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Much as we take comfort in the belief that modern medicine and public health tactics can protect us from horrifying contagious diseases, such faith is dangerously unfounded. So demonstrates Mark Harrison in this pathbreaking investigation of the intimate connections between trade and disease throughout modern history. For centuries commerce has been the single most important factor in spreading diseases to different parts of the world, the author shows, and today the same is true. But in today's global world, commodities and germs are circulating with unprecedented speed. Beginning with the plagues that ravaged Eurasia in the fourteenth century, Harrison charts both the passage of disease and the desperate measures to prevent it. He examines the emergence of public health in the Western world, its subsequent development elsewhere, and a recurring pattern of misappropriation of quarantines, embargoes, and other sanitary measures for political or economic gain--even for use as weapons of war. In concluding chapters the author exposes the weaknesses of today's public health regulations--a set of rules that not only disrupt the global economy but also fail to protect the public from the afflictions of trade-borne disease.
With time travel and mysteries that need solving, the Galactic Academy of Science (G.A.S.) series instructs readers on how to think like scientists. Under the guidance of a Dude or Dudette from the future, the middle school characters are faced with treacherous, present-day crimes that require a historical knowledge of science in order to be solved. From investigating problems to analyzing data and constructing explanations and solutions, this series blends elements of sci-fi with educational methods that distill the key thinking habits of scientists and engineers. The science of food safety combines with mystery in this G.A.S. adventure about an outbreak of foodborne illness When a cruise featuring a cooking contest turns into a disaster of vomiting passengers, seventh-grade G.A.S. trainees Mae and Clinton have a mystery to solve. With help from Selectra Volt, Dudette from the future, the two kids travel through time to learn about the science of food safety. Between journeys to the past, they investigate clues aboard ship. But when a storm comes, and conditions aboard the disabled ship become desperate, can Mae and Clinton discover the cause of the outbreak in time?
An investigation into the dangers of the chemicals present in our daily lives, along with practical advice for reducing these toxins in our bodies and homes, from acclaimed journalist McKay Jenkins. A few years ago, journalism professor McKay Jenkins went in for a routine medical exam. What doctors found was not routine at all: a tumor, the size of a navel orange, was lurking in his abdomen. When Jenkins returned to the hospital to have the tumor removed, he was visited by a couple of researchers with clipboards. They had some questions for him. Odd questions. How much exposure had he had to toxic chemicals and other contaminants? Asbestos dust? Vinyl chlorine? Pesticides? A million questions, all about seemingly obscure chemicals. Jenkins, an exercise nut and an enviro-conscious, organic-garden kind of guy, suddenly realized he'd spent his life marinating in toxic stuff, from his wall-to-wall carpeting, to his dryer sheets, to his drinking water. And from the moment he left the hospital, he resolved to discover the truth about chemicals and the "healthy" levels of exposure we encounter each day as Americans. Jenkins spent the next two years digging, exploring five frontiers of toxic exposure--the body, the home, the drinking water, the lawn, and the local box store--and asking how we allowed ourselves to get to this point. He soon learned that the giants of the chemical industry operate virtually unchecked, and a parent has almost no way of finding out what the toy her child is putting in his or her mouth is made of. Most important, though, Jenkins wanted to know what we can do to turn things around. Though toxins may be present in products we all use every day--from ant spray, perfume, and grass seed to shower curtains and, yes, baby shampoo--there are ways to lessen our exposure. ContamiNation is an eye-opening report from the front lines of consumer advocacy.
B. Alan Wallace, renowned Buddhist scholar, integrates the contemplative methodologies of Buddhism and Western science into a single discipline: contemplative science. The science of consciousness investigates the mind through Buddhist contemplative techniques, such as shamatha, an organized, detailed system of training the attention. Just as scientists make observations and conduct experiments with the aid of technology, contemplatives have long tested their theories with the help of highly developed meditative skills of observation and experimentation. Contemplative science allows for a deeper knowledge of mental phenomena, and its emphasis on strict mental discipline counteracts the effects of conative (intention and desire), attentional,cognitive, and affective imbalances. Just as behaviorism, psychology, and neuroscience shed light on the cognitive processes enabling us to survive and flourish, contemplative science offers a groundbreaking perspective for expanding our capacity to realize genuine well-being. It also forges a link between the material world and the realm of the subconscious, transcending a traditional science-based understanding of the self.
This complete, up-to-date introduction to immunology takes students from basic vocabulary through common immunoassays to closer consideration of the specific diseases that require immunologic methods of diagnosis. CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY AND SEROLOGY presents today's newest professional techniques, thoroughly preparing students to work in modern clinical immunology laboratories, understand the data generated there, and apply the conclusions to deliver superior patient care. Full-color charts and illustrations engage students and enhance comprehension, and the text's content has been extensively classroom-tested. It contains the most up-to-date information to accurately reflect what in done in the clinical immunology laboratory. Every chapter contains review and critical thinking questions, as well as a detailed case study.
This volume introduces central issues in cognitive science by means of debates on key questions. The debates are written by renowned experts in the field. The debates cover the middle ground as well as the extremes Addresses topics such as the amount of innate knowledge, bounded rationality and the role of perception in action. Provides valuable overview of the field in a clear and easily comprehensible form.
Contemporary's Foundations series helps students improve their basic skills. Each book provides skill instruction, offers interesting passages to study, and furnishes opportunities for practice.Foundations provides meaningful contexts for learning, using language which is easy to understand. About Foundations: Science, Revised Edition : In Foundations: Science, students will learn about the human body, plant biology, physics, chemistry, and Earth science. They will practice putting events in order; reading diagrams, charts, and graphs; using the scientific method; and making comparisons and contrasts. Try It yourself! activities will guide students through simple experiments so they will have a better understanding of what they have been reading about.Writing Workshops and Language Tips will help students use their reading and writing skills to think about science topics. About the Series: In Foundations: Reading, students will read practical information, nonfiction, poetry, and short stories. They will learn to find the main point and the details; identify fact, opinion, and bias; make inferences; read photographs and cartoons; and understand rhythm, rhyme, plot, and theme. Writing Workshops, Language Tips, and prereading questions are designed to improve reading, writing, and thinking skills. In Foundations: Writing, students will practice the four steps to writing an essay: prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing. They will read and write five kinds of essays: descriptive essays, personal narratives, how-to essays, essays of example, and comparison-and-contrast essays. A language-skills workbook provides grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure practice. In Your Journal, With a Partner, and Language Tips will help students become better writers, and better readers and thinkers as well. In Foundations: Science, students will learn about the human body, plant biology, physics, chemistry, and Earth science. They will practice putting events in order; reading diagrams, charts, and graphs; using the scientific method; and making comparisons and contrasts. Try It yourself! activities will guide students through simple experiments so they will have a better understanding of what they have been reading about. Writing Workshops and Language Tips will help students use their reading and writing skills to think about science topics. In Foundations: Social Studies, students will learn about world history, U.S. history, civics and government, geography, and economics. They will summarize, make predictions, infer the main idea of cartoons, find information on maps, and read various kinds of graphs. Background Information, Language Tips, and Writing Workshops will let students use what they already know as they read and write about social studies topics. The revised edition includes a new World History chapter. In Foundations: Math, students will practice using whole numbers, money, decimals, fractions, ratios, and percents. Exercises will help students review the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts; round numbers; estimate answers; and solve word problems. Math Notes, On their Calculator, and Language Tips will help students improve math skills. The revised edition of Math is a major revision. The language has been updated to make the material even easier to follow than before.
Exciting new developments and applications of imaging techniques have emerged over the last few years, leading to many improvements in diagnosis and staging of urologic diseases. Refinements in the technology mean that imaging now is much more precise than even five years ago, and this has significantly enhanced its application within several key fields. As such, there are virtually no books currently available that cover the impact of these advances within urology leaving a major hole in the market. With its sound overview of the current state of affairs, and also its focus on highlighting future advances, this book would therefore find a significant audience within not only trainees, but also practicing clinicians too. Furthermore, the whole topic of ultrasonography is a relatively overlooked one, with very few modern books tackling any specific areas of the field. This book will be up-to-date and will pay attention to the unique applications of ultrasound within each discipline.
Estuaries are of high socioeconomic importance with 22 of the 32 largest cities in the world located on river estuaries. Estuaries bring together fluxes of fresh and saline water, as well as fluvial and marine sediments, and contain high biological diversity. Increasingly sophisticated field observation technology and numerical modeling have produced significant advances in our understanding of the physical properties of estuaries over the last decade. This book introduces a classification for estuaries before presenting the basic physics and hydrodynamics of estuarine circulation and the various factors that modify it in time and space. It then covers special topics at the forefront of research such as turbulence, fronts in estuaries and continental shelves, low inflow estuaries, and implications of estuarine transport for water quality. Written by leading authorities on estuarine and lagoon hydrodynamics, this volume provides a concise foundation for academic researchers, advanced students and coastal resource managers.
"Contemporary Nutrition" is a complete and balanced resource for nutrition information written at a level non-science majors can understand. Completely revised and up-to-date with MyPlate, Healthy People 2020 and Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, it provides the ideal balance of reliable nutrition information and practical consumer-oriented knowledge. With a friendly writing style, the authors act as the student's personal guide to dispelling common misconceptions and to gaining a solid foundation for making informed nutrition choices. "Contemporary Nutrition" emphasizes that a population consists of individuals with varying genetic and cultural backgrounds, and these individuals will have varying responses to diet. The knowledge gained from this text will allow students to personalize nutrition information and empower them to make better choices in their daily lives.
Contemporary'sTop 50 . . . Skills for GED Successis a program designed toquicklyprepare students for the GED Tests. This Textbook can be used in a variety of ways: Student-directed self-study One-on-one instruction Group instruction Top 50 . . . Skills for GED Successorganizes each GED Test subject into 50 manageable skills, identified by the GED Testing Service. The format of each text is very easy to follow and is organized into instruction and practice sections. Pretest and Posttest The pretest contains a question for each of the skills most likely to be seen on the actual GED Test. The posttest is formatted just like the GED Test! Students can use the posttest to practice taking the GED test under real test-taking conditions, as well as an evaluation tool to determine readiness for the real GED Test. Lesson Format Each lesson in the text is introduced in a two-page format. The left page is the Skill Instruction page and the right page is the GED Readiness page. The GED Readiness page provides practice questions in the same format as the actual GED Test.
Your book has two parts, you can use the first part to learn about science topics. If you need help reading or writing about science, use the second part.
Continuing Assistance to the National Institutes of Health on Preparation of Additional Risk Assessments for the Boston University NEIDL, Phase 1by National Research Council of the National Academies
In 2003, the Boston University Medical Center (BUMC) was awarded a $128 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to build one of two high- and maximum- containment laboratory facilities for research on biological pathogens. The National Emerging Infectious Disease Laboratories (NEIDL) are meant to support the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and biodefense research agenda, conducting research to develop new approaches to treating, preventing, and diagnosing a variety of viral diseases. Diseases and agents to be studied include viruses and bacteria that occur naturally and cause infections or that could be used in deliberate attacks. Continuing Assistance to the National Institutes of Health on Preparation of Additional Risk Assessments for the Boston University NEIDL, Phase 1 reviews the proposed risk assessment plans associated with operating the NEIDL and provides input on key milestones in the development of supplementary risk assessment.
Continuing Assistance to the National Institutes of Health on Preparation of Additional Risk Assessments for the Boston University NEIDL, Phase 3by Committee on Continuing Assistance to the National Institutes of Health on Preparation of Additional Risk Assessments for the Boston University NEIDL
In 2003, the Boston University Medical Center (BUMC) was awarded a $128 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to build one of two national maximum-containment laboratory facilities for pathogen research. The National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories (NEIDL) are meant to support the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases' biodefense research agenda, conducting research to develop new approaches to treating, preventing, and diagnosing a variety of bacterial and viral diseases. The facility includes a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratory housed in a 192,000 square foot building. Although the NEIDL BSL-4 laboratory accounts for only 13 percent of the building's total space, it has been the source of virtually all of the community concern surrounding this project. The location of the facility on Albany Street in Boston's South End, which is an environmental justice community, has been controversial, and there have been numerous public meetings over the plans for the facility as well as three legal actions challenging the project. Continuing Assistance to the National Institutes of Health on Preparation of Additional Risk Assessments for the Boston University NEIDL, Phase 3, the fifth in a series of reports about the proposed facility, provides further technical input on the scope and design of any additional studies that may be needed to assess the risks associated with the siting and operation of the NEIDL. This report presents comments and questions on a "90 percent", or penultimate, draft of the revised risk assessment. According to the report, the "90 percent" draft of the risk assessment is a substantial improvement over past documents reviewed. Additionally, the report makes recommendations to improve the version that is ultimately prepared for public comment.
In February 2009, the commercial communications satellite Iridium 33 collided with the Russian military communications satellite Cosmos 2251. The collision, which was not the first recorded between two satellites in orbit--but the most recent and alarming--produced thousands of pieces of debris, only a small percentage of which could be tracked by sensors located around the world. In early 2007, China tested a kinetic anti-satellite weapon against one of its own satellites, which also generated substantial amounts of space debris. These collisions highlighted the importance of maintaining accurate knowledge, and the associated uncertainty, of the orbit of each object in space. These data are needed to predict close approaches of space objects and to compute the probability of collision so that owners/operators can decide whether or not to make a collision avoidance maneuver by a spacecraft with such capability. The space object catalog currently contains more than 20,000 objects, and when the planned space fence radar becomes operational this number is expected to exceed 100,000. A key task is to determine if objects might come closer to each other, an event known as "conjunction," and the probability that they might collide. The U.S. Air Force is the primary U.S. government organization tasked with maintaining the space object catalog and data on all space objects. This is a complicated task, involving collecting data from a multitude of different sensors-many of which were not specifically designed to track orbiting objects-and fusing the tracking data along with other data, such as data from atmospheric models, to provide predictions of where objects will be in the future. The Committee for the Assessment of the U.S. Air Force's Astrodynamic Standards collected data and heard from numerous people involved in developing and maintaining the current astrodynamics standards for the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), as well as representatives of the user community, such as NASA and commercial satellite owners and operators. Preventing collisions of space objects, regardless of their ownership, is in the national security interested of the United States. Continuing Kepler's Quest makes recommendations to the AFSPC in order for it to create and expand research programs, design and develop hardware and software, as well as determine which organizations to work with to achieve its goals.
Up until now, mountain ecosystems have not been closely studies by social scientists as they do not offer a readily defined set of problems for human exploitation as, do for instance, tropical forests or arctic habitats. But the archaeological evidence had shown that humans have been living in this type of habitat for thousands of year. From this evidence we can also see that mountainous regions are often frontier zones of competing polities and form refuge areas for dissident communities as they often are inherently difficult to control by centralized authorities. As a consequence they fuel or contribute disproportionately to political violence. But we are now witnessing changes and increasing vulnerability of mountain ecosystems caused by human activities. Human adaptability to mountain ecosystems This volume presents an international and interdisciplinary account of the exploitation of--and human adaptation to--mountainous regions over time. The contributions discuss human cultural responses to key physical and cultural stressors associated with mountain ecosystems, such as aridity, quality of soils, steep slopes, low productivity, as well as transient phenomena such as changing weather patterns, deforestation and erosion, and the possible effects of climate change. This volume will be of interest to anthropologists, ecologists and geologists as mountainous landscapes change fast and cultures disappear and they need to be recorded, and mountain regions are of interest for studies on environmental change and cultural responses of mountain populations provide clues for us all. Critical to understanding mountain adaptations is our comprehension of human decision-making and how people view short- and long-term outcomes.
NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts a wide range of satellite and suborbital missions to observe Earth's land surface and interior, biosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans as part of a program to improve understanding of Earth as an integrated system. Earth observations provide the foundation for critical scientific advances and environmental data products derived from these observations are used in resource management and for an extraordinary range of societal applications including weather forecasts, climate projections, sea level change, water management, disease early warning, agricultural production, and the response to natural disasters. As the complexity of societal infrastructure and its vulnerability to environmental disruption increases, the demands for deeper scientific insights and more actionable information continue to rise. To serve these demands, NASA's ESD is challenged with optimizing the partitioning of its finite resources among measurements intended for exploring new science frontiers, carefully characterizing long-term changes in the Earth system, and supporting ongoing societal applications. This challenge is most acute in the decisions the Division makes between supporting measurement continuity of data streams that are critical components of Earth science research programs and the development of new measurement capabilities. This report seeks to establish a more quantitative understanding of the need for measurement continuity and the consequences of measurement gaps. Continuity of NASA's Earth's Observations presents a framework to assist NASA's ESD in their determinations of when a measurement or dataset should be collected for durations longer than the typical lifetimes of single satellite missions.
The intent of this book is to present recent results in the control theory for the long run average continuous control problem of piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs). The book focuses mainly on the long run average cost criteria and extends to the PDMPs some well-known techniques related to discrete-time and continuous-time Markov decision processes, including the so-called ``average inequality approach'', ``vanishing discount technique'' and ``policy iteration algorithm''. We believe that what is unique about our approach is that, by using the special features of the PDMPs, we trace a parallel with the general theory for discrete-time Markov Decision Processes rather than the continuous-time case. The two main reasons for doing that is to use the powerful tools developed in the discrete-time framework and to avoid working with the infinitesimal generator associated to a PDMP, which in most cases has its domain of definition difficult to be characterized. Although the book is mainly intended to be a theoretically oriented text, it also contains some motivational examples. The book is targeted primarily for advanced students and practitioners of control theory. The book will be a valuable source for experts in the field of Markov decision processes. Moreover, the book should be suitable for certain advanced courses or seminars. As background, one needs an acquaintance with the theory of Markov decision processes and some knowledge of stochastic processes and modern analysis.
Presents a self-contained introduction to continuum mechanics that illustrates how many of the important partial differential equations of applied mathematics arise from continuum modeling principles Written as an accessible introduction, Continuum Mechanics: The Birthplace of Mathematical Models provides a comprehensive foundation for mathematical models used in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and heat transfer. The book features derivations of commonly used differential equations based on the fundamental continuum mechanical concepts encountered in various fields, such as engineering, physics, and geophysics. The book begins with geometric, algebraic, and analytical foundations before introducing topics in kinematics. The book then addresses balance laws, constitutive relations, and constitutive theory. Finally, the book presents an approach to multiconstituent continua based on mixture theory to illustrate how phenomena, such as diffusion and porous-media flow, obey continuum-mechanical principles. Continuum Mechanics: The Birthplace of Mathematical Models features: Direct vector and tensor notation to minimize the reliance on particular coordinate systems when presenting the theory Terminology that is aligned with standard courses in vector calculus and linear algebra The use of Cartesian coordinates in the examples and problems to provide readers with a familiar setting Over 200 exercises and problems with hints and solutions in an appendix Introductions to constitutive theory and multiconstituent continua, which are distinctive for books at this level Continuum Mechanics: The Birthplace of Mathematical Models is an ideal textbook for courses on continuum mechanics for upper-undergraduate mathematics majors and graduate students in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, physics, and geophysics. The book is also an excellent reference for professional mathematicians, physical scientists, and engineers.
This is a modern textbook for courses in continuum mechanics. It provides both the theoretical framework and the numerical methods required to model the behaviour of continuous materials. This self-contained textbook is tailored for advanced undergraduate or first year graduate students with numerous step-by-step derivations and worked out examples. The author presents both the general continuum theory and the mathematics needed to apply it in practice. The derivation of constitutive models for ideal gases, fluids, solids and biological materials, and the numerical methods required to solve the resulting differential equations, are also detailed. Specifically, the text presents the theory and numerical implementation for the finite difference and the finite element methods in the Matlab® programming language. It includes thirteen detailed Matlab® programs illustrating how constitutive models are used in practice.
Continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are foundational theories of many fields of science and engineering. This book presents a fresh perspective on these fundamental topics, connecting micro- and nanoscopic theories and emphasizing topics relevant to understanding solid-state thermo-mechanical behavior. Providing clear, in-depth coverage, the book gives a self-contained treatment of topics directly related to nonlinear materials modeling. It starts with vectors and tensors, finite deformation kinematics, the fundamental balance and conservation laws, and classical thermodynamics. It then discusses the principles of constitutive theory and examples of constitutive models, presents a foundational treatment of energy principles and stability theory, and concludes with example closed-form solutions and the essentials of finite elements. Together with its companion book, Modeling Materials, (Cambridge University Press, 2011), this work presents the fundamentals of multiscale materials modeling for graduate students and researchers in physics, materials science, chemistry and engineering.
Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this book provides a clear unified view of continuum mechanics that will be a welcome addition to the literature. Samuel Paolucci provides a well-grounded mathematical structure and also gives the reader a glimpse of how this material can be extended in a variety of directions, furnishing young researchers with the necessary tools to venture into brand new territory. Particular emphasis is given to the roles that thermodynamics and symmetries play in the development of constitutive equations for different materials. Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Matter is ideal for a one-semester course in continuum mechanics, with 250 end-of-chapter exercises designed to test and develop the reader's understanding of the concepts covered. Six appendices enhance the material further, including a comprehensive discussion of the kinematics, dynamics and balance laws applicable in Riemann spaces.
Continuum mechanics underlies many geological and geophysical phenomena, from earthquakes and faults to the fluid dynamics of the Earth. This interdisciplinary book provides geoscientists, physicists and applied mathematicians with a class-tested, accessible overview of continuum mechanics. Starting from thermodynamic principles and geometrical insights, the book surveys solid, fluid and gas dynamics. In later review chapters, it explores new aspects of the field emerging from nonlinearity and dynamical complexity and provides a brief introduction to computational modeling. Simple, yet rigorous, derivations are used to review the essential mathematics. The author emphasizes the full three-dimensional geometries of real-world examples, enabling students to apply this in deconstructing solid earth and planet-related problems. Problem sets and worked examples are provided, making this a practical resource for graduate students in geophysics, planetary physics and geology and a beneficial tool for professional scientists seeking a better understanding of the mathematics and physics within Earth sciences.
Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.
Sound knowledge of the latest research results in the thermodynamics and design of thermoelectric devices, providing a solid foundation for thermoelectric element and module design in the technical development process and thus serving as an indispensable tool for any application development. The text is aimed mainly at the project developer in the field of thermoelectric technology, both in academia and industry, as well as at graduate and advanced undergraduate students. Some core sections address the specialist in the field of thermoelectric energy conversion, providing detailed discussion of key points with regard to optimization. The international team of authors with experience in thermoelectrics research represents such institutes as EnsiCaen Université de Paris, JPL, CalTech, and the German Aerospace Center.