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Bringing together leading scientists and professionals in tropical forest ecology and management, this book examines in detail the interplay between timber harvesting and wildlife, from invertebrates to large mammal species. Its contributors suggest modifications to existing practices that can ensure a better future for the tropics' valuable--and invaluable--resources.
Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture.Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the stability of nation-states. Increasing global population, dwindling agriculture and industrial production, and inequitable distribution of resources and technologies have further aggravated the problem. The burden placed by increasing population on environment and especially on agricultural productivity is phenomenal. To provide food and fuel to such a massive population, it becomes imperative to find new ways and means to increase the production giving due consideration to biosphere's ability to regenerate resources and provide ecological services.Cyanobacteria are environment friendly resource for commercial production of active biochemicals, drugs and future energy (biodiesel, bioethanol and hydrogen).Topics on isolation, identification and classification of cyanobacteria are discussed, as well as further sections on: summarizing a range of useful products synthesized by cyanobacteria, ecological services provided by cyanobacteria including their harmful effect in water bodies and associated flora and fauna. Chapter on tools, techniques, and patents also focus on the economic importance of the group. This book also provides an insight for future perspectives in each particular field and an extensive bibliography.This book will be a highly useful resource for students, researchers and professionals in academics in the life sciences including microbiology and biotechnology.
This fascinating and highly topical subject has a history dating back to the secret world of 1970s Cold War espionage, when the US military and Central intelligence agencies, aided by the latest mainframe systems, were the first to use computer forensics techniques in counterintelligence. In the decades since, cybercrime has emerged from the obscurity of low-level prosecution evidence to become a serious cross-border crime issue, while cyberforensic investigators have moved on from drug, murder, and child pornography crimes that were facilitated by computers, and are now tackling headline-grabbing cyber bank robbery, identity theft, and corporate spying. With little consensus as yet on the qualifications required to become a cyberforensic investigator, Cyberforensics: Understanding Information Security Investigations assembles the varying perspectives of pioneers and key figures in the field. All the authors have more than 10 years' experience in successfully investigating cybercrime, and some more than 20. Through real-life case studies the chapters introduce the reader to the field of cybersecurity, starting with corporate investigation, and progressing to analyze the issues in more detail. Taking us from accounting cyberforensics to unraveling the complexities of malware, the contributors explain the tools and techniques they use in a manner that allows us to map their methodology into a more generic understanding of what a cybersecurity investigation really is. Above all, Cyberforensics shows that there is a cohesive set of concepts that binds cybersecurity investigators to a shared vision. These core ideas are now gaining importance as a body of knowledge that cyberforensics professionals agree should be a prerequisite to the professional practice of information security.
From National Book Award nominee Chris Lynch, the third action-and-humor-filled futuristic series about talking pets who are tired of being pets ... and the boy who must help them. Zane and his animal comrades have foiled Dr. Gristle's terrible plots twice--he can't talk to animals, and he can't get at the heart of what makes them wild. Zane can talk to them. He can understand them. He almost is one. Almost. Zane keeps getting in Dr. Gristle's way though - and he's being sent as far out of the way as Gristle can get him. In fact, he's being sent right into the middle of a new plot of the bad doctor's--and in his new, utterly foreign surroundings, he's entirely too human.
Zane lives in a completely wired world where every pet has a microchip that allows it to talk. Zane soon learns that the pets aren't actually saying what the chip is translating. They aren't happy that all animals have been domesticated, and they enlist Zane to help them fight back and ensure their freedom.
Maia is the story of an idea, and its development into a working hypothesis, that provides a cybernetic interpretation of how growth is controlled. Growth at the lowest level is controlled by regulating the rate of growth. Access to the output of control mechanisms is provided by perturbing the growing organism, and then filtering out the consequences to growth rate. The output of the growth control mechanism is then accessible for interpretation and modelling. Perturbation experiments have been used to provide interpretations of hormesis, the neutralization of inhibitory load and acquired tolerance to toxic inhibition, and catch-up growth. The account begins with an introduction to cybernetics covering the regulation of growth and population increase in animals and man and describes this new approach to access the control of growth processes. This book is suitable for postgraduate students of biological cybernetics and researchers of biological growth, endocrinology, population ecology and toxicology.
Practical guide that can be used by executives to make well-informed decisions on cybersecurity issues to better protect their business Emphasizes, in a direct and uncomplicated way, how executives can identify, understand, assess, and mitigate risks associated with cybersecurity issues Covers 'What to Do When You Get Hacked?' including Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery planning, Public Relations, Legal and Regulatory issues, and Notifications and Disclosures Provides steps for integrating cybersecurity into Strategy; Policy and Guidelines; Change Management and Personnel Management Identifies cybersecurity best practices that executives can and should use both in the office and at home to protect their vital information
From the best-selling author of The Emperor's New Mind and The Road to Reality, a groundbreaking book that provides new views on three of cosmology's most profound questions: What, if anything, came before the Big Bang? What is the source of order in our universe? What is its ultimate future?Current understanding of our universe dictates that all matter will eventually thin out to zero density, with huge black holes finally evaporating away into massless energy. Roger Penrose--one of the most innovative mathematicians of our time--turns around this predominant picture of the universe's "heat death," arguing how the expected ultimate fate of our accelerating, expanding universe can actually be reinterpreted as the "Big Bang" of a new one.Along the way to this remarkable cosmological picture, Penrose sheds new light on basic principles that underlie the behavior of our universe, describing various standard and nonstandard cosmological models, the fundamental role of the cosmic microwave background, and the key status of black holes. Ideal for both the amateur astronomer and the advanced physicist--with plenty of exciting insights for each--Cycles of Time is certain to provoke and challenge.Intellectually thrilling and accessible, this is another essential guide to the universe from one of our preeminent thinkers.From the Hardcover edition.
This book reviews advances in understanding phosphodiesterases within the central nervous system and their therapeutic applications. A range of expert authors from both academia and industry describe these, then focus on the areas of greatest scientific and medical interest to provide more detailed coverage. Therapeutic and drug discovery applications are covered for diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia, erectile dysfunction, and spinal cord injuries. There is also a chapter on drug discovery tools such as in vitro assays and X-ray structures for medicinal chemistry studies.
Over the last two decades there has been a growing interest in cyclic nucleotide research in plants with an emphasis on the elucidation of the roles of cGMP and cAMP. In Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in Plants: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field detail many approaches to better understand the biological role of this important signaling system. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in Plants: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientist in further understanding signal transduction and the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular signaling.
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 provides a comprehensive and up-to-date collection of reviews on the discovery, signaling mechanisms and functions of Cdk5, as well as the potential implication of Cdk5 in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Since the identification of this unique member of the Cdk family, Cdk5 has emerged as one of the most important signal transduction mediators in the development, maintenance and fine-tuning of neuronal functions and networking. Further studies have revealed that Cdk5 is also associated with the regulation of neuronal survival during both developmental stages and in neurodegenerative diseases. These observations indicate that precise control of Cdk5 is essential for the regulation of neuronal survival. The pivotal role Cdk5 appears to play in both the regulation of neuronal survival and synaptic functions thus raises the interesting possibility that Cdk5 inhibitors may serve as therapeutic treatment for a number of neurodegenerative diseases.
Cyclodextrins in Pharmaceutics, Cosmetics, and Biomedicine covers a wide range of knowledge on cyclodextrins, from an overview of molecular and supramolecular aspects of cyclodextrin physicochemistry, to the latest outcomes in cyclodextrin use and future possibilities in the employment of these systems. This book focuses on the derivatives and physicochemical and biological properties of cyclodextrins, and considers drug delivery through topical, mucosal, and oral via cyclodextrin complexes.
Since the discovery of the pharmacological and toxicological importance of inhibiting the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), much research has gone into the development of methods to study the biological functions of COX-1 and COX-2. In Cyclooxygenases: Methods and Protocols, experts and pioneers in the field present the most up-to-date in vitro and in vivo techniques routinely used in COX research. The volume delves into essential topics such as the purification, cloning, and expression of COX enzymes as well as in vitro assays aimed at determining the inhibitory potency of drugs on COX-1 and COX-2 activities, with chapters describing protocols used for the extraction and measurement of the prostanoids. This volume also describes in vivo disease models used to study the roles of COX-1 and COX-2 in gastrointestinal injury, inflammation, and pain. As a book in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series, the protocols chapters include brief introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Cyclooxygenases: Methods and Protocols serves as an indispensable tool for all scientists seeking the treatment of inflammation, pain, fever, and other harmful conditions.
It was a universal belief in ancient civilizations that life came originally from the cosmos and ultimately would return there after death. The shamanic journey was always to this sky-world - and it appears that it was always located in the direction of the stars of Cygnus - also known as the Northern Cross - and was accessed either via the Milky Way or an imagined cosmic axis. Andrew Collins has found that this ancient belief is based on an early astronomy which is about 17,000 years old. All over the world, standing stones, temples and monuments are orientated towards the rising and setting of the stars of the Cygnus constellation or the "entry point" of the Milky Way. Collins has discovered that the use of deep caves by Palaeolithic man was essential to the rise of religious thought and the belief in life's stellar origins. Science has now confirmed the existence of high-energy particles in the caves - particles that come from a binary star known as Cygnus X3. Therefore it would seem that these ancient people were aware of what science is now telling us - that the DNA of life came originally from deep space.
Despite the many milestones in cystic fibrosis (CF) research, progress towards curing the disease has been slow, and it is increasingly difficult to grasp and use the already wide and still growing range of diverse methods currently employed to study CF so as to understand it in its multidisciplinary nature. Cystic Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Protocols aims to provide the CF research community and related researchers with a very wide range of high-quality experimental tools, as an easy way to grasp and use classical and novel methods applied to cystic fibrosis. Volume I: Approaches to Study and Correct CFTR Defects focuses on the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and its expression, biogenesis, structure, and function in terms of the defects causing CF. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and practical, Cystic Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Protocols will provide readers with optimal working tools to address pressing questions in the best technical way, while helping all of us, as a research and clinical community, to move faster hand-in-hand toward unravelling the secrets of this challenging disorder and cure it.
Despite the many milestones in cystic fibrosis (CF) research, progress toward curing the disease has been slow, and it is increasingly difficult to grasp and use the already wide and still growing range of diverse methods currently employed to study CF so as to understand it in its multidisciplinary nature. Cystic Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Protocols aims to provide the CF research community and related researchers with a very wide range of high-quality experimental tools, as an easy way to grasp and use classical and novel methods applied to cystic fibrosis. Volume II: Methods and Resources to Understand Cystic Fibrosis focuses on pathophysiology, Omics approaches, and a variety of key resources recently made available for CF research. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and practical, Cystic Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Protocols will provide readers with optimal working tools to address pressing questions in the best technical way, while helping all of us, as a research and clinical community, to move faster hand-in-hand toward unravelling the secrets of this challenging disorder and cure it.
For this second edition of their much praised Cytochrome P450, the editors have collected accounts of the essential core techniques that use the latest methodologies for the investigation of P450s. Highlights include protocols for spectral analysis and purification of P450s, enzymatic assays of P450s and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), expression of P450s and FMOs in heterologous systems, and the production and use of antipeptide antibodies. Additional chapters contain readily reproducible techniques for the transfection of hepatocytes for gene regulation studies, P450 reporter gene assays, in situ hybridization, and analysis of genetic polymorphisms. Although the emphasis is on P450s of mammalian origin, many of the readily reproducible methods described are suitable for P450s from any source.
Ian Phillips and Elizabeth Shephard assemble a comprehensive collection of cutting-edge techniques and invaluable classic methods for the investigation of cytochromes P450. Described in detail by hands-on experimentalists for easy reproducibility, these methods include spectral analysis, purification and enzymatic assays, expression in heterologous systems, and the production and use of antibodies, as well as methods for quantification of gene expression, transfection of hepatocytes, and for the investigation of DNA-protein interactions and genetic polymorphism. In addition, because of the growing importance of in vitro systems in pharmacological toxicology, the book contains techniques for the culture of rodent and human hepatocytes and human epidermis. Cytochrome P450 induction as a biomarker for environmental pollution and the generation of mice with targeted gene disruptions complete this exhaustive collection of core techniques. Cytochrome P450 Protocols provides both novice and experienced researchers across many fields-toxicology, pharmacology, environmental biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology-all the tools needed to elucidate the crucial biological role played by the cytochromes P450 in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs, chemical carcinogens, and environmental pollutants.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins that are of central importance in the detoxification or activation of a tremendous number of natural and synthetic hydrophobic xenobiotics, including many therapeutic drugs, chemical carcinogens and environmental pollutants. CYPs are important in mediating interactions between an organism and its chemical environment and in the regulation of physiological processes. Cytochrome P450 Protocols, Third Edition focuses on high-throughput methods for the simultaneous analysis of multiple CYPs, substrates or ligands. Although the emphasis is on CYPs of mammalian origin, it reflects an increasing interest in CYPs of bacterial species. Also included are chapters on cytochrome P450 reductase (the redox partner of CYPs) and the flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), and metabolomic and lipidomic approaches for identification of endogenous substrates of CYPs ('de-orphanizing' CYP substrates). Written in the successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, Cytochrome P450 Protocols, Third Edition provides a wide range of techniques accessible to researchers in fields as diverse as biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, toxicology, environmental biology and genetics.
This guide discusses chromosomal abnormalities and how best to report and communicate lab findings in research and clinical settings. Providing a standard approach to writing cytogenetic laboratory reports, the guide further covers useful guidance on implementing International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature in reports. Part one of the guide explores chromosomal, FISH, and microarray analysis in constitutional cytogenetic analyses, while part two looks at acquired abnormalities in cancers. Both sections provide illustrative examples of chromosomal abnormalities and how to communicate these findings in standardized laboratory reports.
Each volume in this richly illustrated series, sponsored by the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology, provides an organ-based approach to the cytological and histological diagnosis of small tissue samples. Benign, pre-malignant and malignant entities are presented in a well-organized and standardized format, with high-resolution color photomicrographs, tables, tabulated specific morphologic criteria and appropriate ancillary testing algorithms. Example vignettes allow the reader to assimilate the diagnostic principles in a case-based format. This volume describes the cytologic, small core biopsy, immunohistochemical and molecular diagnostic features of musculoskeletal lesions. It provides the cytopathologist and histopathologist with a comprehensive survey of diagnostic approaches and diagnostic features for benign and malignant lesions. Each chapter contains a detailed summary of differential diagnostic features, supported by high-quality images and case studies. The print edition includes a CD-ROM offering all images in a downloadable format. With over 500 photomicrographs, this is an important resource for practising pathologists and residents in pathology.
A collection of biochemical, cellular, and molecular techniques for unraveling and quantifying the events occurring between the initial contact of a cytokine at the membrane receptor and the eventual activation of gene transcription. The techniques used include the generation of transfectants, the immunohistochemical detection of cytokines in tissue sections, and optimized staining for cytoplasmic detection. Highlights include RT-PCR of small amounts of mRNA, in situ hybridization, biosensor analysis, measurement of biological activities and standardization, immunohistochemical and single-cell detection, and receptor isolation, characterization, and crystallization.
This comprehensive book explores the role of cytokines in immunotoxicology and human health using a variety of complex methods, from basic research to highly applied therapeutic applications. It includes a basic study of cytokines and details the effects of cytokines on the immune system and in treating cancer. The book serves as both a primer and a starting point for a more detailed investigation of the role these biological regulators play.
Cytopreparation: Principles & Practice by Gary W. Gill fills a long-standing need for an easy-to-use and authoritative manual on the fundamentals of cytopreparation up-to-and- including microscopy, screening, and data analysis. The text describes in phenomenological terms the most common materials and methods of specimen collection through mounting for gyn, non-gyn, and FNA specimens, as well as the underlying mechanistic bases. The author provides his expertise and information that will empower and enable readers to review and improve their laboratories' cytopreparatory techniques as they apply to the vast majority of specimens. This unique volume provides facts that are not readily available anywhere. Cytopreparation: Principles & Practice is intended for everyone associated with, and involved in, making cytologic preparations that are useful for their intended purpose. It will serve as a valuable reference tool for educators in cytology and histology, cytotechnology and histotechnology students, cytotechnologists, cytopreparatory technicians, cytopathologists, anatomical/clinical pathologists, pathology residents and cytopathology fellows.
The cerebral cytoskeleton, considered to be the working horse in brain tissues, becomes particularly important when degenerative diseases of the nervous system are considered. The Cytoskeleton: Imaging, Isolation, and Interaction assembles chapters on general aspects of the cytoskeleton, which are helpful for polishing knowledge of the cytoskeleton in a brief and informative way, and these pieces are flanked by a collection of detailed protocols on diverse emerging techniques including in vivo and in vitro imaging of the cytoskeleton at work as well as proteomics methodologies addressing preparative strategies for the isolation of cytoskeletal components of the central nervous system. Written for the popular Neuromethods series, this work contains the kind of meticulous descriptions and implementation advice to guarantee successful results. Authoritative and cutting-edge, The Cytoskeleton: Imaging, Isolation, and Interaction provides a compilation of papers written by a team of experts which aims to strengthen our efforts at overcoming at least some of the fatal outcomes of the diseased brain cytoskeleton.