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Astronomy is expanding almost as rapidly as the universe itself, and the proliferating scientific jargon can sometimes baffle even the most dedicated amateur. Now, in some 4,000 concise, up-to-date entries, this dictionary cuts a clear path through the maze of complex technical language, offering full, clear definitions drawn from all aspects of astronomy. Compiled by Ian Ridpath, a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, and an expert team of contributors, A Dictionary of Astronomy contains the most recent entries from astrophysics and cosmology to galaxies and time. Here are succinct definitions for the Big Bang theory, comets, eclipses, Magellanic Clouds, Mars, quasar, relativity, and variable stars. Entries on telescopes and other measuring devices, observatories, space missions, and recently named Solar System objects show how astronomers have explored the universe. The Dictionary also provides biographical entries on eminent astronomers from Copernicus to Edwin Hubble. From black hole to white dwarf, and from spiral galaxies to solar waves, A Dictionary of Astronomy opens a window on the universe for amateur astronomers everywhere.
Fully revised and updated for the sixth edition, this market-leading dictionary is the perfect guide for anyone studying biology, either at school or university. With over 5,200 clear and concise entries, over 300 of them new to this edition, it provides comprehensive coverage of biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. Features include biographical entries on key scientists and highlighted entries on important topics such as bioinformatics, genomics, molecular evolution, and protein structure, with further reading suggestions. Appendices include classification of the animal and plant kingdoms; geological timescale; major mass extinctions of species; model organisms and their genomes; and Nobel prizewinners - the last two new to this edition.
Aimed at high school students, this reference defines the basic principles and terms used in the field of biology. Approximately 300 new entries have been added to this fourth edition, including entries on beta-oxidation, cerebral nuclei, DNA fingerprinting, and rapid eye movement. Pronunciation symbols and new line illustrations have also been added. The appendices include charts of the animal and plant kingdoms and amino acids, as well as a list of online resources.
DNA technology is evolving rapidly, with new methods and a fast-growing vocabulary. This unique dictionary offers current, detailed and accessible information on DNA technology to lecturers, researchers and students throughout the biomedical and related sciences.The third edition is a major update, with over 3000 references from mainstream journals and data from the very latest research - going well beyond the remit of most science dictionaries. It provides clear explanations of terms, techniques, and tests, including commercial systems, with detailed coverage of many important procedures and methods, and includes essay-style entries on many major topics to assist newcomers to the field. It covers topics relevant to medicine (diagnosis, genetic disorders, gene therapy); veterinary science; biotechnology; biochemistry; pharmaceutical science/drug development; molecular biology; microbiology; epidemiology; genomics; environmental science; plant science/agriculture; taxonomy; and forensic science.
"This dictionary contains over 5,200 entries on all aspects of ecology and related disciplines. Ideal for students of biology, ecology, environmental science, conservation studies, and the general reader with an interest in the natural world and a concern about its future." "The text includes: entries on biogeography, genetics, soil science, geomorphology, atmospheric science, and oceanography; Internet links to aid further research; and over 30 new illustrations and over 200 new entries."--BOOK JACKET.
This superb and highly-acclaimed dictionary includes over 4000 in-depth entries on scientific and technical terminology associated with environmental protection and resource management. In addition, it contains numerous illustrations, a wide range of international case studies and extensive cross-references to guide the reader. The new edition will be a major update with 30% new material, additional illustrations and a greatly expanded list of relevant web resources.
The new, completely revised, and updated edition of this classic text -- sponsored by the International Epidemiological Association (IEA) and previously edited by John Last -- remains the definitive dictionary in epidemiology worldwide. In fact, with contributions from over 220 epidemiologists and other users of epidemiology from around the globe, it is more than a dictionary: it includes explanations and comments on both core epidemiological terms and on other scientific terms relevant to all professionals in clinical medicine and public health, as well as to professionals in the other health, life, and social sciences. Anyone seeking clarity on epidemiological and methodological definitions important to human health will find it here.
This comprehensive reference has been written for the purpose of making ophthalmological terminology comprehensible to the person without a scientific background.
The Dictionary of Food Ingredients is a unique, easy-to-use source of information on over 1,000 food ingredients and additives. Like the previous editions, the Fifth Edition provides clear and concise information on currently used additives, including natural ingredients, FDA-approved artificial ingredients, and compounds used in food processing. The dictionary entries, organized in alphabetical order, include information on ingredient functions, chemical properties, and uses in food products. This revised and updated fifth edition also features a new section, "Food Definitions and Formulations," a thoroughly expanded list of food ingredients approved for use in the European Union, with E numbers, as well as new information on existing and more recently approved ingredients.
In addition to such words and acronyms as </nucleomorph, OMIM, chromosome walking, floral identity,/> and </zygotic lethal/>, included are nongenetic terms frequently encountered in genetics literature such as </Hoogsteen base pairs, LINEs,/> and </undersea vent community/>. A strong feature is inclusion of genera and species of plants and animals important to genetics, which are cross-listed to an appendix that shows them nestled in their taxonomic habitat. Other appendices provide the scientific names of common domesticated plants and animals, a chronology of discoveries (1590-2001), a list of genome sizes and gene numbers, and two appendices listing periodical and website sources. The 6,580 definitions do not contain pronunciation or derivation. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Now in its fifth edition and for the first time available as an electronic product with all entries cross-linked. This very successful long-seller has once again been thoroughly updated and greatly expanded. It now contains over 13,000 entries, and comprehensively covering genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Each entry contains an extensive explanation, including a comprehensive listing of synonyms and acronyms, and all formulas have been redrawn to create a uniform style, while most of the figures are custom designed for this dictionary. The ultimate reference for all terms in the -omics fields.
This unique new dictionary offers comprehensive coverage of words and terms encountered in both human and physical geography in a single volume. Each of the over 6,000 updated, clear, and concise entries provides an initial brief definition followed by a more in-depth explanation, making the book useful for novices and experts alike. This new edition also features a fact-finder with key economic and population statistics. Authoritative and completely accessible, A Dictionary of Geography, Second Edition covers a vast scope of subjects, including cartography, surveying, meteorology, climatology, biogeography, ecology, geology, geomorphology, population, migration, agriculture, industry, transportation, and development. There is also extensive discussion of the most recent advances in and information on topics such as plate tectonics, remote sensing, geographic information systems, and aerial differentiation. Wide-ranging and highly readable, this invaluable reference guide answers questions about all aspects,of geography quickly and effectively using the most recent advances in the field.
This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date paperback dictionary of botany available. Fully revised for this new edition, with over 5500 clear and concise entries, it will be invaluable to students, amateur botanists and naturalists, and everyone with an interest in plants and their environments. Wide coverage including biochemistry, plant physiology, cytology, ecology, genetics, evolution, biogeography, Earth history, and the Earth sciences. World-wide coverage of taxonomic groups - one-third of the entries are devoted to taxa, from bacteria and fungi to the main groups of flowering and non-flowering plants. Many new entries added from the field of molecular biology.
Now in its fourth edition, this bestselling dictionary contains 9,000 entries on all aspects of science. Ideal for both students and non-scientists, it provides comprehensive coverage of biology (including human biology), chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, and astronomy. Short biographies of leading scientists Full-page illustrated features on such subjects as El Nino, the Solar System, and Genetically Modified Organisms Chronologies of specific scientific subjects including plastics, electronics, and cell biology 'The book will appeal not just to scientists and science students but also to the interested lay person. And it passes the most difficult test of any dictionary--it is well worth browsing through.' New Scientist 'All entries are clear and brief, written in no-nonsense prose A handy reference work.' TES 'Handy and readable for scientists aged nine to ninety' Nature
This fascinating dictionary covers the exciting world of space exploration and every aspect of the technology involved. Containing over 2,500 entries it defines the jargon used in space exploration including such weird and wonderful terms as 'cherry picker' and 'burp firing'. All the entries are fully cross-referenced for ease of use, and important entries, such as the entry on the Apollo project, are presented as detailed feature articles. In addition to the main entries and definitions, the book also contains links to over 250 space-related websites, and a comprehensive chronology of space exploration. The entries are supported by over 50 photographs, illustrations and diagrams. Written by a team of experts, the entries have been edited by Dr E. Julius Dasch, former manager of the NASA National Space Grant Program. This authoritative, comprehensive and readable dictionary is essential reading for anyone with an interest in astronomy and space travel.
This comprehensive and authoritative dictionary provides clear definitions of units, prefixes, and styles of weights and measures within the Systeme International (SI), as well as traditional, and industry-specific units. It also includes general historical and scientific background, covering the development of the sequential definitions and sizing of units. This new reference work will prove invaluable to professional scientists, engineers, technicians as well as to students and the general user. Over 1,600 clear and concise entries complete with historical background. Covers a broad range of disciplines, including astronomy, electromagnetics, geology, photography, mathematics, meteorology, physics, and temperature. Notes on associated terminology. Numerous tables, including the geochronologic scale and the equation of time. Comprehensive coverage of the whole Systeme International.
Dictyostelium discoideum Protocols presents a comprehensive collection of cutting-edge molecular biological protocols for studying D. discoideum, with emphasis on its utility in the study of fundamental cellular processes including signal transduction, chemotaxis, cell motility, cytokinesis, phagocytosis, and aspects of development such as cell sorting, pattern formation, and cell type differentiation. Written by experts in the field, this important guide provides easy access to current methods and techniques for the study of D. discoideum. For the newcomer to the field, it offers a complete and inclusive introduction to this important model organism. The book is divided into four main parts, which include an introduction to the organism that provides integral community resources and genome-wide approaches; basic methods and available molecular genetic techniques for study of the organism; imaging and localization methods; and a discussion of D. discoideum, with emphasis on its unique advantages as a model system. This in-depth guide provides a complete introduction to and thorough handbook for the study of D. discoideum, including a discussion of the implications of the recently-completed Dictyostelium genome project in strengthening the position of D. discoideum as a model organism for studying fundamental cell processes and aspects of development. Researchers at all levels of experience will benefit from the presentations throughout of the most current, useful and innovative techniques for the study of D. discoideum from leading Dictyostelium scientists.
Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-establish eukaryotic model organism that offers unique advantages for studying fundamental cellular processes, including signal transduction, random and directed cell motility, cytokinesis, endocytosis and vesicle transport and development. Dictyostelium is also increasingly used for the investigation of human disease genes and the crosstalk between host and pathogen. The availability of the genome sequence at a mouse click together with a whole range of supporting information and resources along with a powerful armoury of molecular genetics techniques have considerably enhanced the experimental attractiveness of D. discoideum in recent years. The second edition of Dictyostelium discoideum Protocols incorporates the most recent developments in a number of fields. The book is divided into four parts. The first part provides an introduction to the amoebozoa and community resources. The second part presents large-scale analysis methods made possible by the completion of the Dictyostelium genome sequence. The third part is dedicated to molecular genetics techniques, cell biological, biochemical and biophysical methods. The chapters in the fourth part describe the use of Dictyostelium as a model system to study vesicle formation, trafficking and infection by bacterial pathogens. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Dictyostelium discoideum Protocols, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in the application of innovating techniques to study a range of fundamental biological processes in this attractive model organism.
Is it accurate to label Darwin's theory "the theory of evolution by natural selection," given that the concept of common ancestry is at least as central to Darwin's theory? Did Darwin reject the idea that group selection causes characteristics to evolve that are good for the group though bad for the individual? How does Darwin's discussion of God in The Origin of Species square with the common view that he is the champion of methodological naturalism? These are just some of the intriguing questions raised in this volume of interconnected philosophical essays on Darwin. The author's approach is informed by modern issues in evolutionary biology, but is sensitive to the ways in which Darwin's outlook differed from that of many biologists today. The main topics that are the focus of the book--common ancestry, group selection, sex ratio, and naturalism--have rarely been discussed in their connection with Darwin in such penetrating detail. Author Professor Sober is the 2008 winner of the Prometheus Prize. This biennial award, established in 2006 through the American Philosophical Association, is designed "to honor a distinguished philosopher in recognition of his or her lifetime contribution to expanding the frontiers of research in philosophy and science." This insightful collection of essays will be of interest to philosophers, biologists, and laypersons seeking a deeper understanding of one of the most influential scientific theories ever propounded.
Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biodiesel Production and Characterization presents the application of dielectric techniques in the production process of biodiesel, and in the characterization of biofuels, raw materials and effluents. In this comprehensive text, the reader will find information about biodiesel, production processes and biofuel characterization, including a description of dielectric techniques that are a useful alternative to - and have some important advantages over - international standards. Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biodiesel Production and Characterization is written in a language that is easy for both specialists and non-specialists to understand. It provides the concepts and tools needed for the application and correlation of the results of dielectric measurement with those from other techniques that are included in international standards. Aimed at a broad audience, the book gives a unified presentation, in a clear and concise way, of up-to-date information that has been gathered from a wide range of sources. Based on the ample research and teaching experience of the authors, Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biodiesel Production and Characterization will be of interest to professionals working in the liquid biofuels industry, researchers entering the field and also advanced university students on related courses.
We are all increasingly bewildered by the simple question of what to eat. Despite advice from experts, governments and dieticians about the dangers of too much fat, sugar, protein and lack of exercise, our nutrition - and the global obesity crisis - is getting worse. Why can one person eat a certain meal and gain weight and another eat exactly the same food and lose pounds? Genes provide part of the answer, but we have been overlooking one vital aspect of diet that lies within us. Thanks to recent breakthroughs, scientists have begun to examine the permanent residents in our guts: the thousands of previously unknown but essential microbes whose job it is to digest our food and keep us alive. Drawing on the latest science and his own research team's pioneering work, Professor Tim Spector explores the hidden world of the microbiome and demystifies the common misconceptions about fat, calories, vitamins and nutrients. Only by understanding how our own microbes interact with our bodies can we overcome our confusion about modern diets and nutrition to regain the correct balance of our ancestors. Mixing cutting-edge discoveries, illuminating science and his own case studies, Spector shows why we should stop listening to the myths of diet fads and instead embrace diversity for a healthy gut and a healthy body.
Dietary Components and Immune Function focuses on immune modulation, immune mediated disease resistance, immune changes due to AIDS, immune modulated cancer therapy, and autoimmune diseases as modified by dietary supplement, bioactive foods and supplements. The potential value of such approaches in maintaining wellness and preventing disease are addressed by examining their effects in vitro and in vivo on innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging fields of science and important discoveries relating to early stages of new nutriceuticals in cancer prevention, prior to clinical trials are also covered. This volume represents a single source of material related to nutriceuticals and their constituents as they relate to cancer therapy and prevention. As such the book will be essential reading for nutritionists, pharmacologists, health care professionals, research scientists, cancer workers, pathologists, molecular or cellular biochemists, physicians, general practitioners as well as those interested in diet and nutrition in disease resistance via immune regulation.
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium, and salt for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate discusses in detail the role of water, potassium, salt, chloride, and sulfate in human physiology and health. The major findings in this book include the establishment of Adequate Intakes for total water (drinking water, beverages, and food), potassium, sodium, and chloride and the establishment of Tolerable Upper Intake levels for sodium and chloride. The book makes research recommendations for information needed to advance the understanding of human requirements for water and electrolytes, as well as adverse effects associated with the intake of excessive amounts of water, sodium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. This book will be an invaluable reference for nutritionists, nutrition researchers, and food manufacturers.
Protein analysis is increasingly becoming a cornerstone in deciphering the molecular mechanisms of life. Proteomics, the large-scale and high-sensitivity analysis of proteins, is already pivotal to the new life sciences such as Systems Biology and Systems Medicine. Proteomics, however, relies heavily on the past and future advances of protein purification and analysis methods. DIGE, being able to quantify proteins in their intact form, is one of a few methods that can facilitate this type of analysis and still provide the protein isoforms in an MS-compatible state for further identification and characterization with high analytical sensitivity. Differential Gel Electrophoresis: Methods and Protocols introduces the concept of DIGE and its advantages in quantitative protein analysis. It provides detailed protocols and important notes on the practical aspects of DIGE with both generic and specific applications in the various areas of Quantitative Proteomics. Divided into four concise sections, this detailed volume opens with the basics of DIGE, the technique and its practical details with a focus on the planning of a DIGE experiment and its data analysis. The next section introduces various DIGE methods from those employed by scientists world-wide to more novel methods, providing a glance at what is on the horizon in the DIGE world. The volume closes with an overview of the wide range of DIGE applications from Clinical Proteomics to Animal, Plant, and Microbial Proteomics applications. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters contain introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and accessible, Differential Gel Electrophoresis: Methods and Protocols can be used by novices with some background in biochemistry or molecular biology as well as by experts in Proteomics who would like to deepen their understanding of DIGE and its employment in many hyphenations and application areas. With its many protocols, applications, and methodological variants, it is also a unique reference for all who seek fundamental details on the working principle of DIGE and ideas for possible future uses of DIGE in novel analytical approaches.
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