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This book is a thorough treatise concerned with coherence and its significance in legal reasoning. The individual chapters present the topic from the general philosophical perspective, the perspective of legal-theory as well as the viewpoint of cognitive sciences and the research on artificial intelligence and law. As it has turned out the interchange of knowledge among these disciplines is very fruitful for each of them, providing mutual inspiration and increasing understanding of a given topic. This book is a unique resource for anyone interested in the concept of coherence and the role it plays in reasoning. As this book captures important contemporary issues concerning the ongoing discussion on coherence and law, those interested in legal reasoning should find it particularly helpful. By presenting such a broad scope of views and methods on approaching the issue of coherence we hope to promote the general interest in the topic as well as the academic research that centers around coherence and law.
Recent experimental research advances have led to increasingly detailed descriptions of how networks of interacting neurons process information. With these developments, it has become clear that dynamic network behaviors underlie information processing, and that the observed activity patterns cannot be fully explained by simple concepts such as synchrony and phase locking. These new insights raise significant challenges and offer exciting opportunities for experimental and theoretical neuroscientists. Coherent Behavior in Neuronal Networks features a review of recent research in this area from some of the world's foremost experts on systems neuroscience. The book presents novel methodologies and interdisciplinary perspectives, and will serve as an invaluable resource to the research community. Highlights include the results of interdisciplinary collaborations and approaches as well as topics, such as the interplay of intrinsic and synaptic dynamics in producing coherent neuronal network activity and the roles of globally coherent rhythms and oscillations in the coordination of distributed processing, that are of significant research interest but have been underrepresented in the review literature. With its cutting-edge mathematical, statistical, and computational techniques, this volume will be of interest to all researchers and students in the field of systems neuroscience.
From avalanches to glaciers, from seals to snowflakes, and from Shackleton's expedition to "The Year Without Summer," Bill Streever journeys through history, myth, geography, and ecology in a year-long search for cold--real, icy, 40-below cold. In July he finds it while taking a dip in a 35-degree Arctic swimming hole; in September while excavating our planet's ancient and not so ancient ice ages; and in October while exploring hibernation habits in animals, from humans to wood frogs to bears.A scientist whose passion for cold runs red hot, Streever is a wondrous guide: he conjures woolly mammoth carcasses and the ice-age Clovis tribe from melting glaciers, and he evokes blizzards so wild readers may freeze--limb by vicarious limb.
From avalanches to glaciers, from seals to snowflakes, and from Shackleton's expedition to "The Year Without Summer," Bill Streever journeys through history, myth, geography, and ecology in a year-long search for cold--real, icy, 40-below cold. In July he finds it while taking a dip in a 35-degree Arctic swimming hole; in September while excavating our planet's ancient and not so ancient ice ages; and in October while exploring hibernation habits in animals, from humans to wood frogs to bears. A scientist whose passion for cold runs red hot, Streever is a wondrous guide: he conjures woolly mammoth carcasses and the ice-age Clovis tribe from melting glaciers, and he evokes blizzards so wild readers may freeze--limb by vicarious limb.
Are some people predisposed to kindness to the point of being destructive to themselves and others? How much of our help is fulfilling our own needs--including those of our hidden passions? This is the true story of Carole Alden, a brilliant, yet eccentric mother of five, who evinced a deep and abiding need to help society's outcasts. At her rural homestead an adopted pony mingled with llamas, goats, emus, and dozens of other creatures, familiar and exotic. But Carole's expressed desire to help others extended beyond the animals she took in. It extended beyond her meager resources, even beyond the children she insisted she loved, yet sometimes left neglected in a surreal world of danger. Finally, in the remote reaches of Utah's Great Basin, Carole Alden shot and killed her husband. Dragging his heavy body from the house, she headed for a makeshift grave. Was the murder self-defense? Premeditated? Or was something else altogether at hand? In this searing exploration of deadly codependency, the author takes the reader on a spellbinding voyage of discovery that examines the questions: Are some people naturally too caring? Is caring sometimes a mask for darker motives? Can science help us understand how our concerns for others can hurt everything we hold dear? This gripping story brings extraordinary insight to our deepest questions. Is kindness always the right answer? Is kindness always what it seems?
When his father died, award-winning poet and curator Gil McElroy was given a box of photographs that documented his father's military career. Beginning in the Second World War and continuing right through to the end of the Cold War, the senior McElroy staffed Canada's network of electronic defence, including the Distant Early Warning Line - a network of radar stations stretching along the Arctic coast from Alaska to Baffin Island. Established in the early 1950s, the DEW Line provided advance warning of an aircraft or missile attack. There, servicemen lived in isolated radar stations, watching surveillance screens for the telltale blips that threatened nuclear annihilation.McElroy reflects on the sacrifices these men made, living away from their families for great lengths of time - for the "greater good" of protecting North American airspace and Western values.At the same time, Cold Comfort follows McElroy's experience of growing up as an itinerant military brat, who moved from one posting to another, and the military family's attempts to hold together in the face of the father's absence. Cold Comfort also explores the utter enigma that was the author's father. Examining the contents of the box of photographs, image by image, McElroy attempts to come to terms with the mysterious photographer, a man better understood by his military compatriots than by his own family.Further, Cold Comfort provides the backstory to McElroy's most recent collection of poems, Ordinary Time, which offers an unsettling history of the utter failures of these remote surveillance technologies to make "our" world either better known or reliably predictable.
Travel back to a time when: No one knew what germs were or that they made you sick. People believed the moon had magical powers. Step into the lives of the colonists, and learn the cold, hard facts about science and medicine in colonial America.
Based on papers from the 7th International Plant Cold Hardiness Seminar held in Japan in 2004, this book presents the latest research findings on plant freezing and chilling stress from major laboratories around the world. The chapters focus on various aspects of molecular genetics and the utilization of transgenic plants to further our understanding of plant cold hardiness at the molecular level.
Conventional wisdom has North America entering a new era of energy abundance thanks to shale gas. But has industry been honest? Cold, Hungry and in the Dark argues that declining productivity combined with increasing demand will trigger a crisis that will cause prices to skyrocket, damage the economy, and have a profound impact on the lives of nearly every North American.Relying on faulty science, bought-and-paid-for-white papers masquerading as independent research and "industry consultants," the "shale promoters" have vastly overstated the viable supply of shale gas resources for their own financial gain. This startling exposé, written by an industry insider, suggests that the stakes involved in the Enron scandal might seem like lunch money in comparison to the bursting of the natural gas bubble. Exhaustively researched and rigorously documented, Cold, Hungry and in the Dark:Puts supply-and-demand trends under a microscope Provides overwhelming evidence of the absurdity of the one hundred-year supply myth Suggests numerous ways to mitigate the upcoming natural gas price spikeThe mainstream media has told us that natural gas will be cheap and plentiful for decades, when nothing could be further from the truth. Forewarned is forearmed. Cold, Hungry and in the Dark is vital reading for anyone concerned about the inevitable economic impact of our uncertain energy future.Bill Powers is the editor of Powers Energy Investor and sits on the board of directors of Calgary-based Arsenal Energy. He has devoted the last fifteen years to studying and analyzing the energy sector.
Luminescence sheds light on the adventure of science. Scientists and many others have explored the science and wonder of cold light--the chemistry of animals and things that make light but not heat. A seventeenth-century alchemist tried to turn a stone into gold. He failed, but the stone glowed in the dark instead. The alchemist began to mold the first luminescent objects. A light also came on one night for the famous chemist Robert Boyle. After he saw a raw chicken glowing in his kitchen, he began his own research into luminescence. With light humor, Anita Sitarski brings the thrill of discovery to life as she recounts the stories of the alchemist, chemist Robert Boyle, the adventurers who first saw bizarre creatures glowing in the depths of the sea, and others. Awe-inspiring, full-color photographs accompany the compelling, fact-filled text in these scientific explorations.
This book uses the reaction of a number of biologists in the United States and Great Britain to provide an overview of one of the most important controversies in Twentieth Century biology, the "Lysenko Affair." The book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of history/history of science. It covers a number of topics which are relevant to understanding the sources and dimensions of the Lysenko controversy, including the interwar eugenics movement, the Scopes Trial, the popularity of Lamarckism as a theory of heredity prior to the synthesis of genetics and Natural Selection, and the Cold War. The book focuses particularly on portrayals--both positive and negative--of Lysenko in the popular press in the U.S. and Europe, and thus by extension the relationship between scientists and society. Because the Lysenko controversy attracted a high level of interest among the lay community, it constitutes a useful historical example to consider in context with current topics that have received a similar level of attention, such as Intelligent Design or Climate Change.
Methods, Processes, and Tools for Collaboration"The time has come to fundamentally rethink how we handle the building of knowledge in biomedical sciences today. This book describes how the computational sciences have transformed into being a key knowledge broker, able to integrate and operate across divergent data types."-Bryn Williams-Jones, Associate Research Fellow, PfizerThe pharmaceutical industry utilizes an extended network of partner organizations in order to discover and develop new drugs, however there is currently little guidance for managing information and resources across collaborations. Featuring contributions from the leading experts in a range of industries, Collaborative Computational Technologies for Biomedical Research provides information that will help organizations make critical decisions about managing partnerships, including: Serving as a user manual for collaborations Tackling real problems from both human collaborative and data and informatics perspectives Providing case histories of biomedical collaborations and technology-specific chapters that balance technological depth with accessibility for the non-specialist readerA must-read for anyone working in the pharmaceuticals industry or academia, this book marks a major step towards widespread collaboration facilitated by computational technologies.
In Jared Diamond's follow-up to the Pulitzer-Prize winning Guns, Germs and Steel, the author explores how climate change, the population explosion and political discord create the conditions for the collapse of civilization<P> Environmental damage, climate change, globalization, rapid population growth, and unwise political choices were all factors in the demise of societies around the world, but some found solutions and persisted. As in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Diamond traces the fundamental pattern of catastrophe, and weaves an all-encompassing global thesis through a series of fascinating historical-cultural narratives. Collapse moves from the Polynesian cultures on Easter Island to the flourishing American civilizations of the Anasazi and the Maya and finally to the doomed Viking colony on Greenland. Similar problems face us today and have already brought disaster to Rwanda and Haiti, even as China and Australia are trying to cope in innovative ways. Despite our own society's apparently inexhaustible wealth and unrivaled political power, ominous warning signs have begun to emerge even in ecologically robust areas like Montana.<P> Brilliant, illuminating, and immensely absorbing, Collapse is destined to take its place as one of the essential books of our time, raising the urgent question: How can our world best avoid committing ecological suicide?
The year is 2393, and a senior scholar of the Second People's Republic of China presents a gripping and deeply disturbing account of how the children of the Enlightenment, the political and economic elites of the so-called advanced industrial societies, entered into a Penumbral period in the early decades of the twenty-first century, a time when sound science and rational discourse about global change were prohibited and clear warnings of climate catastrophe were ignored. What ensues when soaring temperatures, rising sea levels, drought, and mass migrations disrupt the global governmental and economic regimes? The Great Collapse of 2093.This work is an important title that will change how readers look at the world. Dramatizing climate change in ways traditional nonfiction cannot, this inventive, at times humorous work reasserts the importance of scientists and the work they do and reveals the self-serving interests of the so called "carbon industrial complex" that have turned the practice of sound science into political fodder. The authors conclude with a critique of the philosophical frameworks, most notably neo-liberalism, that do their part to hasten civilization's demise.Based on sound scholarship yet unafraid to tilt at sacred cows in both science and policy, this book provides a welcome moment of clarity amid the cacophony of climate change literature. It includes a lexicon of historical and scientific terms that enriches the narrative and an interview with the authors.
Will the universe expand forever? Could the sun explode in our lifetime? Asimov explores the birth and death of the cosmos.
The focus of this title is on practical aspects of human coronary collateral vessels. However, basic science and pathophysiological aspects should also be covered in every chapter as without this knowledge, clinical aspects cannot be fully understood. Each chapter will be divided into a more practical part ("at a glance") and into a "full picture" part. The number of pages would be between 400 and 500 and highly illustrated. The imaging chapters will be well illustrated with examples of angiogenesis and collateral vessels via all the relevant imaging modalities.
In the early 1970s, the environmental movement was underway. Overpopulation was recognized as a threat to human well-being, and scientists like Michael Soulé believed there was a connection between anthropogenic pressures on natural resources and the loss of the planet's biodiversity. Soulé--thinker, philosopher, teacher, mentor, and scientist--recognized the importance of a healthy natural world and with other leaders of the day pushed for a new interdisciplinary approach to preserving biological diversity. Thirty years later, Soulé is hailed by many as the single most important force in the development of the modern science of conservation biology. This book is a select collection of seminal writings by Michael Soulé over a thirty-year time-span from 1980 through the present day. Previously published in books and leading journals, these carefully selected pieces show the progression of his intellectual thinking on topics such as genetics, ecology, evolutionary biology, and extinctions, and how the history and substance of the field of conservation biology evolved over time. It opens with an in-depth introduction by marine conservation biologist James Estes, a long-time colleague of Soulé's, who explains why Soulé's special combination of science and leadership was the catalyst for bringing about the modern era of conservation biology. Estes offers a thoughtful commentary on the challenges that lie ahead for the young discipline in the face of climate change, increasing species extinctions, and impassioned debate within the conservation community itself over the best path forward. Intended for a new generation of students, this book offers a fresh presentation of goals of conservation biology, and inspiration and guidance for the global biodiversity crises facing us today. Readers will come away with an understanding of the science, passion, idealism, and sense of urgency that drove early founders of conservation biology like Michael Soulé.
In Collective Action and Exchange: A Game-Theoretic Approach to Contemporary Political Economy, William D. Ferguson presents a comprehensive political economy text aimed at advanced undergraduates in economics and graduate students in the social sciences. The text utilizes collective action as a unifying concept, arguing that collective-action problems lie at the foundation of market success, market failure, economic development, and the motivations for policy. Ferguson draws on information economics, social preference theory, cognition theory, institutional economics, as well as political and policy theory to develop this approach. The text uses classical, evolutionary, and epistemic game theory, along with basic social network analysis, as modeling frameworks. These models effectively bind the ideas presented, generating a coherent theoretic approach to political economy that stresses sometimes overlooked implications.
Fish travel in schools, birds migrate in flocks, honeybees swarm, and ants build trails. How and why do these collective behaviors occur? Exploring how coordinated group patterns emerge from individual interactions,Collective Animal Behaviorreveals why animals produce group behaviors and examines their evolution across a range of species. Providing a synthesis of mathematical modeling, theoretical biology, and experimental work, David Sumpter investigates how animals move and arrive together, how they transfer information, how they make decisions and synchronize their activities, and how they build collective structures. Sumpter constructs a unified appreciation of how different group-living species coordinate their behaviors and why natural selection has produced these groups. For the first time, the book combines traditional approaches to behavioral ecology with ideas about self-organization and complex systems from physics and mathematics. Sumpter offers a guide for working with key models in this area along with case studies of their application, and he shows how ideas about animal behavior can be applied to understanding human social behavior. Containing a wealth of accessible examples as well as qualitative and quantitative features,Collective Animal Behaviorwill interest behavioral ecologists and all scientists studying complex systems.
"Collective Behavior" is the summary of the 2014 National Academies Keck Futures Initiative Conference on Collective Behavior. Participants were divided into fourteen interdisciplinary research teams. The teams spent nine hours over two days exploring diverse challenges at the interface of science, engineering, and medicine. The composition of the teams was intentionally diverse, to encourage the generation of new approaches by combining a range of different types of contributions. The teams included researchers from science, engineering, and medicine, as well as representatives from private and public funding agencies, universities, businesses, journals, and the science media. Researchers represented a wide range of experience - from postdoc to those well established in their careers - from a variety of disciplines that included science and engineering, medicine, physics, biology, economics, and behavioral science. The teams needed to address the challenge of communicating and working together from a diversity of expertise and perspectives as they attempted to solve a complicated, interdisciplinary problem in a relatively short time. This report highlights the presentations of the event and includes the team reports and pre-meeting materials.
Using step-by-step explanations of its worked examples, this text develops problem-solving skills. It also: emphasizes conceptual understanding, reinforced by examples; includes applications; and features a treatment that focuses on the essential core material.
This introductory, algebra-based, two-semester college physics book is grounded with real-world examples, illustrations, and explanations to help students grasp key, fundamental physics concepts. This online, fully editable and customizable title includes learning objectives, concept questions, links to labs and simulations, and ample practice opportunities to solve traditional physics application problems.
Intended for biology and social science students, this two-semester textbook explains Newtonian mechanics, the physics of fluid, heat and thermodynamics, wave motion and sound, the concepts of electricity and magnetism, the properties of light, relativity, and quantum physics. The eighth edition eliminates superfluous worked examples and adds sections on thermal processes and magnetic materials. Annotation ©2008 Book News, Inc. , Portland, OR (booknews. com)