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Digital Disciplines

by Joe Weinman

Leverage digital technologies to achieve competitive advantage through better processes, products, customer relationships and innovation How does Information Technology enable competitive advantage? Digital Disciplines details four strategies that exploit today's digital technologies to create unparalleled customer value. Using non-technical language, this book describes the blueprints that any company, large or small, can use to gain or retain market leadership, based on insights derived from examining modern digital giants such as Amazon and Netflix as well as established firms such as GE, Nike, and UPS. Companies can develop a competitive edge through four digital disciplines--information excellence, solution leadership, collective intimacy, and accelerated innovation--that exploit cloud computing, big data and analytics, mobile and wireline networks, social media, and the Internet of Things. These four disciplines represent the extension and evolution of the value disciplines of operational excellence, product leadership, and customer intimacy originally defined by Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersema in their bestselling business classic The Discipline of Market Leaders. Operational excellence must now encompass information excellence--leveraging automation, information, analytics, and sophisticated algorithms to make processes faster, better, and more cost-effective, as well as to generate new revenue Product leadership must be extended to solution leadership--smart digital products ranging from wind turbines to wearables connected to each other, cloud services, social networks, and partner ecosystems Customer intimacy is evolving to collective intimacy--as face-to-face relationships not only go online, but are collectively analyzed to provide individually targeted recommendations ranging from books and movies to patient-specific therapies Traditional innovation is no longer enough--accelerated innovation goes beyond open innovation to exploit crowdsourcing, idea markets, challenges, and contest economics to dramatically improve processes, products, and relationships This book provides a strategy framework, empirical data, case studies, deep insights, and pragmatic steps for any enterprise to follow and attain market leadership in today's digital era. Digital Disciplines can be exploited by existing firms or start-ups to disrupt established ways of doing business through innovative, digitally enabled value propositionsto win in competitive markets in today's digital era.

How to Beat the Market Makers at Their Own Game

by Fausto Pugliese

The basic skills for becoming a successful trader from a master of the gameWritten by Fausto Pugliese (founder and CEO of Cyber Trading University) this must-have resource offers a hands-on guide to learning the ins and outs of active trading. How to Beat the Market Makers at Their Own Game gives professionals, as well as those relatively new to investing, a behind-the-scenes look at the inner workings of the marketplace and a comprehensive overview of basic trading techniques. The book explains how to apply the trading strategies of acclaimed trader Fausto Pugliese. Step by step the author covers the most common market maker setups, shows how to identify market maker traps, and most importantly, reveals how to follow the direction of the lead market maker in an individual stock.Throughout the book, Pugliese puts the spotlight on Level II quotes to help investors understand how market makers drive prices and manipulate the market. This handy resource is filled with the tools needed to interpret market maker activity so traders can truly understand the market and trade accordingly.Offers an accessible guide for developing the investing skills to trade with confidenceFilled with the real-world trading experiences and techniques of Fausto PuglieseCovers simple technical patterns that are important in day tradingIncludes a website with exercises to help master the book's techniquesHow to Beat the Market Makers at their Own Game will become your well-thumbed resource for learning what it takes to succeed in short-term stock trading.

The Prop Trader's Chronicles

by Francis J. Chan

A practical guide to profiting from the strategies of professional proprietary tradersToday's technology allows traders to make faster, more price-sensitive trades and to better read the flow of market information and transactions--opening the way to a wider variety of short-term trading strategies. The Prop Trader's Chronicles unveils these strategies and techniques, which have long been the province of proprietary trading firms and other professional stock traders.This reliable guide describes author Francis Chan's experience as a prop trader in an engaging narrative, but at the same time provides an in-depth explanation of strategies employed by proprietary traders utilizing direct access technologies, Level II quotes, time and sales feeds, and electronic communication networks. Along the way, you'll be introduced to a variety of strategies involved in the rapid day trading of stocks, including: scalping, rebate trading, and advanced reading of time and sales transactions to detect short-term swings. Chang also reveals how to use time and sales data as the modern-day equivalent of 'reading the tape.'Shows active independent traders how they can perform at a higher level by replicating the professional strategies of prop tradersOffers valuable insights on how traders can 'read the tape' and better detect short term market swingsDescribes a variety of prop trading strategies, from electronic scalping to statistical arbitrageThe Prop Trader's Chronicles provides a solid foundation for traders looking to improve their performance. With this book as your guide, you'll quickly discover what it really takes to make it in today's competitive markets.

The Trend Following Bible

by Andrew Abraham David Druz

A proven approach to trading success based on the best commodity trading advisorsProfiting from long-term trends is the most common path to success for traders. The challenge is recognizing the emergence of a trend and determining where to enter and exit the market. The Trend Following Bible shows individual traders and investors how to profit from this approach by trading like today's top commodity trading advisors.In this book, author Andrew Abraham stresses the importance of a disciplined, consistent methodology, with stringent risk controls, that allows you to catch big trends, while limiting losses on unprofitable trades. By trading in this manner, he shows you how to successfully achieve market-beating returns over the long term and multiple your trading capital along the way.Reveals exactly how top commodity trading advisors operate and how individuals can incorporate these methods into their everyday trading endeavorsAddresses key issues like position sizing and risk control, which are critical to trading success, but often underemphasized in other trading literatureHighlights how to effectively execute the trading strategies outlinedEngaging and accessible, The Trend Following Bible will put you in a better position to profit as you make more informed trading decisions.

Unleashing the Power of IT

by Dan Roberts

Go from the "IT guy" to trusted business partnerIf you're in IT, quite a lot is expected of you and your team: be technologically advanced, business-minded, customer-focused, and financially astute, all at once. In the face of unforgiving competition, rampant globalization, and demanding customers, business leaders are discovering that it's absolutely essential to have a strong, active partner keeping a firm hand on the decisions and strategies surrounding information technology. Unleashing the Power of IT provides tangible, hard-hitting, real-world strategies, techniques, and approaches that will immediately transform your IT workforce and culture, presenting the new mindset, skill set, and tool set necessary for IT leaders to thrive in today's challenging environment.Includes new discussion on social mediaOffers online access to the IT Skill Builder Competency Assessment ToolFeatures top ten lists of tips and techniques, proven frameworks, and practical guidance to help you launch and sustain your IT culture change and professional development initiativesProfiling several world-class organizations that have implemented the principles in this book, Unleashing the Power of IT reveals the best practices to get you on the path to implementation.

Peripheral Vision

by Zabet Patterson

In 1959, the electronics manufacturer Stromberg-Carlson produced the S-C 4020, a device that allowed mainframe computers to present and preserve images. In the mainframe era, the output of text and image was quite literally peripheral; the S-C 4020 -- a strange and elaborate apparatus, with a cathode ray screen, a tape deck, a buffer unit, a film camera, and a photo-paper camera -- produced most of the computer graphics of the late 1950s and early 1960s. At Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, the S-C 4020 became a crucial part of ongoing encounters among art, science, and technology. In this book, Zabet Patterson examines the extraordinary uses to which the Bell Labs SC-2040 was put between 1961 and 1972, exploring a series of early computer art projects shaped by the special computational affordances of the S-C 4020. The S-C 4020 produced tabular data, graph plotting and design drawings, grid projections, and drawings of axes and vectors; it made previously impossible visualizations possible. Among the works Patterson describes are E. E. Zajac's short film of an orbiting satellite, which drew on the machine's graphic capacities as well as the mainframe's calculations; a groundbreaking exhibit of "computer generated pictures" by Béla Julesz and Michael Noll, two scientists interested in visualization; animations by Kenneth Knowlton and the Bell Labs artist-in-residence Stan VanDerBeek; and Lillian Schwartz's "cybernetic" film Pixillation.Arguing for the centrality of a peripheral, Patterson makes a case for considering computational systems not simply as machines but in their cultural and historical context.

Data-Driven Security

by Jay Jacobs Bob Rudis

Uncover hidden patterns of data and respond with countermeasures Security professionals need all the tools at their disposal to increase their visibility in order to prevent security breaches and attacks. This careful guide explores two of the most powerful ? data analysis and visualization. You'll soon understand how to harness and wield data, from collection and storage to management and analysis as well as visualization and presentation. Using a hands-on approach with real-world examples, this book shows you how to gather feedback, measure the effectiveness of your security methods, and make better decisions. Everything in this book will have practical application for information security professionals. Helps IT and security professionals understand and use data, so they can thwart attacks and understand and visualize vulnerabilities in their networks Includes more than a dozen real-world examples and hands-on exercises that demonstrate how to analyze security data and intelligence and translate that information into visualizations that make plain how to prevent attacks Covers topics such as how to acquire and prepare security data, use simple statistical methods to detect malware, predict rogue behavior, correlate security events, and more Written by a team of well-known experts in the field of security and data analysis Lock down your networks, prevent hacks, and thwart malware by improving visibility into the environment, all through the power of data and Security Using Data Analysis, Visualization, and Dashboards.

Windows PowerShell 2.0 Scripting für Administratoren

by Tobias Weltner Dr.

Wenn Sie sich für die Automatisierung der Verwaltung von Windows-Systemen mit den vielfältigen Möglichkeiten von Windows PowerShell 2.0 interessieren, finden Sie in diesem Buch zahlreiche Beispielskripts aus allen wichtigen administrativen Bereichen. Einer der bekanntesten Scripting-Experten Deutschlands stellt Ihnen die wichtigsten Cmdlets vor und liefert Ihnen viele Beispielskripts, die Sie sofort einsetzen, anpassen und erweitern können. Dieses Buch ist ein Nachschlagewerk für die PowerShell-Praxis, die vielen hilfreichen Codebeispiele in diesem Buch sind ohne größeres Vorwissen für den Praktiker sofort einsetzbar.

Interface

by Branden Hookway

In this book, Branden Hookway considers the interface not as technology but as a form of relationship with technology. The interface, Hookway proposes, is at once ubiquitous and hidden from view. It is both the bottleneck through which our relationship to technology must pass and a productive encounter embedded within the use of technology. It is a site of contestation -- between human and machine, between the material and the social, between the political and the technological -- that both defines and elides differences. A virtuoso in multiple disciplines, Hookway offers a theory of the interface that draws on cultural theory, political theory, philosophy, art, architecture, new media, and the history of science and technology. He argues that the theoretical mechanism of the interface offers a powerful approach to questions of the human relationship to technology. Hookway finds the origin of the term interface in nineteenth-century fluid dynamics and traces its migration to thermodynamics, information theory, and cybernetics. He discusses issues of subject formation, agency, power, and control, within contexts that include technology, politics, and the social role of games. He considers the technological augmentation of humans and the human-machine system, discussing notions of embodied intelligence. Hookway views the figure of the subject as both receiver and active producer in processes of subjectification. The interface, he argues, stands in a relation both alien and intimate, vertiginous and orienting to those who cross its threshold.

Burdens of Proof

by Jean-François Blanchette

The gradual disappearance of paper and its familiar evidential qualities affects almost every dimension of contemporary life. From health records to ballots, almost all documents are now digitized at some point of their life cycle, easily copied, altered, and distributed. In Burdens of Proof, Jean-François Blanchette examines the challenge of defining a new evidentiary framework for electronic documents, focusing on the design of a digital equivalent to handwritten signatures. From the blackboards of mathematicians to the halls of legislative assemblies, Blanchette traces the path of such an equivalent: digital signatures based on the mathematics of public-key cryptography. In the mid-1990s, cryptographic signatures formed the centerpiece of a worldwide wave of legal reform and of an ambitious cryptographic research agenda that sought to build privacy, anonymity, and accountability into the very infrastructure of the Internet. Yet markets for cryptographic products collapsed in the aftermath of the dot-com boom and bust along with cryptography's social projects. Blanchette describes the trials of French bureaucracies as they wrestled with the application of electronic signatures to real estate contracts, birth certificates, and land titles, and tracks the convoluted paths through which electronic documents acquire moral authority. These paths suggest that the material world need not merely succumb to the virtual but, rather, can usefully inspire it. Indeed, Blanchette argues, in renewing their engagement with the material world, cryptographers might also find the key to broader acceptance of their design goals.

Atari Age: The Emergence of Video Games in America

by Michael Z. Newman

Beginning with the release of the Magnavox Odyssey and Pong in 1972, video games, whether played in arcades and taverns or in family rec rooms, became part of popular culture, like television. In fact, video games were sometimes seen as an improvement on television because they spurred participation rather than passivity. These "space-age pinball machines" gave coin-operated games a high-tech and more respectable profile. In Atari Age, Michael Newman charts the emergence of video games in America from ball-and-paddle games to hits like Space Invaders and Pac-Man, describing their relationship to other amusements and technologies and showing how they came to be identified with the middle class, youth, and masculinity.Newman shows that the "new media" of video games were understood in varied, even contradictory ways. They were family fun (but mainly for boys), better than television (but possibly harmful), and educational (but a waste of computer time). Drawing on a range of sources -- including the games and their packaging; coverage in the popular, trade, and fan press; social science research of the time; advertising and store catalogs; and representations in movies and television -- Newman describes the series of cultural contradictions through which the identity of the emerging medium worked itself out. Would video games embody middle-class respectability or suffer from the arcade's unsavory reputation? Would they foster family togetherness or allow boys to escape from domesticity? Would they make the new home computer a tool for education or just a glorified toy? Then, as now, many worried about the impact of video games on players, while others celebrated video games for familiarizing kids with technology essential for the information age.

Debugging Game History: A Critical Lexicon

by Raiford Guins Henry Lowood

Even as the field of game studies has flourished, critical historical studies of games have lagged behind other areas of research. Histories have generally been fact-by-fact chronicles; fundamental terms of game design and development, technology, and play have rarely been examined in the context of their historical, etymological, and conceptual underpinnings. This volume attempts to "debug" the flawed historiography of video games. It offers original essays on key concepts in game studies, arranged as in a lexicon -- from "Amusement Arcade" to "Embodiment" and "Game Art" to "Simulation" and "World Building." Written by scholars and practitioners from a variety of disciplines, including game development, curatorship, media archaeology, cultural studies, and technology studies, the essays offer a series of distinctive critical "takes" on historical topics. The majority of essays look at game history from the outside in; some take deep dives into the histories of play and simulation to provide context for the development of electronic and digital games; others take on such technological components of games as code and audio. Not all essays are history or historical etymology -- there is an analysis of game design, and a discussion of intellectual property -- but they nonetheless raise questions for historians to consider. Taken together, the essays offer a foundation for the emerging study of game history. ContributorsMarcelo Aranda, Brooke Belisle, Caetlin Benson-Allott, Stephanie Boluk, Jennifer deWinter, J. P. Dyson, Kate Edwards, Mary Flanagan, Jacob Gaboury, William Gibbons, Raiford Guins, Erkki Huhtamo, Don Ihde, Jon Ippolito, Katherine Isbister, Mikael Jakobsson, Steven E. Jones, Jesper Juul, Eric Kaltman, Matthew G. Kirschenbaum, Carly A. Kocurek, Peter Krapp, Patrick LeMieux, Henry Lowood, Esther MacCallum-Stewart, Ken S. McAllister, Nick Monfort, David Myers, James Newman, Jenna Ng, Michael Nitsche, Laine Nooney, Hector Postigo, Jas Purewal, Reneé H. Reynolds, Judd Ethan Ruggill, Marie-Laure Ryan, Katie Salen Tekinbas, Anastasia Salter, Mark Sample, Bobby Schweizer, John Sharp, Miguel Sicart, Rebecca Elisabeth Skinner, Melanie Swalwell, David Thomas, Samuel Tobin, Emma Witkowski, Mark J.P. Wolf

Putting People On The Map: Protecting Confidentiality With Linked Social-spatial Data

by National Research Council of the National Academies

Precise, accurate spatial information linked to social and behavioral data is revolutionizing social science by opening new questions for investigation and improving understanding of human behavior in its environmental context. At the same time, precise spatial data make it more likely that individuals can be identified, breaching the promise of confidentiality made when the data were collected. Because norms of science and government agencies favor open access to all scientific data, the tension between the benefits of open access and the risks associated with potential breach of confidentiality pose significant challenges to researchers, research sponsors, scientific institutions, and data archivists. Putting People on the Map finds that several technical approaches for making data available while limiting risk have potential, but none is adequate on its own or in combination. This book offers recommendations for education, training, research, and practice to researchers, professional societies, federal agencies, institutional review boards, and data stewards.

Application Interoperability: Microsoft® .NET and J2EE

by Microsoft Corporation

Get the best information available for enabling application interoperability between the Microsoft .NET and Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) development platforms. This book offers practical and prescriptive guidance for developers responsible for creating enterprise-level business solutions where platform interoperability is a requirement and a reality. If you're experienced with one set of enterprise technologies but new to the other, you can ramp up quickly with focused introductions written from either the .NET or Java developer perspective. The book delivers expert technical information and recommendations for using Web services, runtime bridges, and asynchronous techniques; interoperability methods for point-to-point and resource tiers; and designing application architecture for interoperability. The companion CD-ROM includes a functional sample application, trial software, and a complete eBook. PATTERNS & PRACTICES guides are reviewed and approved by Microsoft engineering teams, consultants, partners, and customers?delivering accurate, real-world information that's been technically validated and tested. A Note Regarding the CD or DVD The print version of this book ships with a CD or DVD. For those customers purchasing one of the digital formats in which this book is available, we are pleased to offer the CD/DVD content as a free download via O'Reilly Media's Digital Distribution services. To download this content, please visit O'Reilly's web site, search for the title of this book to find its catalog page, and click on the link below the cover image (Examples, Companion Content, or Practice Files). Note that while we provide as much of the media content as we are able via free download, we are sometimes limited by licensing restrictions. Please direct any questions or concerns to booktech@oreilly.com.

Lee de Forest

by Mike Adams

The life-long inventor, Lee de Forest invented the three-element vacuum tube used between 1906 and 1916 as a detector, amplifier, and oscillator of radio waves. Beginning in 1918 he began to develop a light valve, a device for writing and reading sound using light patterns. While he received many patents for his process, he was initially ignored by the film industry. In order to promote and demonstrate his process he made several hundred sound short films, he rented space for their showing; he sold the tickets and did the publicity to gain audiences for his invention. Lee de Forest officially brought sound to film in 1919. Lee De Forest: King of Radio, Television, and Film is about both invention and early film making; de Forest as the scientist and producer, director, and writer of the content. This book tells the story of de Forest's contribution in changing the history of film through the incorporation of sound. The text includes primary source historical material, U.S. patents and richly-illustrated photos of Lee de Forest's experiments. Readers will greatly benefit from an understanding of the transition from silent to audio motion pictures, the impact this had on the scientific community and the popular culture, as well as the economics of the entertainment industry.

Turing's Legacy: Developments from Turing's Ideas in Logic

by Rod Downey

Alan Turing was an inspirational figure who is now recognised as a genius of modern mathematics. In addition to leading the Allied forces' code-breaking effort at Bletchley Park in World War II, he proposed the theoretical foundations of modern computing and anticipated developments in areas from information theory to computer chess. His ideas have been extraordinarily influential in modern mathematics and this book traces such developments by bringing together essays by leading experts in logic, artificial intelligence, computability theory and related areas. Together, they give insight into this fascinating man, the development of modern logic, and the history of ideas. The articles within cover a diverse selection of topics, such as the development of formal proof, differing views on the Church–Turing thesis, the development of combinatorial group theory, and Turing's work on randomness which foresaw the ideas of algorithmic randomness that would emerge many years later.

Moving without a Body

by Stamatia Portanova

Digital technologies offer the possibility of capturing, storing, and manipulating movement, abstracting it from the body and transforming it into numerical information. In Moving without a Body, Stamatia Portanova considers what really happens when the physicality of movement is translated into a numerical code by a technological system. Drawing on the radical empiricism of Gilles Deleuze and Alfred North Whitehead, she argues that this does not amount to a technical assessment of software's capacity to record motion but requires a philosophical rethinking of what movement itself is, or can become. Discussing the development of different audiovisual tools and the shift from analog to digital, she focuses on some choreographic realizations of this evolution, including works by Loie Fuller and Merce Cunningham. Throughout, Portanova considers these technologies and dances as ways to think -- rather than just perform or perceive -- movement. She distinguishes the choreographic thought from the performance: a body performs a movement, and a mind thinks or choreographs a dance. Similarly, she sees the move from analog to digital as a shift in conception rather than simply in technical realization. Analyzing choreographic technologies for their capacity to redesign the way movement is thought, Moving without a Body offers an ambitiously conceived reflection on the ontological implications of the encounter between movement and technological systems.

Computing

by Paul E. Ceruzzi

The history of computing could be told as the story of hardware and software, or the story of the Internet, or the story of "smart" hand-held devices, with subplots involving IBM, Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, and Twitter. In this concise and accessible account of the invention and development of digital technology, computer historian Paul Ceruzzi offers a broader and more useful perspective. He identifies four major threads that run throughout all of computing's technological development: digitization--the coding of information, computation, and control in binary form, ones and zeros; the convergence of multiple streams of techniques, devices, and machines, yielding more than the sum of their parts; the steady advance of electronic technology, as characterized famously by "Moore's Law"; and the human-machine interface. Ceruzzi guides us through computing history, telling how a Bell Labs mathematician coined the word "digital" in 1942 (to describe a high-speed method of calculating used in anti-aircraft devices), and recounting the development of the punch card (for use in the 1890 U. S. Census). He describes the ENIAC, built for scientific and military applications; the UNIVAC, the first general purpose computer; and ARPANET, the Internet's precursor. Ceruzzi's account traces the world-changing evolution of the computer from a room-size ensemble of machinery to a "minicomputer" to a desktop computer to a pocket-sized smart phone. He describes the development of the silicon chip, which could store ever-increasing amounts of data and enabled ever-decreasing device size. He visits that hotbed of innovation, Silicon Valley, and brings the story up to the present with the Internet, the World Wide Web, and social networking.

Recoding Gender

by Janet Abbate

Today, women earn a relatively low percentage of computer science degrees and hold proportionately few technical computing jobs. Meanwhile, the stereotype of the male "computer geek" seems to be everywhere in popular culture. Few people know that women were a significant presence in the early decades of computing in both the United States and Britain. Indeed, programming in postwar years was considered woman's work (perhaps in contrast to the more manly task of building the computers themselves). In Recoding Gender, Janet Abbate explores the untold history of women in computer science and programming from the Second World War to the late twentieth century. Demonstrating how gender has shaped the culture of computing, she offers a valuable historical perspective on today's concerns over women's underrepresentation in the field. Abbate describes the experiences of women who worked with the earliest electronic digital computers: Colossus, the wartime codebreaking computer at Bletchley Park outside London, and the American ENIAC, developed to calculate ballistics. She examines postwar methods for recruiting programmers, and the 1960s redefinition of programming as the more masculine "software engineering." She describes the social and business innovations of two early software entrepreneurs, Elsie Shutt and Stephanie Shirley; and she examines the career paths of women in academic computer science. Abbate's account of the bold and creative strategies of women who loved computing work, excelled at it, and forged successful careers will provide inspiration for those working to change gendered computing culture.

HPC@Green IT

by Ralf Gruber Vincent Keller Erich Strohmaier

The authors present methods to reduce computer energy consumption by means of a better usage of a specific set of resources and maximizing the efficiency of the running applications. The processor frequency is adjusted to the needs of the running job, leading to a power drop by a factor of 2 and doubling battery life time of laptops. It is shown how computer resources can be optimally adapted to application needs, reducing job run time. Examples on how to optimize algorithms on single node and parallel RISC architectures are discussed. The job-related data are stored and reused to help computer managers to replace machines.

Aesthetics of Interaction in Digital Art

by Katja Kwastek Niamh Warde

Since the 1960s, artworks that involve the participation of the spectator have received extensive scholarly attention. Yet interactive artworks using digital media still present a challenge for academic art history. In this book, Katja Kwastek argues that the particular aesthetic experience enabled by these new media works can open up new perspectives for our understanding of art and media alike. Kwastek, herself an art historian, offers a set of theoretical and methodological tools that are suitable for understanding and analyzing not only new media art but also other contemporary art forms. Addressing both the theoretician and the practitioner, Kwastek provides an introduction to the history and the terminology of interactive art, a theory of the aesthetics of interaction, and exemplary case studies of interactive media art. Kwastek lays the historical and theoretical groundwork with discussions of processual strategies of twentieth-century art and theories of aesthetic experience, process aesthetics, play, and performance. She then develops an aesthetics of interaction, discussing such aspects as real space and data space, temporal structures, instrumental and phenomenal perspectives, and the relationship between materiality and interpretability. Finally, she applies her theory to specific works of interactive media art, including narratives in virtual and real space, interactive installations, and performance -- with case studies of works by Olia Lialina, Susanne Berkenheger, Stefan Schemat, Teri Rueb, Lynn Hershman, Agnes Heged's, Tmema, David Rokeby, Sonia Cillari, and Blast Theory.

How Not to Network a Nation: The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet

by Benjamin Peters

Between 1959 and 1989, Soviet scientists and officials made numerous attempts to network their nation -- to construct a nationwide computer network. None of these attempts succeeded, and the enterprise had been abandoned by the time the Soviet Union fell apart. Meanwhile, ARPANET, the American precursor to the Internet, went online in 1969. Why did the Soviet network, with top-level scientists and patriotic incentives, fail while the American network succeeded? In How Not to Network a Nation, Benjamin Peters reverses the usual cold war dualities and argues that the American ARPANET took shape thanks to well-managed state subsidies and collaborative research environments and the Soviet network projects stumbled because of unregulated competition among self-interested institutions, bureaucrats, and others. The capitalists behaved like socialists while the socialists behaved like capitalists. After examining the midcentury rise of cybernetics, the science of self-governing systems, and the emergence in the Soviet Union of economic cybernetics, Peters complicates this uneasy role reversal while chronicling the various Soviet attempts to build a "unified information network." Drawing on previously unknown archival and historical materials, he focuses on the final, and most ambitious of these projects, the All-State Automated System of Management (OGAS), and its principal promoter, Viktor M. Glushkov. Peters describes the rise and fall of OGAS -- its theoretical and practical reach, its vision of a national economy managed by network, the bureaucratic obstacles it encountered, and the institutional stalemate that killed it. Finally, he considers the implications of the Soviet experience for today's networked world.

Homo Ludens

by Johan Huizinga

"A happier age than ours once made bold to call our species by the name of Homo Sapiens. In the course of time we have come to realize that we are not so reasonable after all as the Eighteenth Century with its worship of reason and naive optimism, though us; "hence moder fashion inclines to designate our species as Homo Faber: Man the Maker. But though faber may not be quite so dubious as sapiens it is, as a name specific of the human being, even less appropriate, seeing that many animals too are makers. There is a third function, howver, applicable to both human and animal life, and just as important as reasoning and making--namely, playing. it seems to me that next to Homo Faber, and perhaps on the same level as Homo Sapiens, Homo Ludens, Man the Player, deserves a place in our nomenclature."--from the Foreward, by Johan Huizinga

ENIAC in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

by Mark Priestley Crispin Rope Thomas Haigh

Conceived in 1943, completed in 1945, and decommissioned in 1955, ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first general-purpose programmable electronic computer. But ENIAC was more than just a milestone on the road to the modern computer. During its decade of operational life, ENIAC calculated sines and cosines and tested for statistical outliers, plotted the trajectories of bombs and shells, and ran the first numerical weather simulations. ENIAC in Action tells the whole story for the first time, from ENIAC's design, construction, testing, and use to its afterlife as part of computing folklore. It highlights the complex relationship of ENIAC and its designers to the revolutionary approaches to computer architecture and coding first documented by John von Neumann in 1945.Within this broad sweep, the authors emphasize the crucial but previously neglected years of 1947 to 1948, when ENIAC was reconfigured to run what the authors claim was the first modern computer program to be executed: a simulation of atomic fission for Los Alamos researchers. The authors view ENIAC from diverse perspectives -- as a machine of war, as the "first computer," as a material artifact constantly remade by its users, and as a subject of (contradictory) historical narratives. They integrate the history of the machine and its applications, describing the mathematicians, scientists, and engineers who proposed and designed ENIAC as well as the men -- and particularly the women who -- built, programmed, and operated it.

The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics

by Hans Dieter Dahmen Siegmund Brandt

The aim of this book is to explain the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum mechanics by means of visualization. Computer-generated illustrations in color are used extensively throughout the text, helping to establish the relation between quantum mechanics--wave functions, interference, atomic structure, and so forth--and classical physics--point mechanics, statistical mechanics, and wave optics. Even more important, by studying the pictures in parallel with the text, readers develop an intuition for such notoriously abstract phenomena as the tunnel effect excitation and decay of metastable states wave-packet motion within a well systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles free wave packets and scattering in 3 dimensions angular-momentum decomposition stationary bound states in various 3-dimensional potentials hybrid states Kepler motion of wave packets in the Coulomb field spin and magnetic resonance Illustrations from experiments in a variety of fields, including chemistry, and molecular, atomic, nuclear, and particle physics, underline the basic as well as the practical importance of quantum mechanics. In the present, fourth edition all computer graphics are presented in full color. It also contains additional physics topics such as hybridization. Praise for Previous Editions "The book is highly recommended as a complement to any standard textbook in quantum mechanics, but it will also be valuable to all of us who studied quantum mechanics without the pictures." -- International Journal of Quantum Chemistry "This book would be an excellent basis for the study of special topics in a quantum physics course. Most serious students of physics and all of their teachers will want to consider having this orderly and graphic outline of introductory quantum theory at their fingertips." -- American Journal of Physics "Their aim is the presentation of the 'principal ideas of wave mechanics' in such a way that students can build a quantum intuition out of their graphics." -- Scientific American "This is a unique book. It does not provide a complete course in quantum theory, but as a companion work of reference it should be quite useful to students in providing insights into the dynamical structure of the theory." -- Nature

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