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Confederate Cavalryman vs Union Cavalryman: Eastern Theater 1861-65

by Peter Dennis Ron Field

This gripping study offers key insights into the tactics, leadership, combat performance, and subsequent reputations of Union and Confederate mounted units fighting in three pivotal cavalry actions of the Civil War - Second Bull Run/Manassas (1862), Buckland Mills (1863), and Tom's Brook (1864). During the intense, sprawling conflict that was the Civil War, both Union and Confederate forces fielded substantial numbers of cavalry, which carried out the crucial tasks of reconnaissance, raiding, and conveying messages. The perception was that cavalry's effectiveness on the battlefield would be drastically reduced in this age of improved mass infantry firepower. This book demonstrates how cavalry's lethal combination of mobility and dismounted firepower meant it was still very much a force to be reckoned with in battle. It also charts the swing in the qualitative difference of the cavalry forces fielded by the two sides as the war progressed, as the enormous initial superiority enjoyed by Confederate cavalry was gradually eroded, through the Union's outstanding improvements in training and tactics, and the bold and enterprising leadership of men such as Philip Sheridan. Featuring full-color artwork, specially drawn maps, and archive illustrations.

Confederate Command During The Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862

by Major Gott Kendall

This study investigates the decisive factors that affected the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson campaign in February 1862. The thesis is relevant not only to the study of history, but as a series of lessons for all commanders.In the final analysis, the ultimate failure of the Confederates during this campaign can be attributed directly to the actions of General Albert Sidney Johnston. He failed to develop an adequate strategy to meet the expected invasion from the North or to insure that each subordinate command in his department was prepared for the onslaught. Johnston also failed to establish a command structure to support his Department. Most damaging of all, Johnston neglected the defenses of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, which served as invasion routes through the center of his department.Ironically, one of the worst generals of the Confederacy correctly saw Fort Donelson as the key to stopping Grant and protecting Nashville. Had he been better supported by his superiors and by the officers serving at the fort with him, the Confederates may have won a victory at Fort Donelson and secured the Western Department for several months.

The Confederate Command During The Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862

by Major Kendall D. Gott

This study investigates the decisive factors that affected the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson campaign in February 1862. The thesis is relevant not only to the study of history, but as a series of lessons for all commanders.In the final analysis, the ultimate failure of the Confederates during this campaign can be attributed directly to the actions of General Albert Sidney Johnston. He failed to develop an adequate strategy to meet the expected invasion from the North or to insure that each subordinate command in his department was prepared for the onslaught. Johnston also failed to establish a command structure to support his Department. Most damaging of all, Johnston neglected the defenses of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, which served as invasion routes through the center of his departmentIronically, one of the worst generals of the Confederacy correctly saw Fort Donelson as the key to stopping Grant and protecting Nashville. Had he been better supported by his superiors and by the officers serving at the fort with him, the Confederates may have won a victory at Fort Donelson and secured the Western Department for several months.

Confederate Currency

by Pierre Fricke

With the outbreak of the U. S. Civil War in 1861, the Confederate States of America began issuing its own paper money. Over the years, seven different series of currency were issued. Counterfeiting became a significant problem for the South, as did depreciation and inflation. By the end of the war, the notes were worthless, but within the decade their collectability was on the rise. Today, some notes can easily garner thousands of dollars. Uniquely designed and hand-signed, the paper money of the South tells the story of the new nation. Confederate currency expert Pierre Fricke illustrates the history of the South's money in Confederate Currency. Neither a price guide nor a catalog per se (see Collecting Confederate Paper Money by Pierre Fricke), Confederate Currency explains the origins of the various notes issued by the South, putting the money into historical context. Fricke also briefly discusses the dissolution of the Union and examines the collectability of Confederate Currency.

Confederate Defense Of Vicksburg: A Case Study Of The Principle Of The Offensive In The Defense

by Major Robert Timothy Howard

This study concerns an analysis of the Confederate defense of Vicksburg with respect to one of the nine principles of war, the principle of the offensive. The loss of Vicksburg in the American Civil War was a mortal blow to the Confederacy in that it split the south in two and resulted in the opening of the Mississippi River to the Union forces. During the Campaign for Vicksburg General Grant, leading a Union army engaged General Pemberton, commanding a Confederate army, and proceeded to win one of the most brilliant military successes in history. A distinct contrast in aggressiveness appeared to exist between Grant and Pemberton during this campaign; because once Grant landed his army in Confederate territory, he retained the initiative and kept Pemberton at his mercy. Pemberton was unable to overcome the difficulties he experienced and received little help from outside his command. Finally, because of despair among his men, he surrendered Vicksburg to the Union on July 4, 1863...Certain "actions" that can be taken by a commander relative to the principle of the offensive in the defense and certain "factors" which may prevent his taking these actions are identified and employed in the analysis. Among the more important conclusions of the thesis are: 1.) The Confederate commander at Vicksburg applied the principle of the offensive against Grant's initial probes into Mississippi and against Federal cavalry raids into Vicksburg area. 2.) The Confederate commander at Vicksburg did not apply the principle of the offensive against Grant's army during the final Union thrust for Vicksburg (May 1 to July 4, 1863). Several of General Pemberton's subordinate commanders, however, did apply the principle during this same period. 3.) The primary reasons for Pemberton's failures with respect to the application of the principle of the offensive were his lack of intelligence resulting from his lack of cavalry and interference with his command decisions from higher authority.

Confederate Delaying Action At The Battle Of Port Gibson, 1 May 1863

by Major George E. Cone Jr.

This study is a historical analysis of Confederate Major General John S. Bowen's delaying action during the Battle of Port Gibson. This research looks at how a numerically inferior force can successfully delay a numerically superior force. This American Civil War battle during the Vicksburg Campaign pitted Bowen's diminutive forces against the numerically superior Union forces under Major General Ulysses S. Grant. The resulting delaying action on 1 May 1863 is referred to as the Battle of Port Gibson.This successful Confederate delaying action has been overlooked in many historical contexts. Most historians emphasize Grant's audacity in conducting an amphibious operation south of Vicksburg, Mississippi. The Confederate perspective is often referred to as a gamble. Yet, against the odds, Bowen masterfully deployed his numerically inferior force to delay a Union force four times larger. Bowen's forces effectively utilized the terrain to buy precious time for the arrival of additional reinforcements from the Vicksburg garrison. Bowen welded his composite division into a formidable fighting force. Confederate battle tactics were characterized by a strong sense of urgency and superb leadership. Bowen yielded to superior Union forces after a protracted day of bitter fighting.

Confederate Generals of the Civil War (Collective Biographies)

by Carl R. Green William R. Sanford

Among the ten generals who led the the armies of the South are the very famous and the little known. Included here are: Robert E. Lee, Nathan Forrest, William Hardee, Ambrose Hill, John Hood, "Stonewall" Jackson, Joseph Johnston, James Longstreet, George Pickett of Pickett's charge, and "Jeb" Stuart. Their childhoods, education, and military training are given along with their roles in the Civil War.

Confederate High Command At Shiloh

by Major Thomas K. Hall

This is a study of the actions of the senior Confederate commanders at the battle of Shiloh. The senior commander, General Albert Sidney Johnston and his second in command, General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, did not come to a complete agreement on how to fight the battle. This disconnect between the two generals was the main reason for the South's failure to achieve victory. The research method consisted of comparing the official records to other sources. These sources included books, biographies, telephone interviews, and one unpublished paper from the Shiloh National Military Park Library. Official records sometimes did not survive the test of scrutiny, particularly General Braxton Bragg's assertion of actions at the close of April 6. The most important lesson that a student of military history can learn from this study is that commanders at all levels must ensure that the commander's intent is clearly understood. Failure to do so almost guarantees confusion up and down the chain of command which will, most likely, result in defeat.

Confederate Ironclad vs Union Ironclad

by Howard Gerrard Ron Field

The Ironclad was a revolutionary weapon of war. Although iron was used for protection in the Far East during the 16th century, it was the 19th century and the American Civil War that heralded the first modern armored self-propelled warships. With the parallel pressures of civil war and the industrial revolution, technology advanced at a breakneck speed. It was the South who first utilized ironclads as they attempted to protect their ports from the Northern blockade. Impressed with their superior resistance to fire and their ability to ram vulnerable wooden ships, the North began to develop its own rival fleet of ironclads. Eventually these two products of this first modern arms race dueled at the battle of Hampton Roads in a clash that would change the face of naval warfare. Fully illustrated with cutting-edge digital artwork, rare photographs and first-person perspective gun sight views, this book allows the reader to discover the revolutionary and radically different designs of the two rival Ironclads - the CSS Virginia and USS Monitor - through an analysis of each ship's weaponry, ammunition and steerage. Compare the contrasting training of the crews and re-live the horrors of the battle at sea in a war which split a nation, communities and even families.From the Trade Paperback edition.

Confederate King Of Battle :: A Comparison Of The Field Artillery Corps Of The Army Of Northern Virginia And The Army Of Tennessee

by Major William J. Daniels

This thesis compares and contrasts the field artillery corps of the Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of Tennessee. The purpose is to determine which field artillery corps was more effective on the battlefield and why. To answer this question several areas will be examined. The foundation of each army and its field artillery corps is one of these areas. The foundation includes militia forces, strength, recruiting, and governmental roles in the foundation of each army. The senior leadership of each army and its relationship with the Confederate government will be reviewed. Ordnance, equipment, logistics, and training of each army's field artillery corps are other areas that will be addressed. Finally, artillery leadership, organization, and tactics of each field artillery corps will be examined.

Confederate Minds: The Struggle for Intellectual Independence in the Civil War South

by Michael T. Bernath

During the Civil War, Confederates fought for much more than their political independence. They also fought to prove the distinctiveness of the Southern people and to legitimate their desire for a separate national existence through the creation of a uniquely Southern literature and culture. In this important new book, Michael Bernath follows the activities of a group of Southern writers, thinkers, editors, publishers, educators, and ministers--whom he labels Confederate cultural nationalists--in order to trace the rise and fall of a cultural movement dedicated to liberating the South from its longtime dependence on Northern books, periodicals, and teachers. During the Civil War, Confederates fought for much more than their political independence. They also fought to prove the distinctiveness of the Southern people and to legitimate their desire for a separate national existence through the creation of a uniquely Southern literature and culture. In this important new book, Michael Bernath follows the activities of a group of Southern writers, thinkers, editors, publishers, educators, and ministers--whom he labels Confederate cultural nationalists--in order to trace the rise and fall of a cultural movement dedicated to liberating the South from its longtime dependence on Northern books, periodicals, and teachers. This struggle for Confederate "intellectual independence" was seen as a vital part of the larger war effort. For the Southern nationalists, independence won on the battlefield would be meaningless as long as Southerners remained in a state of cultural "vassalage" to their enemy. As new Confederate publications appeared at a surprising rate and Southerners took steps toward establishing their own system of education, cultural nationalists believed they saw the Confederacy coalescing into a true nation. Ultimately, however, Confederates proved no more able to win their intellectual independence than their political freedom. By analyzing the motives driving the struggle for Confederate intellectual independence, by charting its wartime accomplishments, and by assessing its failures, Bernath makes provocative arguments about the nature of Confederate nationalism, life within the Confederacy, and the perception of Southern cultural distinctiveness.

Confederate Staff Work At Chickamauga: An Analysis Of The Staff Of The Army Of Tennessee

by Major Robert L. Johnson

One of the critical variables in the successful completion of a military campaign is the functioning of an army's command and control system. In the American Civil War, a commander's primary command and control tool was his staff.Large Civil War armies like the Army of Tennessee required significant numbers of staff personnel. Staffs existed at each level of command from regiment through the army level. Staff officers had responsibility in three broad areas: personnel and logistical support to the army, military administration, and command and control.This thesis analyzes the roles, functional organization, and performance of the staff of the Army of Tennessee and its subordinate corps during the Chickamauga campaign, 16 August-22 September 1863. Primary sources for staff personnel include the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, and the Compiled Service Records of staff officers. Staff performance is evaluated in terms of doctrine and practices as embodied in regulations and military literature of the day.This thesis concludes that, while staff performance was adequate in administration and logistical support, the performance of the command and control system was inadequate. The staff's failure in this area had a significant negative impact on the performance of the army as a whole.

The Confederate War

by Gary Gallagher

This book argues that we should not ask why the Confederacy collapsed so soon, but rather how it lasted so long. The book re-examines the Confederate experience through the actions and words of the people who lived it, to show how the home front responded to the war, endured great hardships and assembled armies that fought with spirit and determination.

Confederates

by Thomas Keneally

A powerful novel of America's Civil War told through the voices of Confederate soldiers, turncoats, and Stonewall Jackson in the weeks leading up to the great slaughter at Antietam In the summer of 1862, as the Civil War rages on, a ragtag Confederate army consisting of young boys and old men, storekeepers, farmers, and teachers, gathers in Virginia under the leadership of Tom "Stonewall" Jackson, ready to follow their sainted commander to glory--or hell. One of these men, Usaph Bumpass left his wife, Ephie, behind to join the Shenandoah Volunteers, only to discover Ephie's lover, Decatur Cate, among his comrades. Still, Usaph remains steadfast in his devotion to a cause he does not fully understand, even as troubling memories of home invade his mind on the march north. But a dark destiny awaits brilliant military strategist Jackson and his Southern boys, as hard truths about war, loyalty, love, life, and death are revealed in the fires and bloodshed at Antietam. A breathtaking work of historical fiction that captures the human face of war as few novels have done before, Confederates has been compared to Tolstoy's epic War and Peace as an artful, honest, and profoundly moving depiction of the lot of the soldier. Shortlisted for Great Britain's prestigious Man Booker Prize, this masterful tale of love, duty, and conflict from author of Schindler's List Thomas Keneally is an enduring and unforgettable classic of Civil War literature.

Confederates Don't Wear Couture

by Stephanie Kate Strohm

Publishers Weekly praised the Pilgrims Don't Wear Pink author Stephanie Kate Strohm for "turning a strong heroine and a few surprises into a clever, tightly written book that will keep readers wondering who will become Libby's Mr. Darcy." This romantic sequel follows suit in high style! High-style hoopskirts, that is . . . When history nerd Libby's fashion designer best friend asks for help selling his gowns to the wives of Civil War reenactors, she jumps at the chance to frolick on a nineteenth-century playground. But Alabama's no sweet home: sweltering heat, no Starbucks, a vengeful ghost . . . And the boys? Miss Libby's got the North and the South fighting for her heart.

Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War

by Tony Horwitz

National Bestseller. When prize-winning war correspondent Tony Horwitz leaves the battlefields of Bosnia and the Middle East for a peaceful corner of the Blue Ridge Mountains, he thinks he's put war zones behind him. But awakened one morning by the crackle of musket fire, Horwitz starts filing front-line dispatches again this time from a war close to home, and to his own heart. Propelled by his boyhood passion for the Civil War, Horwitz embarks on a search for places and people still held in thrall by America's greatest conflict. The result is an adventure into the soul of the unvanquished South, where the ghosts of the Lost Cause are resurrected through ritual and remembrance. In Virginia, Horwitz joins a band of 'hardcore' re-enactors who crash-diet to achieve the hollow-eyed look of starved Confederates; in Kentucky, he witnesses Klan rallies and calls for race war sparked by the killing of a white man who brandishes a rebel flag; at Andersonville, he finds that the prison's commander, executed as a war criminal, is now exalted as a martyr and hero; and in the book's climax, Horwitz takes a marathon trek from Antietam to Gettysburg to Appomattox in the company of Robert Lee Hodge, an eccentric pilgrim who dubs their odyssey the 'Civil Wargasm.' Written with Horwitz's signature blend of humor, history, and hard-nosed journalism, Confederates in the Attic brings alive old battlefields and new ones 'classrooms, courts, country bars' where the past and the present collide, often in explosive ways. Poignant and picaresque, haunting and hilarious, it speaks to anyone who has ever felt drawn to the mythic South and to the dark romance of the Civil War.

Confirmed Kill

by Nigel Cawthorne

HIGHLY TRAINED MARKSMEN WITH ONE GOAL - A PERFECT SHOT, A CONFIRMED KILLElite snipers - with their deadly aim, iron nerves, killer instincts and unwavering courage - play a more critical role in modern military missions than ever before. Confirmed Kill accurately recounts the heroic actions of the world's deadliest snipers, from the one-on-one duel between a U.S. Marine sniper and his North Vietnamese counterpart that ended with a miracle shot straight through the Vietcong soldier's gun scope, to the shot fired from a mountain ridge in Afghanistan that dropped an unsuspecting Taliban fighter over a mile away. Confirmed Kill details the missions of the most legendary snipers:Chuck Mawhinney - Marine with 103 Vietnam War Confirmed KillsAdelbert Waldron - U.S. Record Holder with 109 Confirmed KillsTimothy Kellner - Army Sergeant with More Than 100 Confirmed Kills in Operation Iraqi FreedomCraig Harrison - British Corporal with the World-Record Kill Shot at 2,707 Yards

Conflict and Housing, Land and Property Rights

by Scott Leckie Chris Huggins

Housing, land and property (HLP) rights, as rights, are widely recognized throughout international human rights and humanitarian law and provide a clear and consistent legal normative framework for developing better approaches to the HLP challenges faced by the UN and others seeking to build long-term peace. This book analyses the ubiquitous HLP challenges present in all conflict and post-conflict settings. It will bridge the worlds of the practitioner and the theorist by combining an overview of the international legal and policy frameworks on HLP rights with dozens of detailed case studies demonstrating country experiences from around the world. The book will be of particular interest to professors and students of international relations, law, human rights, and peace and conflict studies but will have a wider readership among practitioners working for international institutions such as the United Nations and the World Bank, non-governmental organizations, and national agencies in the developing world.

Conflict in the Balkans 1991-2000

by Mark Rolfe Tim Ripley

Osprey's examination of aircraft action in the Balkan region during the Yugoslav Wars (1991-2001) as well as during the conflicts that followed up until 2001. Exposing the true scale and significance of the deployment of air power in the Balkans, this book details the activities of NATO and UN aircraft as well as local pilots in the former Yugoslavia. From bombing by B-2 stealth bombers to air-to-air combat; from moving ground troops by helicopter to 'food-bombing' for refugees, air power has played a vital role in 'Europe's Vietnam', and there is little sign that the fires of conflict are being extinguished. Debate amongst air power practitioners has yielded little agreement as to the degree of damage inflicted on the Yugoslav 3rd Army in Kosovo, the Balkans continue to be a region of conflict and ethnic hatred.

Conflict Law

by William H. Boothby

Topics as diverse as the evolving spectrum of conflict, innovations in weaponry, automated and autonomous attack, the depersonalisation of warfare, detention operations, the influence of modern media and the application of human rights law to the conduct of hostilities are examined in this book to see to what extent existing legal norms are challenged. The book takes each topic in turn, explains relevant provisions of contemporary law and analyses exactly where the legal problem lies. The analysis then develops the theme, examining for example the implications of current rules as to deception operations for certain applications of cyber warfare. The text is written in an accessible style, and demonstrates the continuing relevance of established rules and the importance of compliance with them. Useful for academics, military, governments, ministries of defence, ministries of foreign affairs, libraries, diplomats, think tanks, policy units, NGOs, and all others with an interest in law of armed conflict issues such as journalists and students.

Conflict Management and Resolution

by Ho-Won Jeong

Conflict Management and Resolution provides students with an overview of the main theories of conflict management and conflict resolution, and will equip them to respond to the complex phenomena of international conflict. The book covers these four key concepts in detail: negotiation mediation facilitation reconciliation. It examines how to prevent, manage and eventually resolve various types of conflict that originate from inter-state and inter-group competition, and expands the existing scope of conflict management and resolution theories by examining emerging theories on the identity, power and structural dimensions of adversarial relationships. The volume is designed to enhance our understanding of effective response strategies to conflict in multiple social settings as well as violent struggles, and utilizes numerous case studies, both past and current. These include the Iranian and North Korean nuclear weapons programmes, the war in Lebanon, the Arab-Israeli conflict, civil wars in Africa, and ethnic conflicts in Europe and Asia. This book will be essential reading for all students of conflict management and resolution, mediation, peacekeeping, peace and conflict studies and International Relations in general. Ho-Won Jeong is Professor of Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, USA. He has published nine books in the field of international relations, peace and conflict studies. He is also a senior editor of the International Journal of Peace Studies.

Confronting Captivity

by Arieh J. Kochavi

How was it possible that almost all of the nearly 300,000 British and American troops who fell into German hands during World War II survived captivity in German POW camps and returned home almost as soon as the war ended? In Confronting Captivity, Arieh J. Kochavi offers a behind-the-scenes look at the living conditions in Nazi camps and traces the actions the British and American governments took--and didn't take--to ensure the safety of their captured soldiers. Concern in London and Washington about the safety of these POWs was mitigated by the recognition that the Nazi leadership tended to adhere to the Geneva Convention when it came to British and U.S. prisoners. Following the invasion of Normandy, however, Allied apprehension over the safety of POWs turned into anxiety for their very lives. Yet Britain and the United States took the calculated risk of counting on a swift conclusion to the war as the Soviets approached Germany from the east. Ultimately, Kochavi argues, it was more likely that the lives of British and American POWs were spared because of their race rather than any actions their governments took on their behalf.

Confronting the Chaos

by Sean M. Maloney

While there is a vast amount of literature available on Iraqi operations, until now little has been written about the counterinsurgency and stabilization operations in Afghanistan. With this book, a Canadian military historian, who has observed field operations in Afghanistan since 2003, offers a clear view of what is happening in that country. It is the first to look at units unknown to most Americans-the provincial reconstruction teams, the embedded training teams, the strategic advisory team, among others-that helped the Afghan people establish a government. Working shoulder to shoulder with Afghans at all levels of society and at great personal risk, these international teams, the author argues, helped stave off a civil war and prevented the insurgents from exploiting the chaos.Dr. Maloney observed the efforts of these teams as they unfolded in 2004 and 2005. His personal story takes readers on a journey from Badkashan province, the exotic and poppy-laden land in the north; to Kabul, the intrigued-filled capital; to Kandahar province in the south, where the threat of IED attacks was a daily occurrence. His astute observations about this international effort and how the Taliban has evolved are certain to help readers better understand the situation in Afghanistan today. His book is the first to provide details about how the reconstruction teams were organized, how they worked, and the problems they encountered while attempting to stabilize the provinces. Maloney argues that the war in Afghanistan is unique and the country and its people, as well as its insurgents, must be taken on their own terms, not in relationship to the American experience in Iraq, Vietnam, or any other conflict.

Confusion

by Elizabeth Jane Howard

Volume 3, Cazalet Chronicles. - A large English family during and after World War II

Congo

by Andrew C. Jampoler

Lauded for his ability to tell compelling, true adventure stories, award-winning author Andrew C.A. Jampoler has turned his attention this time to a young American naval officer on a mission up the Congo River in May 1885. Lt. Emory Taunt was ordered to explore as much of the river as possible and report on opportunities for Americans in the potentially rich African marketplace. A little more than five years later, Taunt, 39, was buried near the place he had first come ashore in Africa. His personal demons and the Congo's lethal fevers had killed him. In 2011, to better understand what happened, Jampoler retraced Taunt's expedition in an outboard motorboat. Striking photographs from the author's trip are included to lend a visual dimension to the original journey.Readers join Taunt in his exploration of some 1400 miles of river and follow him on two additional assignments. A commercial venture to collect elephant ivory in the river's great basin and an appointment as the U.S. State Department's first resident diplomat in Boma, capital of King Leopold II's Congo Free State, are filled with promise. But instead of becoming rich and famous, he died alone, bankrupt, and disgraced. Jampoler's account of what went so dreadfully wrong is both thrilling and tragic. He provides not only a fascinating look at Taunt's brief and extraordinary life, but also a glimpse of the role the United States played in the birth of the Congo nation, and the increasingly awkward position Washington found itself as stories of atrocities against the natives began to leak out.

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