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Abiotic stress cause changes in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum and is responsible for reduced yield in several major crops. Therefore, the subject of abiotic stress response in plants - metabolism, productivity and sustainability - is gaining considerable significance in the contemporary world. Abiotic stress is an integral part of "climate change," a complex phenomenon with a wide range of unpredictable impacts on the environment. Prolonged exposure to these abiotic stresses results in altered metabolism and damage to biomolecules. Plants evolve defense mechanisms to tolerate these stresses by upregulation of osmolytes, osmoprotectants, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, etc. This volume deals with abiotic stress-induced morphological and anatomical changes, abberations in metabolism, strategies and approaches to increase salt tolerance, managing the drought stress, sustainable fruit production and postharvest stress treatments, role of glutathione reductase, flavonoids as antioxidants in plants, the role of salicylic acid and trehalose in plants, stress-induced flowering. The role of soil organic matter in mineral nutrition and fatty acid profile in response to heavy metal stress are also dealt with. Proteomic markers for oxidative stress as a new tools for reactive oxygen species and photosynthesis research, abscisic acid signaling in plants are covered with chosen examples. Stress responsive genes and gene products including expressed proteins that are implicated in conferring tolerance to the plant are presented. Thus, this volume would provides the reader with a wide spectrum of information including key references and with a large number of illustrations and tables.
An inspiring and clearly written graduate textbook with psychology concepts explained in a way easy to comprehend with updates on DSM-5.
Puts a human face on the study of Abnormal Psychology, now with DSM-5 coverage throughout. Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World, 9/e uses first-person narratives from people struggling with psychological disorders as a pedagogical framework. Updated to reflect the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), the authors endeavor to bring research developments and advancements in abnormal psychology to students. Through illustrative case examples drawn from the authors' own experiences, they recognize there is a human dimension to the study of abnormal psychology. The 9th edition includes coverage of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), with updated text references and examples throughout. MyPsychLab is an integral part of the Nevid / Rathus / Greene program. Key learning applications include MyPsychLab video series with new virtual case studies. Teaching & Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience - for you and your students. Here's how: Personalize Learning - MyPsychLab is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program. It helps students prepare for class and instructor gauge individual and class performance. Explore Theory -- Integrating Theoretical Perspectives -- The authors examine the many different theoretical perspectives that inform contemporary understanding of abnormal psychology and help students integrate these diverse viewpoints in the Tying it Together feature. Improve Critical Thinking -- Controversies in Abnormal Psychology-- Spotlighting controversies encourages students to think critically about these important issues and examine different points of view. The Controversies in Abnormal Psychology feature includes several critical thinking questions that challenge students to think further about the issues discussed in the text. Understand Diversity -- Integrating Diversity -- The authors examine abnormal behavior patterns in relation to factors of diversity such as ethnicity, culture, gender, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Students need to understand how issues of diversity affect the conceptualization of abnormal behavior as well as the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Engage Students -- A Closer Look-- Provides opportunities for further exploration of selected topics that reflect contemporary issues and concerns. Many of these enable students to apply information in the text to their own lives. Support Instructors -- A full set of supplements, including MyPsychLab, provides instructors with all the resources and support they need. 0205965016 / 9780205965014 Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World Plus NEW MyPsychLab with eText -- Access Card Package Package consists of: 0205206514 / 9780205206513 NEW MyPsychLab with Pearson eText -- Valuepack Access Card 0205961711 / 9780205961719 Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World .
Time to read a book. Time to wash dishes. Time to do this or that. You say things like this every day, all the time. But there was a time when time itself was undefined-no one knew the difference between a minute, an hour, or a day. Then people started creating tools to measure time. First they used the big stuff around them-the sun, the moon, water. Soon after, using the knowledge they got from their natural time-telling tools, people began to build clocks-huge clocks unlike the ones we use today. They also used their knowledge of the sun and moon to create calendars made up of months and years. Now, centuries later, we have clocks all around us. We can easily figure out how long a month is. But it took many years of tinkering and inventing to perfect the art of telling time. You could take a few moments now to read all about time. If you have a minute, that is. [This text is listed as an example that meets Common Core Standards in English language arts in grades 4-5 at http://www.corestandards.org.]
Essays from the lectures delivered at Yale University, the Dwight Harrington Terry Foundation. Includes bibliographical references.
In this ambitious book, acclaimed writer Marilynne Robinson applies her astute intellect to some of the most vexing topics in the history of human thought--science, religion, and consciousness. Crafted with the same care and insight as her award-winning novels, Absence of Mind challenges postmodern atheists who crusade against religion under the banner of science. In Robinson's view, scientific reasoning does not denote a sense of logical infallibility, as thinkers like Richard Dawkins might suggest. Instead, in its purest form, science represents a search for answers. It engages the problem of knowledge, an aspect of the mystery of consciousness, rather than providing a simple and final model of reality. By defending the importance of individual reflection, Robinson celebrates the power and variety of human consciousness in the tradition of William James. She explores the nature of subjectivity and considers the culture in which Sigmund Freud was situated and its influence on his model of self and civilization. Through keen interpretations of language, emotion, science, and poetry, Absence of Mind restores human consciousness to its central place in the religion-science debate.
Attaining professional success and finding personal happiness in academic medicine is not an easy path, yet both are critical if the future is to be brighter through better science, better clinical care, better training, better responsiveness to communities, and better stewardship and leadership in the health professions. This concise, easy to read title consists of "mini" chapters intended as a resource to assist early- and middle-career physicians, clinicians, and scientists in understanding the unique mission of academic medicine and building creative, effective, and inspiring careers in academic health organizations. Organized in eight sections, the Guide covers such areas as finding your path in academic medicine, getting established at an institution, approaching work with colleagues, writing and reviewing manuscripts, conducting empirical research, developing administrative skills, advancing your academic career, and balancing your professional and personal life. Each chapter includes pointers and valuable career and "best practices" strategies in relation to the topic area. An exciting addition to the professional development literature, Achievement and Fulfillment in Academic Medicine: A Comprehensive Guide is an indispensable resource for anyone seeking to achieve a fulfilling career in academic medicine.
This report is the proceedings of a July 2002 workshop of the Committee on AXXS 2002: A Workshop for Clinical Societies to Enhance Women's Contributions to Science and their Profession. The workshop gathered representatives of clinical societies and identified ways to enhance the participation of women scientists in the clinical research workforce. This workshop was a follow-up to the AXXS 1999 conference sponsored by the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which focused on how scientific societies could contribute to the enhancement of women's careers in science.
ACL injuries affect the lives of hundreds of thousands of people each year. Treatment is far from perfect, and physicians and patients face challenges such as high failure rates in adolescent athletes and the inability to slow the accelerated progression of arthritis after an ACL rupture, for example. The ACL Handbook takes a complete view of ACL injuries and treatments, discussing: - Normal ACL and knee mechanics - The body's response to ACL injury - Development of new treatment methods Ideal for orthopedists, sports medicine physicians, and physical therapists, The ACL Handbook is a unique resource for information on the basic and applied science of ACL injury, repair, and the future of treatment.
Activity theory holds that the human mind is the product of our interaction with people and artifacts in the context of everyday activity. Acting with Technology makes the case for activity theory as a basis for understanding our relationship with technology. Victor Kaptelinin and Bonnie Nardi describe activity theory's principles, history, relationship to other theoretical approaches, and application to the analysis and design of technologies. The book provides the first systematic entry-level introduction to the major principles of activity theory. It describes the accumulating body of work in interaction design informed by activity theory, drawing on work from an international community of scholars and designers. Kaptelinin and Nardi examine the notion of the object of activity, describe its use in an empirical study, and discuss key debates in the development of activity theory. Finally, they outline current and future issues in activity theory, providing a comparative analysis of the theory and its leading theoretical competitors within interaction design: distributed cognition, actor-network theory, and phenomenologically inspired approaches.
Humans are exposed to foreign compounds such as drugs, household products and environmental chemicals by swallowing or breathing. Also, food is considered a foreign compound. Such foreign compounds can be non-essential and non-functional to life, and commonly are referred to as xenobiotics. Some xenobiotics are not toxic; however, many of them are potentially toxic or become toxic after conversion to metabolic intermediates. A considerable number of foreign compounds belong to non-polar, lipophilic substances. Lipophilic compounds are not soluble in water. Metabolic conversion of lipophilic foreign compounds to facilitate their removal from the body is essentially carried out by biochemical reactions catalyzed by two classes of metabolizing enzymes, namely, activation enzymes and detoxification enzymes. Activation enzyme-catalyzed functionalization reaction introduces a functional group to a lipophilic compound. Functionalization modifies many foreign compounds to form reactive intermediates capable of interacting with cellular components (proteins, DNA and lipids), leading to a variety of conditions for diseases. Functionalized compounds are further metabolized through detoxification enzyme-catalyzed reactions, which result in an increase in the solubility of parent compounds and an inactivation of metabolic intermediates, thus facilitating their excretion from the body. To minimize the exposure of potentially toxic metabolic intermediates, it is essential to keep them at a minimum level. Extensive investigations have revealed that foreign compound-metabolizing enzymes exhibit genetic polymorphisms. Variations in their activities can produce different results as to the susceptibility to potential toxic effects. Moreover, the expressions of activation enzymes and detoxification enzymes are inducible. A number of chemical compounds are capable of acting as modulators for these two classes of enzymes. These findings have lead to the proposal of modulating metabolizing enzymes as a useful approach for human health benefits. Importantly, many of these chemical compounds are present in human daily diets. There are many advances that have been made in the past decades towards the understanding of functions and implications of activation enzymes and detoxification enzymes. An organized, concise overview is needed for the readers who are initially exposed to this important subject, particularly for students and researchers in the areas of biomedical sciences, biochemistry, nutrition, pharmacology and chemistry. This book is intended to serve this purpose as an introduction to the subject. Furthermore, major topics in the book, excluding catalytic reactions and structural properties, may have interest to other readers who have knowledge of basic sciences and understanding enzyme related information. The book discusses subjects associated with foreign compound metabolizing enzymes with emphasis on biochemical aspects, including lipophilic foreign compounds, catalytic properties, reactive intermediates, biomedical and biochemical effects, genetic polymorphisms, enzyme inducibility, enzyme modulation for health benefits, dietary related enzyme modulators, and structural characteristics of enzyme inducers.
Active Biology has fascinating challenges that ask you to use your creativity, interests, and expertise to complete challenges in the same way professionals do. You will learn about the incredible variety of organisms that inhabit the earth and how they have adapted to their environment. You will investigate competition among organisms and the process of natural selection. You will discover the factors that affect population size. And you will understand that the extinction of one organism can affect an entire ecosystem.
The highlighting features of this Chemistry text book are: Scenario, Chapter Challenge, Criteria, What Do You Think?, Investigate, Chem Talk, Chem Words, Checking Up, Reflecting on the Activity and the Challenge, Chemistry to Go, Preparing for the Chapter Challenge, Challenge Assessment, Chemistry at Work and Photos and Illustrations.
Active Chemistry makes learning chemistry relevant, fun, and exciting. Chemistry is involved in every aspect of your life - from the way your body works to the things you like to do.
Book contains two units, Active Physics and Active Chemistry.
Physics should be experienced and make sense to you. Each chapter of Active Physics begins with a challenge--develop a sport that can be played on the Moon; build a home for people with a housing crisis; persuade your parents to lend you the family car; and so on. These are tough challenges, but you will learn the physics that will allow you to be successful at every one. Part of your education is to learn to trust yourself and to question others. When someone tells you something, can they answer your questions: "How do you know? Why should I believe you? and Why should I care?" After Active Physics, when you describe why seat belts are important, or why sports can be played on the moon, or why communication with extraterrestrials is difficult, and someone asks, "How do you know?" your answer will be, "I know because I did an experiment."
Active Surveillance for Localized Prostate Cancer: A New Paradigm for Clinical Management will serve as a useful resource for physicians dealing with, and interested in, this complex and evolving branch of prostate cancer management. The book will also be of interest to scientifically literate patients and their families. The volume provides an introduction to the concept of active surveillance in oncology in general and prostate cancer specifically. The primary focus is to provide a comprehensive guide to the management of patients on surveillance. The volume covers the many complexities and nuances to this approach including, patient selection, risk assessment, how to overcome 'cancer hysteria' when counseling patients, identifying appropriate triggers for intervention, use of PSA kinetics and MR imaging information, technique and frequency of biopsies, secondary prevention interventions, and the relative roles of surveillance and focal therapy.
This Companion Textbook supplements the ActivEpi CD-ROM, sold separately. The ActivEpi CD-ROM provides a multimedia presentation of concepts, commonly taught in an introductory epidemiology course. ActivEpi mixes a full array of media to motivate, explain, visualize and apply epidemiological concepts. Virtually all of the material on the ActivEpi CD-ROM is included in the Companion Textbook. Because individuals differ in their learning skills, the ActivEpi CD-ROM and the ActivEpi Companion Textbook offer readers different but related options on how to learn epidemiology. The Textbook can be used as a hardcopy reference of the textual materials contained on the CD-ROM, as a resource for the practice exercises, as a general reference, or even a self-contained textbook. ActivEpi includes 15 lessons and over 50 hours of content via more than 250 launchable activities and homework exercises. It can be used in a variety of teaching formats: distance learning, self-paced learning, on-campus courses, and short courses. For the latest additions to ActivEpi, visit David Kleinbaum's website.
In the last two decades, there has been growing interest in pursuing theoretical paradigms that capture complex learning situations. Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is one of several theoretical frameworks that became very popular among educational researchers because it conceptualizes individuals and their environment as a holistic unit of analysis. It assumes a non-dualistic ontology and acknowledges the complexities involved in human activity in natural settings. Recently, reputable journals such as the American Psychologist, Educational Psychologist, and Educational Researcher that are targeted for a wide-range of audience have included articles on CHAT. In many of such articles, CHAT has been referred to as social constructivism, sociocultural theory, or activity theory. Activity systems analysis is one of the popular methods among CHAT researchers for mapping complex human interactions from qualitative data. However, understanding the methods involved in activity systems analysis is a challenging task for many researchers. This difficulty derives from several reasons. First the original texts of CHAT are in Russian and there have been numerous authors who report on the difficulties of reconciling translation problems of the works of original authors' such as Vygotsky and Leontiev. Second, in North America activity systems analysis has deviated from the Russian scholars' intentions and Engeström's original work using the triangle model to identify tensions to overcome and bring about sociopolitical change in participant practices. Third, to this date there are numerous publications on the theoretical background of activity theory and studies reporting the results of using activity systems analysis for unpacking qualitative data sets, but there have been no methodological publications on how researchers engage in activity systems analysis. Thus, there is a dearth of literature in both book and journal publications that guide researchers on the methodological issues involving activity systems analysis.
Much has been written about the ups and downs of financial markets, from the lure of prosperity to the despair of crisis. However, there exists a more fundamental and pernicious source of uncertainty in today's world: the traditional "insurance" risks of earthquakes, storms, terrorist attacks, and other disasters. Insightfully exploring these "acts of God and man," Michael R. Powers guides readers through the methods available for identifying and measuring such risks, financing their consequences, and forecasting their future behavior within the limits of science. A distinctive characteristic of earthquakes, hurricanes, bombings, and other insurance risks is that they impact the values of stocks, bonds, commodities, and other human-made financial products, while themselves remaining largely unaffected by or "aloof" from the behavior of markets. Quantifying such risks given limited data is tricky yet crucial for achieving the financing objectives of insurance. Powers begins with an analysis of how risk impacts our lives, health, and possessions, and then introduces the statistical techniques necessary for analyzing these uncertainties. He then considers the experience of risk from the perspectives of both policyholders and insurance companies and compares their respective responses. The risks inherent in the private insurance industry lead naturally to discussions of government's role as both market regulator and potential "insurer of last resort." Powers concludes with an interdisciplinary investigation into the nature of uncertainty, incorporating ideas from physics, philosophy, and game theory to assess science's limitations in predicting the ramifications of risk.
How language evolved has been called "the hardest problem in science. " In Adam's Tongue, Derek Bickerton--long a leading authority in this field--shows how and why previous attempts to solve that problem have fallen short. Taking cues from topics as diverse as the foraging strategies of ants, the distribution of large prehistoric herbivores, and the construction of ecological niches, Bickerton produces a dazzling new alternative to the conventional wisdom. Language is unique to humans, but it isn't the only thing that sets us apart from other species--our cognitive powers are qualitatively different. So could there be two separate discontinuities between humans and the rest of nature? No, says Bickerton; he shows how the mere possession of symbolic units--words--automatically opened a new and different cognitive universe, one that yielded novel innovations ranging from barbed arrowheads to the Apollo spacecraft. Written in Bickerton's lucid and irreverent style, this book is the first to thoroughly integrate the story of how language evolved with the story of how humans evolved. Sure to be controversial, it will make indispensable reading both for experts in the field and for every reader who has ever wondered how a species as remarkable as ours could have come into existence. '
As embedded systems become more complex, designers face a number of challenges at different levels: they need to boost performance, while keeping energy consumption as low as possible, they need to reuse existent software code, and at the same time they need to take advantage of the extra logic available in the chip, represented by multiple processors working together. This book describes several strategies to achieve such different and interrelated goals, by the use of adaptability. Coverage includes reconfigurable systems, dynamic optimization techniques such as binary translation and trace reuse, new memory architectures including homogeneous and heterogeneous multiprocessor systems, communication issues and NOCs, fault tolerance against fabrication defects and soft errors, and finally, how one can combine several of these techniques together to achieve higher levels of performance and adaptability. The discussion also includes how to employ specialized software to improve this new adaptive system, and how this new kind of software must be designed and programmed.
"The vampire finch and the sneaker iguana have something in common. They both live on the Galapagos Islands, a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean. These islands are a natural wonderland full of strange and amazing birds and animals. Some people have heard about the Galapagos because of the giant tortoises (turtles) that live there. Maybe you have seen these animals in a book or on television. The Galapagos Islands are also famous because of a young man named Charles Darwin, who visited them in 1835. Later, Darwin went on to become one of the most important scientists the world has ever known."-Introduction
These titles provide an in-depth look at life processes. The books stress key features of science teaching including scientific inquiry, use of ideas and evidence in science, planning, evaluation, and developing investigative skills. Sample experiments and data illustrate best practices in a real context. Case studies of key experiments and discoveries in the history of science are presented as box features (including modern discoveries as well as those with historical importance). Information on the most recent developments in research demonstrates the progressive nature of science.
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