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The book explains how living things develop features to adapt themselves to their environment, improve their chances of survival and also about the natural selection process.
As it becomes clear that climate change is not easily within the boundaries of the 1990's, society needs to be prepared and needs to anticipate future changes due to the uncertain changes in climate. So far, extensive research has been carried out on several issues including the coastal defence or shifting ecozones. However, the role spatial design and planning can play in adapting to climate change has not yet been focused on. This book illuminates the way adaptation to climate change is tackled in water management, ecology, coastal defence, the urban environment and energy. The question posed is how each sector can anticipate climate change by creating spatial designs and plans. The main message of this book is that spatial design and planning are a very useful tool in adapting to climate change. It offers an integral view on the issue, it is capable in dealing with uncertainties and it opens the way to creative and anticipative solutions. Dealing with adaptation to climate change requires a shift in mindset; from a technical rational way of thinking towards an integral proactive one. A new era in spatial design and planning looms on the horizon.
Since the very early stages of life, we all experience some form of stress. Stressors can be mild to severe and can range from unsuccessfully longing for maternal milk in infancy, to recklessly wiggling on a motorbike to be on time to watch the NBA finals on TV, to breaking up a relationship. All those events that we call "stress" have the capability of perturbing a given state of psychological and physiological equilibrium and moving it to a different level. The transition from crawling to walking has to be considered a form of stress as much as losing a job. It is through a continuous cross-talk between environmental stressors and individual adaptations that we build our personalities and our ways to cope with daily hassles. External challenges should not necessarily be regarded as "bad", but instead seen as constructive forces forming our ability to navigate a changing world. What is stress good for? What is stress bad for? When and why do we need to be "stressed"? Should we worry about stress? When does stress equate to "normality"? When does it turn into pathology? We hope with this book to provide some answers to these fundamental questions.
This exciting publication provides the reader with a theoretical and practical approach to adaptive decision making, based on an appreciation of cognitive styles, in a cross-cultural context. The aim of this Brief is to describe the role of thinking-through different options as part of the decision-making process. Since cognitive style influences decision behavior, the book will first examine thinking styles, which involve both cognitive and emotive elements, as habits or preferences that shape and empower one's cognition and emotion. The information contained in this Brief will be a useful resource to both researchers studying decision making as well as to instructors in the higher education sector and to human resource development practitioners, especially those working in international, multi-cultural companies.
Addiction Recovery Management: Theory, Research, and Practice is the first book on the recovery management approach to addiction treatment and post-treatment support services. Distinctive in combining theory, research, and practice within the same text, this ground-breaking title includes authors who are the major theoreticians, researchers, systems administrators, clinicians and recovery advocates who have developed the model. State-of-the art and the definitive text on the topic, Addiction Recovery Management: Theory, Research, and Practice is mandatory reading for clinicians and all professionals who work with patients in recovery or who are interested in the field.
A definitive Chemistry book which covers among others: matter and change, scientific measurement, atomic structure, chemical names and formulas.
Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and the changes they undergo. The world is complex. Chemistry reflects this complexity in the broad areas it covers. Chemistry contributes to other natural sciences, including biology geology, and physics.
Addison-Wesley Chemistry is a comprehensive and motivating program that builds problem-solving skills and stresses the relevance and application of chemistry to the present and future life of students.
While there is a wealth of published information on addiction medicine, the psychological aspects of alcohol abuse, and behavioral medicine with regard to addiction, virtually none of these resources were written with the primary care provider in mind. Addressing Unhealthy Alcohol Use in Primary Care is a resource for primary care clinicians who are confronted by patients with these problems daily, and who wish to successfully address these issues in their practice. It would focus on the literature and science relevant to primary care practice and cover the range of interventions appropriate for this setting. Topics include assessment, brief counseling interventions, pharmacotherapy, referrals to both specialty care and Alcoholics Anonymous (and other self-help programs), psychiatric co-morbidity and other drug use, and other information specific to the needs of the primary care provider.
When sea-ice declines, so does the population of Adélie penguins, making this species a predictive indicator of the effects of global warming. This book summarizes our present ecological knowledge of this species: its biology, behavior, and ecology within the Antarctic ecosystem; the ecological factors important to its life history; and details of the mechanisms by which it is responding to climate change. The narrative is complemented by richly written texts from the earliest Antarctic naturalists, fine illustrations from the accomplished artist Lucia deLeiris, and photographs by the author.
Today, progress in rAAV-mediated gene transfer is so robust that long-term, efficient, and regulatable transgene expression is reproducibly achieved in large animal models. The complexity of gene transfer agents in the context of their clinical use requires investigators from a wide variety of backgrounds to have an understanding -- or at least an appreciation of -- the regulatory environment and constraints that affect vector design, manufacturing, pre-clinical testing, and clinical use, with an emphasis on patient protection. In Adeno-Associated Virus: Methods and Protocols, experts from the United States and Europe have contributed current knowledge of this multi-dimensional field relating to the biology of AAV, rAAV vector design, vector manufacturing and product testing, performance of rAAV vectors in major organs, rAAV-related immunological issues, design of animal and clinical studies, and clinical experience. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and accessible, Adeno-Associated Virus: Methods and Protocols provides a complete and comprehensive understanding of this multi-disciplinary and rapidly progressing field.
Homeostasis of key metabolites and metabolic health affects all bodily systems. Not surprisingly, altered metabolic function is associated with a wide spectrum of dysfunctions in the central nervous system - including developmental disorders, acute nervous system injury, and neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, metabolism-based therapies offer significant promise as new category of treatment options designed to limit, delay or reverse the disease process by reconstructing homeostatic functions. Increasingly it is appreciated that restoring metabolic health could promote normal nervous system activity, and improve behavior and cognition. Adenosine: A Key Link Between Metabolism and Central Nervous System Activity focusses on diverse aspects of adenosine, an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic bioenergetic regulator in the central nervous system. Because of its interrelationship with ATP (adenosine triphosphate), adenosine is integral to cell metabolism. At the same time, adenosine influences neuronal activity directly via receptors, and is involved in biochemical processes related to gene expression. Thus, adenosine is uniquely placed as a reciprocal and rapid link between changes in metabolism and changes in neuronal activity, and, on a longer time scale, to changes in gene expression and long term changes in cell function. Leaders in the field feature basic research on adenosine at the cellular level in the central nervous system, and relate these findings to its recognized potential in diverse acute and chronic disorders. This comprehensive overview of adenosine also highlights emerging adenosine-based treatments and associated opportunities for central nervous system disorders.
ADHD in Adults: A Practical Guide to Evaluation and Management is the product of a unique collaboration of international specialists. This volume offers easy-to-read guidance, and includes checklists, rating scales and treatment planning tools. It was designed for a broad audience of caregivers working in diverse settings, including psychiatrists, social workers, primary care physicians, nurse specialists and psychologists. The authors are highly acclaimed clinicians, investigators and educators. They offer step-by-step guidance for implementation of best practices, drawing from clinical research and their experience treating thousands of patients. They cover diagnosis, treatment planning, and state-of-the-art application of pharmacology, psychotherapy, skill-building, family system and environmental interventions - for both simple and complex cases. The scales and worksheets in this Guide were developed to efficiently facilitate assessment and management. The Editor is an international leader in the field from the Clinical and Research Program in Adult ADHD at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School, which has made pioneering and highly cited contributions to the understanding of ADHD. This Guide is a definitive, indispensable resource for all health providers who wish to optimize their approach to adult patients with ADHD.
Adhesive Interactions in Normal and Transformed Cells describes the basic mechanisms of the ability of tissue cells to attach to each other and to the extracellular matrix. These adhesive interactions are pivotal regulators of main cellular functions, such as proliferation, survival and migration. The adhesive interactions are involved in embryonic development, regeneration, and also in inflammation and degeneration processes, which are at the basis of many diseases. Serious alterations in cell adhesion caused by the oncogenic transformation play a key role in cancer invasion and metastasis. This volume provides comprehensive information about structural, mechanistic and signaling aspects of adhesive interactions in both normal and cancer cells in comparison. Integration of such aspects of the adhesive process as structure, relation to cell systems of receptors and cytoskeleton, function, signaling pathways, and the alterations in tumor cells constitutes the strongest point of this work. The results of the long-time author's research are included in the book. The author was one of pioneers, who used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the cell surface morphology of normal cultured cells and the cells underwent the oncogenic transformation, processes of their attachment to and spreading on the surfaces of a solid substratum, and also surprising ability of the cells to respond to various geometric configurations of the substrata surfaces. Adhesive Interactions in Normal and Transformed Cells has both biological and medical aspects and, therefore, it can be interesting not only for cell biologists, developmental biologists and cancer researchers, but also for physicians. It is intended for researchers, postdocs, undergraduate and graduate students.
During the past decade, a wide range of scientific disciplines have adopted the use of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) as an important tool for research and discovery. In Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols, experts from the field, including members of the esteemed International Federation of Adipose Therapeutics and Science (IFATS), provide defined and established protocols in order to further codify the utilization of these powerful and accessible cells. With chapters organized around approaches spanning the discovery, pre-clinical, and clinical processes, much of the emphasis is placed on human ASC, while additional techniques involving small and large animal species are included. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series, the detailed contributions include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols serves as a vital reference text for experienced researchers as well as new students on the path to further exploring the incredible potential of ASCs.
This book is designed to provide a comprehensive insight into current perspectives and challenges in adipose tissue biology. In Adipose Tissue Biology, scientists and clinicians discuss adipocyte precursors, differentiation and growth, brown and white adipose tissue, gender, inflammation, dietary and genetic determinants of fat mass, together with evolutionary and developmental aspects of adiposity.
A campus shooting. A gang assault. A school bus ambush. With each successive event, fingers are pointed at the usual suspects: violent films, bloody video games, explicit web sites. But to what extent can--or should--the media be implicated in youth crime? And are today's sophisticated young people really that susceptible to their influence? Adolescents, Crime, and the Media critically examines perceptions of these phenomena through the lens of the ongoing relationship between generations of adults and youth. A wealth of research findings transcends the standard nature/nurture debate, analyzing media effects on young people's behavior, brain development in adolescence, ways adults can be misled about youth's participation in criminal acts, and how science can be manipulated by prevailing attitudes toward youth. The author strikes a necessary balance between the viewpoints of media providers and those seeking to restrict media or young people's access to them. And the book brings scientific and intellectual rigor to culturally and politically charged issues as it covers: Violence in the media.Media portrayals of crime and youth.Research on violent television programs, video games, and other media as causes of crime.Effects of pornography on behavior.Public policy, censorship, and First Amendment issues.Adolescents, Crime, and the Media is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, professionals, and clinicians across such interrelated disciplines as developmental psychology, sociology, educational policy, criminology/criminal justice, child and school psychology, and media law.
We anticipate the book to be a definitive text on the subject that explores all aspects of the study of adrenal cancer and the treatment of patients with the disease. Chapters will cover epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetics, cancer stem cells, historic and emerging therapies, mouse models of adrenal cancer, new developments in tumor profiling, worldwide collaborative groups and tumor registries together with resources for the practitioner and community of adrenal cancer scientists. We do not wish this book to compete with the other larger books in the Endocrine and Endocrine Surgery literature. In addition, it is not expected to cover benign adrenal diseases that have been covered in detail in other venues. We envision this book to be a very specialized and exhaustive text on basic, translational and clinical aspects of adrenal cancer.
The current explosion of new areas of controversy in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in adults and young adults makes this comprehensive book a much needed reference for hematologists and oncologists. This book assembles leading authorities from around the globe to cover the full spectrum of ALL subtypes and their treatments. Specific topics of discussion include indications for allogeneic bone marrow transplant in first complete remission, the role of minimal residual disease in making treatment decisions, the treatment of young adults, and the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome positive ALL with the advent of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This is the first book to focus exclusively on the adult ALL patient. It provides a complete overview of diagnosis, molecular pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment for this important patient population.
This volume will cover a series of reviews on stem cells including adult and embryonic stem cells. Speakers were invited to present these talks during the Stem Cell Symposia in fall of 2010, in Samsun, Turkey. Unique aspect of this volume is that it brings a multidisciplinary aspect of stem cells extracted from a symposium.
The applicability of attachment theory and research to social work and social policy relating to infants and children is well-established. Yet, its usefulness for enhancing the understanding of adults and their needs, both individually and as a group, has been less featured in the attachment literature. Adult Attachment in Clinical Social Work Practice is a wide-ranging look at attachment theory and research, its application to adults, and its natural fit with the social work profession. This edited volume covers the applicability of adult attachment theory to the clinical social work profession's various domains that include human behavior, practice, policy, research, and social work education. It addresses the broad spectrum of clinical social work, including practice in a variety of public and private settings and with a number of diverse populations, including racial-ethnic groups, gays and lesbians, trauma survivors, and child welfare parents. The book highlights the underemphasized contribution of the social work profession to the development of attachment theory and research.
This is comprehensive overview of a vital area of scientific enquiry, which covers a broad spectrum of issues. With contributions from some of the key researchers in the field, Adult Stem Cells: Biology and Methods of Analysis offers readers a historical perspective as well as unique insights into cutting-edge thoughts. The volume contextualizes the recent discovery of stem/progenitor cell populations resident in many adult tissues and organs. It confronts the complexities scientists face in trying to validate these cells, while it also describes and critically evaluates the methods currently used to assess stem cell self-renewal. The chapters also seek to distinguish this process from other aspects of cell survival, such as the regulation of life span, senescence, and immortalization at a molecular level. The monograph begins with a section that examine the basic biology of adult stem cells, including chapters on the emerging role of microRNAs in regulating their fate and the molecular mechanisms that govern their self-renewal, the book moves on to analyze the varying methodologies employed in characterizing these elusive elements of our genetic make-up. The second section details in-vivo lineage tracing of tissue-specific stem cells, explores the neural stem cell paradigm, and considers the function of ABC transporters and aldehyde dehydrogenase in adult stem-cell biology. The final section shifts the focus to the life-span regulation and immortalization and features a chapter on the cancer stem cell paradigm. This is an authoritative volume on one of the frontiers of genetic research, and will serve as a valuable resource, not just for established scientists but also for those now entering the field of stem cell biology.
Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optimal sources of energy to bind, form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing.
Designed as a text not only for students and researchers, but anyone interested in green technology, Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts offers the reader a vast overview of the state-of-the-art in renewable energies. The typical chapter sets out to explain the fundamentals of a new technology as well as providing its context in the greater field. With contributions from nearly 100 leading researchers across the globe, the text serves as an important and timely look into this rapidly expanding field. The 40 chapters that comprise Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts are handily organized into the following 8 sections: · Introduction and Brazil's biofuel success · Smokeless biomass pyrolysis for advanced biofuels production and global biochar carbon sequestration · Cellulosic Biofuels · Photobiological production of advanced biofuels with synthetic biology · Lipids-based biodiesels · Life-cycle energy and economics analysis · High-value algal products and biomethane · Electrofuels
This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us "purple with rage" or "green with envy" and cause us to "see red." Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today's complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today's color imaging.
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