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Crop wild relatives are the natural genetic progenitors of plant species that humans cultivate and consume every day. This massive and thorough textbook covers many of the scientific efforts used to conserve and utilize these species, including in situ management, genetic and hybrid research and the prevention of natural and man-made factors that can limit or destroy crops. Specific case examples are presented from around the world, showing how agricultural science has progressed in this area, and how pollution and population growth have set this progress back. The text is dense and aimed at those already proficient at agri-science, but a more comprehensive study of crop wild relatives would be hard to imagine. Three of the six editors are affiliated with the school of biosciences, U. of Birmingham, UK; two are with Bioversity International, Rome, Italy; and one is with the U. Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain. Contributors of the 49 chapters are from many countries, and the final two chapters discuss global conservation issues.
y genetic traits of wild relatives to crops are covered. There is also a valuable discussion on the importance of conserving genetic resources to ensure continued successful crop production. A timley resource, Crop Wild Relative and Climate Change will be an invaluable resource for the crop science community for years to come.
This book is the result of a working group sponsored by ISSI in Bern, which was initially created to study possible ways to calibrate a Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument after launch. In most cases, ultraviolet instruments are well calibrated on the ground, but unfortunately, optics and detectors in the FUV are very sensitive to contaminants and it is very challenging to prevent contamination before and during the test and launch sequences of a space mission. Therefore, ground calibrations need to be confirmed after launch and it is necessary to keep track of the temporal evolution of the sensitivity of the instrument during the mission. The studies presented here cover various fields of FUV spectroscopy, including a catalog of stellar spectra, datasets of Moon Irradiance, observations of comets and measurements of the interplanetary background. Detailed modelling of the interplanetary background is presented as well. This work also includes comparisons of older datasets with current ones. This raises the question of the consistency of the existing datasets. Previous experiments have been calibrated independently and comparison of the datasets may lead to inconsistencies. The authors have tried to check that possibility in the datasets and when relevant suggest a correction factor for the corresponding data.
In this eloquent guide to the meanings of the postmodern era, Albert Borgmann charts the options before us as we seek alternatives to the joyless and artificial culture of consumption. Borgmann connects the fundamental ideas driving his understanding of society's ills to every sphere of contemporary social life, and goes beyond the language of postmodern discourse to offer a powerfully articulated vision of what this new era, at its best, has in store. This] thoughtful book is the first remotely realistic map out of the post modern labyrinth. OCoJoseph Coates, "The Chicago Tribune" Rather astoundingly large-minded vision of the nature of humanity, civilization and science. OCo"Kirkus Reviews""
This stunningly illustrated book from acclaimed birder and photographer Richard Crossley revolutionizes field guide design by providing the first real-life approach to identification. Whether you are a beginner, expert, or anywhere in between, The Crossley ID Guide will vastly improve your ability to identify birds. Unlike other guides, which provide isolated individual photographs or illustrations, this is the first book to feature large, lifelike scenes for each species. These scenes--640 in all--are composed from more than 10,000 of the author's images showing birds in a wide range of views--near and far, from different angles, in various plumages and behaviors, including flight, and in the habitat in which they live. These beautiful compositions show how a bird's appearance changes with distance, and give equal emphasis to characteristics experts use to identify birds: size, structure and shape, behavior, probability, and color. This is the first book to convey all of these features visually--in a single image--and to reinforce them with accurate, concise text. Each scene provides a wealth of detailed visual information that invites and rewards careful study, but the most important identification features can be grasped instantly by anyone. By making identification easier, more accurate, and more fun than ever before, The Crossley ID Guide will completely redefine how its users look at birds. Essential for all birders, it also promises to make new birders of many people who have despaired of using traditional guides. Revolutionary. This book changes field guide design to make you a better birder A picture says a thousand words. The most comprehensive guide: 640 stunning scenes created from 10,000 of the author's photographs Reality birding. Lifelike in-focus scenes show birds in their habitats, from near and far, and in all plumages and behaviors Teaching and reference. The first book to accurately portray all the key identification characteristics: size, shape, behavior, probability, and color Practice makes perfect. An interactive learning experience to sharpen and test field identification skills Bird like the experts. The first book to simplify birding and help you understand how to bird like the best An interactive website--www.crossleybirds.com--includes expanded captions for the plates and species updates
Aegean Conferences is an independent, nonprofit, educational organization directed and managed by the scientific community. The board is made up of nine researchers/scientists in various disciplines from Harvard, Brown, University of Pennsylvania, UCSD, Princeton, Biovista and the Foundation for Biomedical Research Academy of Athens. The board both invites and approves unsolicited proposals for Conferences in all fields of Science, Engineering, Arts, and Humanities. The purpose of the Conferences is to bring together individuals with common interests to examine the emerging and most advanced aspects of their particular field. This volume will include mini-reviews derived from work to be presented at the Aegean Conference: Second Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity, in Crete, Greece, June 17-22, 2007. This meeting is designed to serve as a forum to discuss the most recent progress in complement research as it pertains to human disease pathogenesis and therapeutics. The rapid pace of development in complement basic research and the advent and application of new experimental approaches in this field have now allowed us to take an integrated view of the in vivo biology of the complement system. The availability of new reagents (e.g. synthetic and recombinant inhibitors) and animal models (e.g. transgenic and knockout mice) has enabled us to address, in an in vivo setting, its involvement in various pathophysiological conditions. Such studies are shedding new light on the pathogenetic mechanism of complement-related diseases such as autoimmune diseases and inflammatory tissue damage as well as defining new areas of high interest such as the developmental biology of complement. They also provide the basis for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases through manipulation of in vivo complement activity. This volume will serve as a resource where the latest development in these specific areas will be discussed in a more focused and detailed manner.
There are more crows now than ever. Their abundance is both an indicator of ecological imbalance and a generous opportunity to connect with the animal world. CROW PLANET reminds us that we do not need to head to faraway places to encounter "nature." Rather, even in the suburbs and cities where we live we are surrounded by wild life such as crows, and through observing them we can enhance our appreciation of the world's natural order. CROW PLANET richly weaves Haupt's own "crow stories" as well as scientific and scholarly research and the history and mythology of crows, culminating in a book that is sure to make readers see the world around them in a very different way.
What is the best way to move our planet to a safe and sustainable future? This book focuses on two global issues - rapid population growth and a human-induced climate change caused by emissions - that lie at the heart of this problem. John Firor and Judith Jacobsen summarize the current status of these two issues, show how they are related to one another, and prescribe steps that governments, economies, societies, and individuals can adopt to ensure their stability." --BOOK JACKET. Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
We are nearing a turning point in our quest for life in the universe-we now have the capacity to detect Earth-like planets around other stars. But will we find any?In The Crowded Universe, renowned astronomer Alan Boss argues that based on what we already know about planetary systems, in the coming years we will find abundant Earths, including many that are indisputably alive. Life is not only possible elsewhere in the universe, Boss argues-it is common.Boss describes how our ideas about planetary formation have changed radically in the past decade and brings readers up to date on discoveries of bizarre inhabitants of various solar systems, including our own. America must stay in this new space race, Boss contends, or risk being left out of one of the most profoundly important discoveries of all time: the first confirmed finding of extraterrestrial life.
We are nearing a turning point in our quest for life in the universe-we now have the capacity to detect Earth-like planets around other stars. But will we find any? In The Crowded Universe, renowned astronomer Alan Boss argues that based on what we already know about planetary systems, in the coming years we will find abundant Earths, including many that are indisputably alive. Life is not only possible elsewhere in the universe, Boss argues-it is common. Boss describes how our ideas about planetary formation have changed radically in the past decade and brings readers up to date on discoveries of bizarre inhabitants of various solar systems, including our own. America must stay in this new space race, Boss contends, or risk being left out of one of the most profoundly important discoveries of all time: the first confirmed finding of extraterrestrial life.
"A stirring tale of survival, thanks to man's best friend . . . reflects a transcendent understanding and impeccable research."--Seattle Times When a deadly diphtheria epidemic swept through Nome, Alaska, in 1925, the local doctor knew that without a fresh batch of antitoxin, his patients would die. The lifesaving serum was a thousand miles away, the port was icebound, and planes couldn't fly in blizzard conditions--only the dogs could make it. The heroic dash of dog teams across the Alaskan wilderness to Nome inspired the annual Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race and immortalized Balto, the lead dog of the last team whose bronze statue still stands in New York City's Central Park. This is the greatest dog story, never fully told until now.
Without notice, Earth's surface can change drastically and dramatically. As this exciting drama fully plays out on each page of this series, readers confront the physical and social impact of events and their aftermath. Geography and social science are made frighteningly real and relevant, as is the need for conservation and preventive measures. Each title includes a survival guide that recaps highlights from the book and provides a checklist of survival tips and precautions.
This widely expanded second edition offers a compilation of robust, reproducible techniques for the conservation of a wide range of biological materials. It includes novel approaches and protocols that were not preservable when the first edition was published. The book begins with a discussion of long term ex situ conservation of biological resources, the role of biological resource centers, and fundamental principles of freeze-drying and cryopreservation. Each chapter focuses on the preservation of specific biological materials, including proteins, mircroorganisms, cell lines, and multicellular structures.
This book provides detailed protocols for all the latest methodologies used to assure the long-term biostorage of a diverse range of biological materials. Developed in expert laboratories, the protocols have been painstakingly perfected over the years to provide time-tested, step-by-step instructions that ensure robust and reproducible results. Each protocol deals with the preservation of an organelle, cell, or tissue type, and is accessible even to the nonspecialist because of its cookbook approach. Novel protocols can be readily developed with the help of the "hands-on" Notes sections. Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols is an indispensable reference work for both the individual researcher, and all those who want to establish or improve biostorage systems in their laboratories. Its applications range from microbial culture collections, botanic gardens, and zoos to animal husbandry, aquaculture, medicine, human fertilization, and cell and molecular biology.
The cryosphere encompasses the Earth's snow and ice masses. It is a critical part of our planet's climate system, one that is especially at risk from climate change and global warming. The Cryosphere provides an essential introduction to the subject, written by one of the world's leading experts in Earth-system science. In this primer, glaciologist Shawn Marshall introduces readers to the cryosphere and the broader role it plays in our global climate system. After giving a concise overview, he fully explains each component of the cryosphere and how it works--seasonal snow, permafrost, river and lake ice, sea ice, glaciers, ice sheets, and ice shelves. Marshall describes how snow and ice interact with our atmosphere and oceans and how they influence climate, sea level, and ocean circulation. He looks at the cryosphere's role in past ice ages, and considers the changing cryosphere's future impact on our landscape, oceans, and climate. Accessible and authoritative, this primer also features a glossary of key terms, suggestions for further reading, explanations of equations, and a discussion of open research questions in the field.
Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age (Sloan Technology Series)by Michael Riordan Lillian Hoddeson
"With impeccable scholarship and meticulous research, this book covers an impressive sweep of history from the discovery of the electron to the first integrated circuit. ... A definitive account of the birth of the semiconductor industry." -London Daily Telegraph "In rich detail, Riordan and Hoddeson unfurl the development of the transistor and the lives of its three principal discoverers- John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley. . . . Standing on the shoulders of giants while harvesting the fruits of their own astonishing research, the triumvirate of the transistor created the device that has revolutionized life today, making possible television, computers, and other electronic devices." -Library Journal
Crystallization is a natural occurring process but also a process abundantly used in the industry. Crystallization can occur from a solution, from the melt or via deposition of material from the gas phase (desublimation). Crystals distinguish themself from liquids, gases and amorphous substances by the long-range order of its building blocks that entail the crystals to be formed of well-defined faces, and give rise to a large number of properties of the solid.Crystallization is used at some stage in nearly all process industries as a method of production, purification or recovery of solid materials. Crystallization is practiced on all scales: from the isolation of the first milligrams of a newly synthesized substance in the research laboratory to isolating products on the mulit-million tonne scale in industry. The book describes the breadth of crystallization operations, from isolation from a reaction broth to purification and finally to tailoring product properties.In the first section of the book, the basic mechanisms - nucleation, growth, attrition and agglomeration are introduced. It ensures an understanding of supersaturation, the driving force of crystallization. Furthermore, the solubility of the substance and its dependences on process conditions and the various techniques of crystallization and their possibilities and limitations are discussed. Last but not least, the first part includes an intensive treatment of polymorphism . The second part builds on the basics, exploring how crystallization processes can be developed, either batch-wise or continuous, from solution or from the melt. A discussion of the purification during crystallization serves as a link between the two sections, where practical aspects and an insight using theoretical concepts are combined. Mixing and its influence on thecrystallization as well as the mutual interference of down-stream processes with the crystallization are also treated. Finally, techniques to characterize the crop are discussed.The third part of the book is dedicated to accounts of actual developments and of carried-out crystallizations. Typical pitfalls and strategies to avoid these as well as the design of robust processes are presented.
Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials. Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique--often symmetry-defying--crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientation of the assembled nanoparticles to achieve structural accord at the particle-particle interface, the removal of adsorbates and solvent molecules, and, finally, the irreversible formation of chemical bonds to produce new single crystals, twins, and intergrowths. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals provides a current understanding of the mechanisms related to nucleation and growth for use in controlling nanocrystal morphology and physical-chemical properties, and is essential reading for any chemist or materials scientist with an interest in using nanocrystals as building blocks for larger structures. This book provides a compendium for the expert reader as well as an excellent introduction for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking a gateway into this dynamic area of research.
The first book to explicitly focus on the processing of crystallizing polymers, it presents innovative research on diverse interfering processes to help clarify the subject. The first to address the unexpectedly strong interaction of three transport phenomena: heat transfer, momentum transfer (rheology) with crystallization kinetics. With many applications, most well-known crystalline structures are found in polymers like high and low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polybutene and their copolymers. Common problems such as anisotropic shrinkage, warping, and split fiber formation are covered. In addition to applications on amorphous polymers, attempts at numerical simulation on crystallizing polymers are also examined. A feeling for the origins of undesired orientations and frozen-in stresses often associated with the manufacturing process is provided to polymer chemists, applied physicists, rheologists, plastics engineers, mold makers and material scientists.
This thesis deals with the processes that create ordered assemblies from disordered nanoparticles. Ordered packings of nanoscale particles can exhibit unusual properties. This work investigates the self-assembly of such particles, a process widely employed for the generation of ordered structures, but not yet well understood. In situ methods are used to observe the assembly of sub-micron polymer lattices and sub-10 nm gold particles into crystalline monolayers and aggregates. On the basis of these results, the book develops new models that describe the competition between different influences, such as thermal agitation and directional forces. It suggests necessary criteria that lead to the emergence of order.
In Crystallographic Methods and Protocols leading specialists in the application of X-ray crystallography to biological problems provide a basic and comprehensive guide to its successful use in obtaining detailed three-dimensional structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and their complexes. These deeply experienced researchers describe in clear practical terms their proven methods for preparing samples, crystallizing them, obtaining preliminary characterizations, acquiring and analyzing data, and solving and refining structures. Their step-by-step instructions give biologically trained workers immediate access to a powerful technique essential to solving many biologically relevant problems.
Extensively revised and updated, this new edition of a classic text presents a unified approach to crystallography and to the defects found within crystals. The book combines the classical and exact description of symmetry of a perfect crystal with the possible geometries of the major defects-dislocations, stacking faults, point defects, twins, interfaces and the effects of martensitic transformations. A number of important concepts and exciting new topics have been introduced in this second edition, including piezoelectricity, liquid crystals, nanocrystalline concepts, incommensurate materials and the structure of foamed and amorphous solids. The coverage of quasicrystalline materials has been extended, and the data tables, appendices and references have been fully updated.Reinforcing its unrivalled position as the core text for teaching crystallography and crystal defects, each chapter includes problem sets with brief numerical solutions at the end of the book. Detailed worked solutions, supplementary lecture material and computer programs for crystallographic calculations are provided online (http://booksupport.wiley.com).
Provides the tools needed to master and apply the fundamentals of polymer crystallographyUsing core concepts in physics, chemistry, polymer science and engineering, this book sheds new light on the complex field of polymer crystallography, enabling readers to evaluate polymer crystallization data and determine the best methods to use for their investigations. The authors set forth a variety of tested and proven methods for analyzing ordered and disordered structures in polymer crystals, including X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, and microscopy. In addition to the basics, the book explores several advanced and emerging topics in the field such as symmetry breaking, frustration, and the principle of density-driven phase formation.Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers introduces two new concepts in crystallinity and crystals in synthetic polymers. First, crystallinity in polymeric materials is compatible with the absence of true three-dimensional long-range order. Second, the disorder may be described as a structural feature, using the methods of X-ray scattering and electron diffraction analysis.The book begins by introducing the basic principles and methods for building structural models for the conformation of polymer crystal chains. Next, it covers:Packing of macromolecules in polymer crystalsMethods for extracting structural parameters from diffraction dataDefects and disorder in polymer crystalsAnalytical methods for diffuse scattering from disordered polymer structuresCrystal habitInfluence of crystal defects and structural disorder on the physical and mechanical properties of polymeric materialsCrystals and Crystallinity in Polymers examines all the possible types of structural disorder generally present in polymer crystals and describes the influence of each kind of disorder on X-ray and electron diffraction patterns. Its comprehensive, expert coverage makes it possible for readers to learn and apply the fundamentals of polymer crystallography to solve a broad range of problems.
The Csound Book: Perspectives in Software Synthesis, Sound Design, Signal Processing and Programmingby Richard Boulanger
Written by the world's leading educators, programmers, sound designers, and composers, this comprehensive guide covers both the basics of Csound and the theoretical and musical concepts necessary to use the program effectively.
CT of the Acute Abdomen provides a comprehensive account of the use of CT in patients with acute abdomen. Recent important developments in CT, including multislice CT and multiplanar reconstructions, receive particular attention. CT features are clearly illustrated, and pitfalls and differential diagnoses are discussed. The first section of the book presents epidemiological and clinical data in acute abdomen. The second and third sections document the key CT findings and their significance and discuss the technological background. The fourth and fifth sections, which form the main body of the book, examine in detail the various clinical applications of CT in nontraumatic and traumatic acute abdomen. This book will serve as an ideal guide to the performance and interpretation of CT in the setting of the acute abdomen; it will be of value to all general and gastrointestinal radiologists, as well as emergency room physicians and gastrointestinal surgeons.