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Active Surveillance for Localized Prostate Cancer: A New Paradigm for Clinical Management will serve as a useful resource for physicians dealing with, and interested in, this complex and evolving branch of prostate cancer management. The book will also be of interest to scientifically literate patients and their families. The volume provides an introduction to the concept of active surveillance in oncology in general and prostate cancer specifically. The primary focus is to provide a comprehensive guide to the management of patients on surveillance. The volume covers the many complexities and nuances to this approach including, patient selection, risk assessment, how to overcome 'cancer hysteria' when counseling patients, identifying appropriate triggers for intervention, use of PSA kinetics and MR imaging information, technique and frequency of biopsies, secondary prevention interventions, and the relative roles of surveillance and focal therapy.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 179. This multidisciplinary monograph provides the first modern integrative summary focused on the most spectacular active tectonic systems in North America. Encompassing seismology, tectonics, geology, and geodesy, it includes papers that summarize the state of knowledge, including background material for those unfamiliar with the region; address global hypotheses using data from Alaska; and test important global hypotheses using data from this region. It is organized around four major themes: subduction and great earthquakes at the Aleutian Arc, the transition from strike slip to accretion and subduction of the Yakutat microplate, the Denali fault and related structures and their role in accommodating permanent deformation of the overriding plate, and regional integration and large-scale models and the use of data from Alaska to address important global questions and hypotheses. The book's publication near the beginning of the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project makes it especially timely because Alaska is perhaps the least understood area within the EarthScope footprint, and interest in the region can be expected to rise with time as more EarthScope data become available.
This Companion Textbook supplements the ActivEpi CD-ROM, sold separately. The ActivEpi CD-ROM provides a multimedia presentation of concepts, commonly taught in an introductory epidemiology course. ActivEpi mixes a full array of media to motivate, explain, visualize and apply epidemiological concepts. Virtually all of the material on the ActivEpi CD-ROM is included in the Companion Textbook. Because individuals differ in their learning skills, the ActivEpi CD-ROM and the ActivEpi Companion Textbook offer readers different but related options on how to learn epidemiology. The Textbook can be used as a hardcopy reference of the textual materials contained on the CD-ROM, as a resource for the practice exercises, as a general reference, or even a self-contained textbook. ActivEpi includes 15 lessons and over 50 hours of content via more than 250 launchable activities and homework exercises. It can be used in a variety of teaching formats: distance learning, self-paced learning, on-campus courses, and short courses. For the latest additions to ActivEpi, visit David Kleinbaum's website.
In the last two decades, there has been growing interest in pursuing theoretical paradigms that capture complex learning situations. Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is one of several theoretical frameworks that became very popular among educational researchers because it conceptualizes individuals and their environment as a holistic unit of analysis. It assumes a non-dualistic ontology and acknowledges the complexities involved in human activity in natural settings. Recently, reputable journals such as the American Psychologist, Educational Psychologist, and Educational Researcher that are targeted for a wide-range of audience have included articles on CHAT. In many of such articles, CHAT has been referred to as social constructivism, sociocultural theory, or activity theory. Activity systems analysis is one of the popular methods among CHAT researchers for mapping complex human interactions from qualitative data. However, understanding the methods involved in activity systems analysis is a challenging task for many researchers. This difficulty derives from several reasons. First the original texts of CHAT are in Russian and there have been numerous authors who report on the difficulties of reconciling translation problems of the works of original authors' such as Vygotsky and Leontiev. Second, in North America activity systems analysis has deviated from the Russian scholars' intentions and Engeström's original work using the triangle model to identify tensions to overcome and bring about sociopolitical change in participant practices. Third, to this date there are numerous publications on the theoretical background of activity theory and studies reporting the results of using activity systems analysis for unpacking qualitative data sets, but there have been no methodological publications on how researchers engage in activity systems analysis. Thus, there is a dearth of literature in both book and journal publications that guide researchers on the methodological issues involving activity systems analysis.
Much has been written about the ups and downs of financial markets, from the lure of prosperity to the despair of crisis. However, there exists a more fundamental and pernicious source of uncertainty in today's world: the traditional "insurance" risks of earthquakes, storms, terrorist attacks, and other disasters. Insightfully exploring these "acts of God and man," Michael R. Powers guides readers through the methods available for identifying and measuring such risks, financing their consequences, and forecasting their future behavior within the limits of science. A distinctive characteristic of earthquakes, hurricanes, bombings, and other insurance risks is that they impact the values of stocks, bonds, commodities, and other human-made financial products, while themselves remaining largely unaffected by or "aloof" from the behavior of markets. Quantifying such risks given limited data is tricky yet crucial for achieving the financing objectives of insurance. Powers begins with an analysis of how risk impacts our lives, health, and possessions, and then introduces the statistical techniques necessary for analyzing these uncertainties. He then considers the experience of risk from the perspectives of both policyholders and insurance companies and compares their respective responses. The risks inherent in the private insurance industry lead naturally to discussions of government's role as both market regulator and potential "insurer of last resort." Powers concludes with an interdisciplinary investigation into the nature of uncertainty, incorporating ideas from physics, philosophy, and game theory to assess science's limitations in predicting the ramifications of risk.
How language evolved has been called "the hardest problem in science. " In Adam's Tongue, Derek Bickerton--long a leading authority in this field--shows how and why previous attempts to solve that problem have fallen short. Taking cues from topics as diverse as the foraging strategies of ants, the distribution of large prehistoric herbivores, and the construction of ecological niches, Bickerton produces a dazzling new alternative to the conventional wisdom. Language is unique to humans, but it isn't the only thing that sets us apart from other species--our cognitive powers are qualitatively different. So could there be two separate discontinuities between humans and the rest of nature? No, says Bickerton; he shows how the mere possession of symbolic units--words--automatically opened a new and different cognitive universe, one that yielded novel innovations ranging from barbed arrowheads to the Apollo spacecraft. Written in Bickerton's lucid and irreverent style, this book is the first to thoroughly integrate the story of how language evolved with the story of how humans evolved. Sure to be controversial, it will make indispensable reading both for experts in the field and for every reader who has ever wondered how a species as remarkable as ours could have come into existence. '
As embedded systems become more complex, designers face a number of challenges at different levels: they need to boost performance, while keeping energy consumption as low as possible, they need to reuse existent software code, and at the same time they need to take advantage of the extra logic available in the chip, represented by multiple processors working together. This book describes several strategies to achieve such different and interrelated goals, by the use of adaptability. Coverage includes reconfigurable systems, dynamic optimization techniques such as binary translation and trace reuse, new memory architectures including homogeneous and heterogeneous multiprocessor systems, communication issues and NOCs, fault tolerance against fabrication defects and soft errors, and finally, how one can combine several of these techniques together to achieve higher levels of performance and adaptability. The discussion also includes how to employ specialized software to improve this new adaptive system, and how this new kind of software must be designed and programmed.
Discover how living things adapt to the world around them, creating millions of different species. Explore the fascinating world of living things, including the processes that keep animals and plants alive, and how people study them. Fact boxes that introduce the most amazing plants and animals are featured in this book along with colorful photographs that show the incredible diversity of life. This book includes a glossary and resources for further research. New edition ISBN: 1403488436 (hardcover)
"The vampire finch and the sneaker iguana have something in common. They both live on the Galapagos Islands, a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean. These islands are a natural wonderland full of strange and amazing birds and animals. Some people have heard about the Galapagos because of the giant tortoises (turtles) that live there. Maybe you have seen these animals in a book or on television. The Galapagos Islands are also famous because of a young man named Charles Darwin, who visited them in 1835. Later, Darwin went on to become one of the most important scientists the world has ever known."-Introduction
These titles provide an in-depth look at life processes. The books stress key features of science teaching including scientific inquiry, use of ideas and evidence in science, planning, evaluation, and developing investigative skills. Sample experiments and data illustrate best practices in a real context. Case studies of key experiments and discoveries in the history of science are presented as box features (including modern discoveries as well as those with historical importance). Information on the most recent developments in research demonstrates the progressive nature of science.
The book explains how living things develop features to adapt themselves to their environment, improve their chances of survival and also about the natural selection process.
As it becomes clear that climate change is not easily within the boundaries of the 1990's, society needs to be prepared and needs to anticipate future changes due to the uncertain changes in climate. So far, extensive research has been carried out on several issues including the coastal defence or shifting ecozones. However, the role spatial design and planning can play in adapting to climate change has not yet been focused on. This book illuminates the way adaptation to climate change is tackled in water management, ecology, coastal defence, the urban environment and energy. The question posed is how each sector can anticipate climate change by creating spatial designs and plans. The main message of this book is that spatial design and planning are a very useful tool in adapting to climate change. It offers an integral view on the issue, it is capable in dealing with uncertainties and it opens the way to creative and anticipative solutions. Dealing with adaptation to climate change requires a shift in mindset; from a technical rational way of thinking towards an integral proactive one. A new era in spatial design and planning looms on the horizon.
Since the very early stages of life, we all experience some form of stress. Stressors can be mild to severe and can range from unsuccessfully longing for maternal milk in infancy, to recklessly wiggling on a motorbike to be on time to watch the NBA finals on TV, to breaking up a relationship. All those events that we call "stress" have the capability of perturbing a given state of psychological and physiological equilibrium and moving it to a different level. The transition from crawling to walking has to be considered a form of stress as much as losing a job. It is through a continuous cross-talk between environmental stressors and individual adaptations that we build our personalities and our ways to cope with daily hassles. External challenges should not necessarily be regarded as "bad", but instead seen as constructive forces forming our ability to navigate a changing world. What is stress good for? What is stress bad for? When and why do we need to be "stressed"? Should we worry about stress? When does stress equate to "normality"? When does it turn into pathology? We hope with this book to provide some answers to these fundamental questions.
This exciting publication provides the reader with a theoretical and practical approach to adaptive decision making, based on an appreciation of cognitive styles, in a cross-cultural context. The aim of this Brief is to describe the role of thinking-through different options as part of the decision-making process. Since cognitive style influences decision behavior, the book will first examine thinking styles, which involve both cognitive and emotive elements, as habits or preferences that shape and empower one's cognition and emotion. The information contained in this Brief will be a useful resource to both researchers studying decision making as well as to instructors in the higher education sector and to human resource development practitioners, especially those working in international, multi-cultural companies.
Addiction Recovery Management: Theory, Research, and Practice is the first book on the recovery management approach to addiction treatment and post-treatment support services. Distinctive in combining theory, research, and practice within the same text, this ground-breaking title includes authors who are the major theoreticians, researchers, systems administrators, clinicians and recovery advocates who have developed the model. State-of-the art and the definitive text on the topic, Addiction Recovery Management: Theory, Research, and Practice is mandatory reading for clinicians and all professionals who work with patients in recovery or who are interested in the field.
A definitive Chemistry book which covers among others: matter and change, scientific measurement, atomic structure, chemical names and formulas.
Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and the changes they undergo. The world is complex. Chemistry reflects this complexity in the broad areas it covers. Chemistry contributes to other natural sciences, including biology geology, and physics.
Addison-Wesley Chemistry is a comprehensive and motivating program that builds problem-solving skills and stresses the relevance and application of chemistry to the present and future life of students.
"This book has been made to help you learn science. It has many features to make learning science exciting. It will answer some questions you have and probably start you thinking about some new ones. Explore your book. See what features you can find. To make the most of Addison-Wesley Science, take some time to learn how it is organized. That will make science easier to understand. Find the table of contents. Notice that this book is divided into four units. Each unit focuses on a certain kind of science: life, physical, earth, or health science. Each unit consists of several chapters. Each chapter is made up of a few lessons."
While there is a wealth of published information on addiction medicine, the psychological aspects of alcohol abuse, and behavioral medicine with regard to addiction, virtually none of these resources were written with the primary care provider in mind. Addressing Unhealthy Alcohol Use in Primary Care is a resource for primary care clinicians who are confronted by patients with these problems daily, and who wish to successfully address these issues in their practice. It would focus on the literature and science relevant to primary care practice and cover the range of interventions appropriate for this setting. Topics include assessment, brief counseling interventions, pharmacotherapy, referrals to both specialty care and Alcoholics Anonymous (and other self-help programs), psychiatric co-morbidity and other drug use, and other information specific to the needs of the primary care provider.
When sea-ice declines, so does the population of Adélie penguins, making this species a predictive indicator of the effects of global warming. This book summarizes our present ecological knowledge of this species: its biology, behavior, and ecology within the Antarctic ecosystem; the ecological factors important to its life history; and details of the mechanisms by which it is responding to climate change. The narrative is complemented by richly written texts from the earliest Antarctic naturalists, fine illustrations from the accomplished artist Lucia deLeiris, and photographs by the author.
Today, progress in rAAV-mediated gene transfer is so robust that long-term, efficient, and regulatable transgene expression is reproducibly achieved in large animal models. The complexity of gene transfer agents in the context of their clinical use requires investigators from a wide variety of backgrounds to have an understanding -- or at least an appreciation of -- the regulatory environment and constraints that affect vector design, manufacturing, pre-clinical testing, and clinical use, with an emphasis on patient protection. In Adeno-Associated Virus: Methods and Protocols, experts from the United States and Europe have contributed current knowledge of this multi-dimensional field relating to the biology of AAV, rAAV vector design, vector manufacturing and product testing, performance of rAAV vectors in major organs, rAAV-related immunological issues, design of animal and clinical studies, and clinical experience. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and accessible, Adeno-Associated Virus: Methods and Protocols provides a complete and comprehensive understanding of this multi-disciplinary and rapidly progressing field.
Homeostasis of key metabolites and metabolic health affects all bodily systems. Not surprisingly, altered metabolic function is associated with a wide spectrum of dysfunctions in the central nervous system - including developmental disorders, acute nervous system injury, and neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, metabolism-based therapies offer significant promise as new category of treatment options designed to limit, delay or reverse the disease process by reconstructing homeostatic functions. Increasingly it is appreciated that restoring metabolic health could promote normal nervous system activity, and improve behavior and cognition. Adenosine: A Key Link Between Metabolism and Central Nervous System Activity focusses on diverse aspects of adenosine, an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic bioenergetic regulator in the central nervous system. Because of its interrelationship with ATP (adenosine triphosphate), adenosine is integral to cell metabolism. At the same time, adenosine influences neuronal activity directly via receptors, and is involved in biochemical processes related to gene expression. Thus, adenosine is uniquely placed as a reciprocal and rapid link between changes in metabolism and changes in neuronal activity, and, on a longer time scale, to changes in gene expression and long term changes in cell function. Leaders in the field feature basic research on adenosine at the cellular level in the central nervous system, and relate these findings to its recognized potential in diverse acute and chronic disorders. This comprehensive overview of adenosine also highlights emerging adenosine-based treatments and associated opportunities for central nervous system disorders.
ADHD in Adults: A Practical Guide to Evaluation and Management is the product of a unique collaboration of international specialists. This volume offers easy-to-read guidance, and includes checklists, rating scales and treatment planning tools. It was designed for a broad audience of caregivers working in diverse settings, including psychiatrists, social workers, primary care physicians, nurse specialists and psychologists. The authors are highly acclaimed clinicians, investigators and educators. They offer step-by-step guidance for implementation of best practices, drawing from clinical research and their experience treating thousands of patients. They cover diagnosis, treatment planning, and state-of-the-art application of pharmacology, psychotherapy, skill-building, family system and environmental interventions - for both simple and complex cases. The scales and worksheets in this Guide were developed to efficiently facilitate assessment and management. The Editor is an international leader in the field from the Clinical and Research Program in Adult ADHD at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School, which has made pioneering and highly cited contributions to the understanding of ADHD. This Guide is a definitive, indispensable resource for all health providers who wish to optimize their approach to adult patients with ADHD.
Adhesive Interactions in Normal and Transformed Cells describes the basic mechanisms of the ability of tissue cells to attach to each other and to the extracellular matrix. These adhesive interactions are pivotal regulators of main cellular functions, such as proliferation, survival and migration. The adhesive interactions are involved in embryonic development, regeneration, and also in inflammation and degeneration processes, which are at the basis of many diseases. Serious alterations in cell adhesion caused by the oncogenic transformation play a key role in cancer invasion and metastasis. This volume provides comprehensive information about structural, mechanistic and signaling aspects of adhesive interactions in both normal and cancer cells in comparison. Integration of such aspects of the adhesive process as structure, relation to cell systems of receptors and cytoskeleton, function, signaling pathways, and the alterations in tumor cells constitutes the strongest point of this work. The results of the long-time author's research are included in the book. The author was one of pioneers, who used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the cell surface morphology of normal cultured cells and the cells underwent the oncogenic transformation, processes of their attachment to and spreading on the surfaces of a solid substratum, and also surprising ability of the cells to respond to various geometric configurations of the substrata surfaces. Adhesive Interactions in Normal and Transformed Cells has both biological and medical aspects and, therefore, it can be interesting not only for cell biologists, developmental biologists and cancer researchers, but also for physicians. It is intended for researchers, postdocs, undergraduate and graduate students.
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