more than their political independence. They also fought to prove the distinctiveness of the Southern people and to legitimate their desire for a separate national existence through the creation of a uniquely Southern literature and culture. In this important new book, Michael Bernath follows the activities of a group of Southern writers, thinkers, editors, publishers, educators, and ministers--whom he labels Confederate cultural nationalists--in order to trace the rise and fall of a cultural movement dedicated to liberating the South from its longtime dependence on Northern books, periodicals, and teachers. This struggle for Confederate "intellectual independence" was seen as a vital part of the larger war effort. For the Southern nationalists, independence won on the battlefield would be meaningless as long as Southerners remained in a state of cultural "vassalage" to their enemy. As new Confederate publications appeared at a surprising rate and Southerners took steps toward establishing their own system of education, cultural nationalists believed they saw the Confederacy coalescing into a true nation. Ultimately, however, Confederates proved no more able to win their intellectual independence than their political freedom. By analyzing the motives driving the struggle for Confederate intellectual independence, by charting its wartime accomplishments, and by assessing its failures, Bernath makes provocative arguments about the nature of Confederate nationalism, life within the Confederacy, and the perception of Southern cultural distinctiveness.

Confederate Staff Work At Chickamauga: An Analysis Of The Staff Of The Army Of Tennessee

by Major Robert L. Johnson

One of the critical variables in the successful completion of a military campaign is the functioning of an army's command and control system. In the American Civil War, a commander's primary command and control tool was his staff.Large Civil War armies like the Army of Tennessee required significant numbers of staff personnel. Staffs existed at each level of command from regiment through the army level. Staff officers had responsibility in three broad areas: personnel and logistical support to the army, military administration, and command and control.This thesis analyzes the roles, functional organization, and performance of the staff of the Army of Tennessee and its subordinate corps during the Chickamauga campaign, 16 August-22 September 1863. Primary sources for staff personnel include the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, and the Compiled Service Records of staff officers. Staff performance is evaluated in terms of doctrine and practices as embodied in regulations and military literature of the day.This thesis concludes that, while staff performance was adequate in administration and logistical support, the performance of the command and control system was inadequate. The staff's failure in this area had a significant negative impact on the performance of the army as a whole.

The Confederate War

by Gary Gallagher

This book argues that we should not ask why the Confederacy collapsed so soon, but rather how it lasted so long. The book re-examines the Confederate experience through the actions and words of the people who lived it, to show how the home front responded to the war, endured great hardships and assembled armies that fought with spirit and determination.

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