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The National Academies Keck Futures Initiative was launched in 2003 to stimulate new modes of scientific inquiry and break down the conceptual and institutional barriers to interdisciplinary research. At the Conference on Complex Systems, participants were divided into twelve interdisciplinary working groups. The groups spent nine hours over two days exploring diverse challenges at the interface of science, engineering, and medicine. The groups included researchers from science, engineering, and medicine, as well as representatives from private and public funding agencies, universities, businesses, journals, and the science media. The groups needed to address the challenge of communicating and working together from a diversity of expertise and perspectives as they attempted to solve complicated, interdisciplinary problems in a relatively short time. The summaries contained in this volume describe the problem and outline the approach taken, including what research needs to be done to understand the fundamental science behind the challenge, the proposed plan for engineering the application, the reasoning that went into it and the benefits to society of the problem solution.
Sophie Germain taught herself mathematics by candlelight, huddled in her bedclothes. Ada Byron Lovelace anticipated aspects of general-purpose digital computing by more than a century. Cora Ratto de Sadosky advanced messages of tolerance and equality while sharing her mathematical talents with generations of students. This captivating book gives voice to women mathematicians from the late eighteenth century through to the present day. It documents the complex nature of the conditions women around the world have faced--and continue to face--while pursuing their careers in mathematics. The stories of the three women above and those of many more appear here, each one enlightening and inspiring. The earlier parts of the book provide historical context and perspective, beginning with excursions into the lives of fifteen women born before 1920. Included are histories of collective efforts to improve women's opportunities in research mathematics. In addition, a photo essay puts a human face on the subject as it illustrates women's contributions in professional associations. More than eighty women from academe, government, and the private sector provide a rich mélange of insights and strategies for creating workable career paths while maintaining rewarding personal lives. The book discusses related social and cultural issues, and includes a summary of recent comparative data relating to women and men in mathematics and women from other sciences. First-person accounts provide explicit how-tos; many narratives demonstrate great determination and perseverance. Talented women vividly portray their pleasure in discovering new mathematics. The senior among them speak out candidly, interweaving their mathematics with autobiographical detail. At the beginning of a new century, women at all stages of their careers share their outlooks and experiences. Clear, engaging, and meticulously researched, Complexities will inspire young women who are contemplating careers in mathematics and will speak to women in many fields of endeavor and walks of life.
This very readable overview of natural history explores the dynamics that have made our planet so rich in biodiversity over time and supported the rise and dominance of our own species. Tracing the arc of evolutionary history, biologist William C. Burger shows that cooperation and symbiosis have played a critical role in the ever increasing complexity of life on earth. Life may have started from the evolution of cooperating organic molecules, which outpaced their noncooperating neighbors. A prime example of symbiosis was the early incorporation of mitochondria into the eukaryotic cell (through a process called "endosymbiosis"). This event gave these cells a powerful new source of energy. Later, cooperation was again key when millions to trillions of individual eukaryotic cells eventually came together to build the unitary structures of large plants and animals. And cooperation between individuals of the same species resulted in complex animal societies, such as ant colonies and bee hives. Turning to our own species, the author argues that our ability to cooperate, along with incessant inter-group conflict, has driven the advancement of cultures, the elaboration of our technologies, and made us the most "invasive" species on the planet. But our very success has now become a huge problem, as our world dominion threatens the future of the biosphere and confronts us with a very uncertain future.Thought-provoking and full of fascinating detail, this eloquently told story of life on earth and our place within it presents a grand perspective and raises many important questions.
There is a widespread assumption that the universe in general, and life in particular, is 'getting more complex with time'. This book brings together a wide range of experts in science, philosophy and theology and unveils their joint effort in exploring this idea. They confront essential problems behind the theory of complexity and the role of life within it: what is complexity? When does it increase, and why? Is the universe evolving towards states of ever greater complexity and diversity? If so, what is the source of this universal enrichment? This book addresses those difficult questions, and offers a unique cross-disciplinary perspective on some of the most profound issues at the heart of science and philosophy. Readers will gain insights in complexity that reach deep into key areas of physics, biology, complexity science, philosophy and religion.
Why did the stock market crash more than 500 points on a single Monday in 1987? Why do ancient species often remain stable in the fossil record for millions of years and then suddenly disappear? In a world where nice guys often finish last, why do humans value trust and cooperation? At first glance these questions don't appear to have anything in common, but in fact every one of these statements refers to a complex system. The science of complexity studies how single elements, such as a species or a stock, spontaneously organize into complicated structures like ecosystems and economies; stars become galaxies, and snowflakes avalanches almost as if these systems were obeying a hidden yearning for order.
A surgeon writes about some of his most interesting patients.
The first edition of "Composite Materials" introduced a new way of looking at composite materials: covering composites in accordance with their functions. This second edition expands the book's scope to emphasize application-driven and process-oriented materials development. This tutorial-style reference book examines both structural composite materials and functional composite materials, as needed for a substantial range of applications. The emphasis on application-driven and process-oriented materials development is enhanced by a large amount of experimental results that provide real illustrations of composite materials development. "Composite Materials" is an essential book for researchers and engineers who are interested in materials development for industrial applications. It has a vibrant yet functional approach, making it suitable for both students and practitioners, and provides a full explanation of all of the fundamental concepts related to the structural and functional properties covered.
Sampling consists of selection, acquisition, and quantification of a part of the population. While selection and acquisition apply to physical sampling units of the population, quantification pertains only to the variable of interest, which is a particular characteristic of the sampling units. A sampling procedure is expected to provide a sample that is representative with respect to some specified criteria. Composite sampling, under idealized conditions, incurs no loss of information for estimating the population means. But an important limitation to the method has been the loss of information on individual sample values, such as, the extremely large value. In many of the situations where individual sample values are of interest or concern, composite sampling methods can be suitably modified to retrieve the information on individual sample values that may be lost due to compositing. This book presents statistical solutions to issues that arise in the context of applications of composite sampling.
Everything you need to know about composting, from the different containers available, to what to put in them, to how to use the results. Includes an A-Z directory of how to compost everything from ash to weeds; plus expert advice on how to compost in small spaces, bins, and wormeries, and getting your community involved.
Comprehensive Chiroptical Spectroscopy, Applications in Stereochemical Analysis of Synthetic Compounds, Natural Products, and Biomoleculesby Nina Berova Prasad L. Polavarapu Robert W. Woody Koji Nakanishi
This book provides an introduction to the important methods of chiroptical spectroscopy in general, and circular dichroism (CD) in particular, which are increasingly important in all areas of chemistry, biochemistry, and structural biology. The book can be used as a text for undergraduate and graduate students and as a reference for researchers in academia and industry. Experimental methods and instrumentation are described with topics ranging from the most widely used methods (electronic and vibrational CD) to frontier areas such as nonlinear spectroscopy and photoelectron CD, as well as the theory of chiroptical methods and techniques for simulating chiroptical properties. Applications of chiroptical spectroscopy to problems in organic stereochemistry, inorganic stereochemistry, and biochemistry and structural biology are also discussed, and each chapter is written by one or more leading authorities with extensive experience in the field.
This book provides an introduction to the important methods of chiroptical spectroscopy in general, and circular dichroism (CD) in particular, which are increasingly important in all areas of chemistry, biochemistry, and structural biology. The book can be used as a text for undergraduate and graduate students and as a reference for researchers in academia and industry, with or without the companion volume in this set. Experimental methods and instrumentation are described with topics ranging from the most widely used methods (electronic and vibrational CD) to frontier areas such as nonlinear spectroscopy and photoelectron CD, as well as the theory of chiroptical methods and techniques for simulating chiroptical properties. Each chapter is written by one or more leading authorities with extensive experience in the field.
This book provides a detailed description of various multidimensional chromatographic separation techniques. The editor first provides an introduction to the area and then dives right into the various complex separation techniques. While still not used routinely comprehensive chromatography techniques will help acquaint the readers with the fundamentals and possible benefits of multi-dimensional separations coupled with mass spectrometry.The topics include a wide range of material that will appease all interested in either entering the field of multidimensional chromatography and those looking to gain a better understanding of the topic.
A much-needed overview reflecting the developments over the past five years, this is the most comprehensive handbook on organocatalysis. As such, all relevant catalyst systems are discussed in detail, as well as key strategies, reaction types, and important applications in total synthesis. The first two volumes cover catalyst structures and fundamental activation types. These chapters allow readers to familiarize themselves with the relatively complex interactions that make organocatalytic reactions selective; to gain an insight into the most efficient catalyst types; and to understand the importance of physical parameters that influence reactivity and selectivity. Volume three is structured around reaction types, i.e. nucleophile additions to C=X and C=C bonds; Friedel-Crafts reactions, organocatalytic sigmatropic reactions, regioselective reactions and desymmetrization strategies, ring-forming reactions, multicomponent (domino) reactions, multicatalyst systems and the application of organocatalytic reactions in multistep synthesis are discussed. An appendix recollecting catalyst structures with the adequate cross-references to the corresponding chapters rounds off the book.With its contributions written by pioneers of the organocatalysis field, this book provides non-specialists with an introduction to the topic as well as serving as a valuable source for researchers in academia and industry searching for an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of this promising area of synthetic organic chemistry.
This book discusses compressive sensing in the presence of side information. Compressive sensing is an emerging technique for efficiently acquiring and reconstructing a signal. Interesting instances of Compressive Sensing (CS) can occur when, apart from sparsity, side information is available about the source signals. The side information can be about the source structure, distribution, etc. Such cases can be viewed as extensions of the classical CS. In these cases we are interested in incorporating the side information to either improve the quality of the source reconstruction or decrease the number of samples required for accurate reconstruction. In this book we assume availability of side information about the feasible region. The main applications investigated are image deblurring for optical imaging, 3D surface reconstruction, and reconstructing spatiotemporally correlated sources. The author shows that the side information can be used to improve the quality of the reconstruction compared to the classic compressive sensing. The book will be of interest to all researchers working on compressive sensing, inverse problems, and image processing.
Computational aeroacoustics (CAA) is a relatively new research area. CAA algorithms have developed rapidly and the methods have been applied in many areas of aeroacoustics. The objective of CAA is not simply to develop computational methods but also to use these methods to solve practical aeroacoustics problems and to perform numerical simulation of aeroacoustic phenomena. By analysing the simulation data, an investigator can determine noise generation mechanisms and sound propagation processes. This is both a textbook for graduate students and a reference for researchers in CAA and as such is self-contained. No prior knowledge of numerical methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) is needed, however, a general understanding of partial differential equations and basic numerical analysis is assumed. Exercises are included and are designed to be an integral part of the chapter content. In addition, sample computer programs are included to illustrate the implementation of the numerical algorithms.
Scientists need statistics. Increasingly this is accomplished using computational approaches. Freeing readers from the constraints, mysterious formulas and sophisticated mathematics of classical statistics, this book is ideal for researchers who want to take control of their own statistical arguments. It demonstrates how to use spreadsheet macros to calculate the probability distribution predicted for any statistic by any hypothesis. This enables readers to use anything that can be calculated (or observed) from their data as a test statistic and hypothesize any probabilistic mechanism that can generate data sets similar in structure to the one observed. A wide range of natural examples drawn from ecology, evolution, anthropology, palaeontology and related fields give valuable insights into the application of the described techniques, while complete example macros and useful procedures demonstrate the methods in action and provide starting points for readers to use or modify in their own research.
A breakthrough guide employing knowledge that unites cheminformatics and bioinformatics as innovation for the future Bridging the gap between cheminformatics and bioinformatics for the first time, Computational Approaches in Cheminformatics and Bioinformatics provides insight on how to blend these two sciences for progressive research benefits. It describes the development and evolution of these fields, how chemical information may be used for biological relations and vice versa, the implications of these new connections, and foreseeable developments in the future. Using algorithms and domains as workflow tools, this revolutionary text drives bioinformaticians to consider chemical structure, and similarly, encourages cheminformaticians to consider large biological systems such as protein targets and networks. Computational Approaches in Cheminformatics and Bioinformatics covers: Data sources available for modelling and prediction purposes Developments of conventional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Computational tools for manipulating chemical and biological data Novel ways of probing the interactions between small molecules and proteins Also including insight from public (NIH), academic, and industrial sources (Novartis, Pfizer), this book offers expert knowledge to aid scientists through industry and academic study. The invaluable applications for drug discovery, cellular and molecular biology, enzymology, and metabolism make Computational Approaches in Cheminformatics and Bioinformatics the essential guidebook for evolving drug discovery research and alleviating the issue of chemical control and manipulation of various systems.
The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process. Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the development and optimization of energy materials, outlining their strengths, limitations, and future applications. The review of techniques includes current methodologies based on electronic structure, interatomic potential and hybrid methods. The methodological components are integrated into a comprehensive survey of applications, addressing the major themes in energy research.Topics covered include: * Introduction to computational methods and approaches* Modelling materials for energy generation applications: solar energy and nuclear energy * Modelling materials for storage applications: batteries and hydrogen* Modelling materials for energy conversion applications: fuel cells, heterogeneous catalysis and solid-state lighting* Nanostructures for energy applicationsThis full colour text is an accessible introduction for newcomers to the field, and a valuable reference source for experienced researchers working on computational techniques and their application to energy materials.
Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that applies mathematical, statistical, and computer science methods to answer biological questions, and its importance has only increased with the introduction of high-throughput techniques such as automatic DNA sequencing, comprehensive expression analysis with microarrays, and proteome analysis with modern mass spectrometry. In Computational Biology, expert practitioners present a broad survey of computational biology methods by focusing on their applications, including primary sequence analysis, protein structure elucidation, transcriptomics and proteomics data analysis, and exploration of protein interaction networks. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series, this work provides the kind of detailed description and implementation advice that is crucial for getting optimal results. Authoritative and easy to use, Computational Biology is an ideal guide for all scientists interested in quantitative biology.
Through great experimental difficulty, we've witnessed rapid, crucial developments at the intersection of computational biology, experimental technology, and statistics through which the vital process of transcriptional regulation can be further examined. In Computational Biology of Transcription Factor Binding, experts in the field examine the basic principles and provide detailed guidance for the computational analyses and biological interpretations of transcription factor binding, while disclosing critical practical information and caveats that are missing from many research publications. The volume serves not only computational biologists but experimentalists as well, who may want to better understand how to design and execute experiments and to communicate more effectively with computational biologists, computer scientists, and statisticians. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series, this work provides the kind of detailed description and implementation advice that is crucial for getting optimal results in the lab. Authoritative and easy to use, Computational Biology of Transcription Factor Binding guides scientists working in this area and demands not only new experiments but also the re-annotation of existing experimental data and computational predictions leading to important ongoing, major paradigm changes for us all.
Mathematical modelling and computer simulation have proved tremendously successful in engineering. One of the greatest challenges for mechanists is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, biomedical sciences, and medicine. The proposed workshop will provide an opportunity for computational biomechanics specialists to present and exchange opinions on the opportunities of applying their techniques to computer-integrated medicine. For example, continuum mechanics models provide a rational basis for analysing biomedical images by constraining the solution to biologically reasonable motions and processes. Biomechanical modelling can also provide clinically important information about the physical status of the underlying biology, integrating information across molecular, tissue, organ, and organism scales. The main goal of this workshop is to showcase the clinical and scientific utility of computational biomechanics in computer-integrated medicine.
One of the greatest challenges for mechanists is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, biomedical sciences, and medicine. The proposed workshop will provide an opportunity for computational biomechanics specialists to present and exchange opinions on the opportunities of applying their techniques to computer-integrated medicine. These are peer-reviewed proceedings of the workshop affiliated to a major international research conference (Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention MICCAI 2010 in Beijing) dedicated to research in the field of medical image computing and computer assisted medical interventions. The list of subjects covered include: medical image analysis, image-guided surgery, surgical simulation, surgical intervention planning, disease prognosis and diagnostics, injury mechanism analysis, implant and prostheses design, medical robotics.
This brief introduces people with a basic background in probability theory to various problems in cancer biology that are amenable to analysis using methods of probability theory and statistics. The title mentions "cancer biology" and the specific illustrative applications reference cancer data but the methods themselves are more broadly applicable to all aspects of computational biology. Aside from providing a self-contained introduction to basic biology and to cancer, the brief describes four specific problems in cancer biology that are amenable to the application of probability-based methods. The application of these methods is illustrated by applying each of them to actual data from the biology literature. After reading the brief, engineers and mathematicians should be able to collaborate fruitfully with their biologist colleagues on a wide variety of problems.
Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition offers a practical, problem-based approach to colour physics. The book focuses on the key issues encountered in modern colour engineering, including efficient representation of colour information, Fourier analysis of reflectance spectra and advanced colorimetric computation. Emphasis is placed on the practical applications rather than the techniques themselves, with material structured around key topics. These topics include colour calibration of visual displays, computer recipe prediction and models for colour-appearance prediction.Each topic is carefully introduced at three levels to aid student understanding. First, theoretical ideas and background information are discussed, then explanations of mathematical solutions follow and finally practical solutions are presented using MATLAB. The content includes:A compendium of equations and numerical data required by the modern colour and imaging scientist.Numerous examples of solutions and algorithms for a wide-range of computational problems in colour science.Example scripts using the MATLAB programming language.This 2nd edition contains substantial new and revised material, including three innovative chapters on colour imaging, psychophysical methods, and physiological colour spaces; the MATLAB toolbox has been extended with a professional, optimized, toolbox to go alongside the current teaching toolbox; and a java toolbox has been added which will interest users who are writing web applications and/or applets or mobile phone applications.Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition is an invaluable resource for students taking courses in colour science, colour chemistry and colour physics as well as technicians and researchers working in the area. In addition, it acts a useful reference for professionals and researchers working in colour dependent industries such as textiles, paints, print & electronic imaging.Review from First Edition:"...highly recommended as a concise introduction to the practicalities of colour science..." (Color Technology, 2004)