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Spatial Data Mining

by Deren Li Shuliang Wang Deyi Li

#65533; This book is an updated version of awell-received book previously published in Chinese by Science Press of China(the first edition in 2006 and the second in 2013). It offers a systematic andpractical overview of spatial data mining, which combines computer science andgeo-spatial information science, allowing each field to profit from theknowledge and techniques of the other. To address the spatiotemporalspecialties of spatial data, the authors introduce the key concepts andalgorithms of the data field, cloud model, mining view, and Deren Li methods. The data field method captures the interactions between spatial objects bydiffusing the data contribution from a universe of samples to a universe ofpopulation, thereby bridging the gap between the data model and the recognitionmodel. The cloud model is a qualitative method that utilizes quantitativenumerical characters to bridge the gap between pure data and linguisticconcepts. The mining view method discriminates the different requirements byusing scale, hierarchy, and granularity in order to uncover the anisotropy ofspatial data mining. The Deren Li method performs data preprocessing to prepareit for further knowledge discovery by selecting a weight for iteration in orderto clean the observed spatial data as much as possible. In addition to theessential algorithms and techniques, the book provides application examples ofspatial data mining in geographic information science and remote sensing. Thepractical projects include spatiotemporal video data mining for protectingpublic security, serial image mining on nighttime lights for assessing theseverity of the Syrian Crisis, and the applications in the government project'the Belt and Road Initiatives'.

Spatial Database for GPS Wildlife Tracking Data

by Ferdinando Urbano Francesca Cagnacci

This book guides animal ecologists, biologists and wildlife and data managers through a step-by-step procedure to build their own advanced software platforms to manage and process wildlife tracking data. This unique, problem-solving-oriented guide focuses on how to extract the most from GPS animal tracking data, while preventing error propagation and optimizing analysis performance. Based on the open source PostgreSQL/PostGIS spatial database, the software platform will allow researchers and managers to integrate and harmonize GPS tracking data together with animal characteristics, environmental data sets, including remote sensing image time series, and other bio-logged data, such as acceleration data. Moreover, the book shows how the powerful R statistical environment can be integrated into the software platform, either connecting the database with R, or embedding the same tools in the database through the PostgreSQL extension Pl/R. The client/server architecture allows users to remotely connect a number of software applications that can be used as a database front end, including GIS software and WebGIS. Each chapter offers a real-world data management and processing problem that is discussed in its biological context; solutions are proposed and exemplified through ad hoc SQL code, progressively exploring the potential of spatial database functions applied to the respective wildlife tracking case. Finally, wildlife tracking management issues are discussed in the increasingly widespread framework of collaborative science and data sharing. GPS animal telemetry data from a real study, freely available online, are used to demonstrate the proposed examples. This book is also suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, if accompanied by the basics of databases

Spatial Econometrics using Microdata

by Di Go Legros Jean Dubé

This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares approach.This book is a popularized reference for students looking to work with spatialized data, but who do not have the advanced statistical theoretical basics.

Spatial Network Data

by Dev Oliver

This brief explores two of the main challenges of spatial network data analysis: the many connected components in the spatial network and the many candidates that have to be processed. Within this book, these challenges are conceptualized, well-defined problems are explored, and critical techniques are discussed. The process of summarizing spatial network data entails finding a compact description or representation of observations or activities on large spatial or spatiotemporal networks. However, summarizing spatial network data can be computationally challenging for various reasons, depending on the domain. The content has applications for professionals, organizations, and researchers in transportation safety, public safety, public health, disaster response, and related fields.

Spatial Temporal Patterns for Action-Oriented Perception in Roving Robots II

by Paolo Arena Luca Patanè

This book presents the result of a joint effort from different European Institutions within the framework of the EU funded project called SPARK II, devoted to device an insect brain computational model, useful to be embedded into autonomous robotic agents. Part I reports the biological background on Drosophila melanogaster with particular attention to the main centers which are used as building blocks for the implementation of the insect brain computational model. Part II reports the mathematical approach to model the Central Pattern Generator used for the gait generation in a six-legged robot. Also the Reaction-diffusion principles in non-linear lattices are exploited to develop a compact internal representation of a dynamically changing environment for behavioral planning. In Part III a software/hardware framework, developed to integrate the insect brain computational model in a simulated/real robotic platform, is illustrated. The different robots used for the experiments are also described. Moreover the problems related to the vision system were addressed proposing robust solutions for object identification and feature extraction. Part IV includes the relevant scenarios used in the experiments to test the capabilities of the insect brain-inspired architecture taking as comparison the biological case. Experimental results are finally reported, whose multimedia can be found in the SPARK II web page: www. spark2. diees. unict. it

Spatial Visualization and Professional Competence: The Development Of Proficiency Among Digital Artists

by Andrew Paquette

The computer graphics (CG) industry is an attractive field for undergraduate students, but employers often find that graduates of CG art programmes are not proficient. The result is that many positions are left vacant, despite large numbers of job applicants. This book investigates how student CG artists develop proficiency. The subject is important to the rapidly growing number of educators in this sector, employers of graduates, and students who intend to develop proficiency for the purpose of obtaining employment. Educators will see why teaching software-oriented knowledge to students does not lead to proficiency, but that the development of problem-solving and visualisation skills do. This book follows a narrow focus, as students develop proficiency in a cognitively challenging task known as ‘NURBS modelling’. This task was chosen due to an observed relationship between students who succeeded in the task, and students who successfully obtained employment after graduation. In the study this is based on, readers will be shown that knowledge-based explanations for the development of proficiency do not adequately account for proficiency or expertise in this field, where visualisation has been observed to develop suddenly rather than over an extended period of time. This is an unusual but not unique observation. Other studies have shown rapid development of proficiency and expertise in certain professions, such as among telegraph operators, composers and chess players. Based on these observations, the book argues that threshold concepts play a key role in the development of expertise among CG artists.

Spatio-Temporal Data Streams

by Zdravko Galić

This SpringerBrief presents the fundamental concepts of a specialized class of data stream, spatio-temporal data streams, and demonstrates their distributed processing using Big Data frameworks and platforms. It explores a consistent framework which facilitates a thorough understanding of all different facets of the technology, from basic definitions to state-of-the-art techniques. Key topics include spatio-temporal continuous queries, distributed stream processing, SQL-like language embedding, and trajectory stream clustering. Over the course of the book, the reader will become familiar with spatio-temporal data streams management and data flow processing, which enables the analysis of huge volumes of location-aware continuous data streams. Applications range from mobile object tracking and real-time intelligent transportation systems to traffic monitoring and complex event processing. Spatio-Temporal Data Streams is a valuable resource for researchers studying spatio-temporal data streams and Big Data analytics, as well as data engineers and data scientists solving data management and analytics problems associated with this class of data.

Spatio-Temporal Databases

by Marcos R. Vieira Vassilis J. Tsotras

This brief presents several new query processing techniques, called complex motion pattern queries, specifically designed for very large spatio-temporal databases of moving objects. The brief begins with the definition of flexible pattern queries, which are powerful because of the integration of variables and motion patterns. This is followed by a summary of the expressive power of patterns and flexibility of pattern queries. The brief then present the Spatio-Temporal Pattern System (STPS) and density-based pattern queries. STPS databases contain millions of records with information about mobile phone calls and are designed around cellular towers and places of interest. Density-based pattern queries capture the aggregate behavior of trajectories as groups. Several evaluation algorithms are presented for finding groups of trajectories that move together in space and time, i. e. within a predefined distance to each other. Finally, the brief describes a generic framework, called DivDB, for diversifying query results. Two new evaluation methods, as well as several existing ones, are described and tested in the proposed DivDB framework. The efficiency and effectiveness of all the proposed complex motion pattern queries are demonstrated through an extensive experimental evaluation using real and synthetic spatio-temporal databases. This clear evaluation of new query processing techniques makes Spatio-Temporal Database a valuable resource for professionals and researchers studying databases, data mining, and pattern recognition.

Spatio-Temporal Recommendation in Social Media

by Hongzhi Yin Bin Cui

This book covers the major fundamentals of and the latest research on next-generation spatio-temporal recommendation systems in social media. It begins by describing the emerging characteristics of social media in the era of mobile internet, and explores the limitations to be found in current recommender techniques. The book subsequently presents a series of latent-class user models to simulate users' behaviors in decision-making processes, which effectively overcome the challenges arising from temporal dynamics of users' behaviors, user interest drift over geographical regions, data sparsity and cold start. Based on these well designed user models, the book develops effective multi-dimensional index structures such as Metric-Tree, and proposes efficient top-k retrieval algorithms to accelerate the process of online recommendation and support real-time recommendation. In addition, it offers methodologies and techniques for evaluating both the effectiveness and efficiency of spatio-temporal recommendation systems in social media. The book will appeal to a broad readership, from researchers and developers to undergraduate and graduate students.

Spatiotemporal Frequent Pattern Mining from Evolving Region Trajectories (SpringerBriefs in Computer Science)

by Berkay Aydin Rafal. A Angryk

This SpringerBrief provides an overview within data mining of spatiotemporal frequent pattern mining from evolving regions to the perspective of relationship modeling among the spatiotemporal objects, frequent pattern mining algorithms, and data access methodologies for mining algorithms. While the focus of this book is to provide readers insight into the mining algorithms from evolving regions, the authors also discuss data management for spatiotemporal trajectories, which has become increasingly important with the increasing volume of trajectories.This brief describes state-of-the-art knowledge discovery techniques to computer science graduate students who are interested in spatiotemporal data mining, as well as researchers/professionals, who deal with advanced spatiotemporal data analysis in their fields. These fields include GIS-experts, meteorologists, epidemiologists, neurologists, and solar physicists.

Speaking JavaScript

by Axel Rauschmayer

Like it or not, Java Script is everywhere these days--from browser to server to mobile--and now you, too, need to learn the language or dive deeper than you have. This concise book guides you into and through JavaScript, written by a veteran programmer who once found himself in the same position. Speaking JavaScript helps you approach the language with four standalone sections. First, a quick-start guide teaches you just enough of the language to help you be productive right away. More experienced JavaScript programmers will find a complete and easy-to-read reference that covers each language feature in depth. Complete contents include: JavaScript quick start: Familiar with object-oriented programming? This part helps you learn JavaScript quickly and properly. JavaScript in depth: Learn details of ECMAScript 5, from syntax, variables, functions, and object-oriented programming to regular expressions and JSON with lots of examples. Pick a topic and jump in. Background: Understand JavaScript's history and its relationship with other programming languages. Tips, tools, and libraries: Survey existing style guides, best practices, advanced techniques, module systems, package managers, build tools, and learning resources. "The most concise and yet complete JavaScript book written to date for the initiated programmer." --Cody Lindley, front-end engineer, author of JavaScript Enlightenment

Special Edition Using Html, Second Edition

by Mark Brown John Jung

Featuring comprehensive, up-to-date instruction on HTML, web page creation, and new programming techniques and technologies, a book and software package covers graphics, style sheets, form layout and design, and creating Java applets.

Specification of Software Systems

by V. S. Alagar K. Periyasamy

This extensively revised and updated new edition of Specification of Software Systems builds upon the original focus on software specification with added emphasis on the practice of formal methods for specification and verification activities for different types of software systems and at different stages of developing software systems. Topics and features: provides a wide coverage of formal specification techniques and a clear writing style, supported by end-of-chapter bibliographic notes for further reading; presents a logical structure, with sections devoted to specification fundamentals, basics of formalism, logic, set theory and relations, property-oriented specification methods, and model-based specification techniques; contains end-of-chapter exercises and numerous case studies, with potential course outlines suggested in the Preface; covers Object-Z, B-Method, and Calculus of Communicating Systems; offers material that can be taught with tool-supported laboratory projects.

Spectral Mixture for Remote Sensing: Linear Model and Applications (Springer Remote Sensing/Photogrammetry)

by Yosio Edemir Shimabukuro Flávio Jorge Ponzoni

This book explains in a didactic way the basic concepts of spectral mixing, digital numbers and orbital sensors, and then presents the linear modelling technique of spectral mixing and the generation of fractional images. In addition to presenting a theoretical basis for spectral mixing, the book provides examples of practical applications such as projects for estimating and monitoring deforested areas in the Amazon. In its seven chapters, the book offers remote sensing techniques to understand the main concepts, methods, and limitations of spectral mixing for digital image processing. Chapter 1 addresses the basic concepts of spectral mixing, while chapters 2 and 3 discuss digital numbers and orbital sensors such as MODIS and Landsat MSS. Chapter 4 details the linear spectral mixing model, and chapter 5 talks about how to use this technique to create fraction images. Chapter 6 offers remote sensing applications of fraction images in deforestation monitoring, burned-area mapping, selective logging detection, and land-use/land-cover mapping. Chapter 7 gives some concluding thoughts on spectral mixing, and considers future uses in environmental remote sensing. This book will be of interest to students, teachers, and researchers using remote sensing for Earth observation and environmental modelling.

Spectrum Auctions and Competition in Telecommunications

by Gerhard Illing Ulrich Klüh

This book collects essays on this topic by leading analysts of telecommunications and the European auction experience, all but one presented at a November 2001 CESifo conference; comments and responses are included as well, to preserve some of the controversy .

Spectrum-Aware Mobile Computing: Convergence of Cloud Computing and Cognitive Networking (Signals and Communication Technology)

by R. N. Uma Seyed Eman Mahmoodi Koduvayur Subbalakshmi

This book presents solutions to the problems arising in two trends in mobile computing and their intersection: increased mobile traffic driven mainly by sophisticated smart phone applications; and the issue of user demand for lighter phones, which cause more battery power constrained handhelds to offload computations to resource intensive clouds (the second trend exacerbating the bandwidth crunch often experienced over wireless networks). The authors posit a new solution called spectrum aware cognitive mobile computing, which uses dynamic spectrum access and management concepts from wireless networking to offer overall optimized computation offloading and scheduling solutions that achieve optimal trade-offs between the mobile device and wireless resources. They show how in order to allow these competing goals to meet in the middle, and to meet the promise of 5G mobile computing, it is essential to consider mobile offloading holistically, from end to end and use the power of multi-radio access technologies that have been recently developed. Technologies covered in this book have applications to mobile computing, edge computing, fog computing, vehicular communications, mobile healthcare, mobile application developments such as augmented reality, and virtual reality.

Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century

by National Research Council of the National Academies

Radio observations of the cosmos are gathered by geoscientists using complex earth-orbiting satellites and ground-based equipment, and by radio astronomers using large ground-based radio telescopes. Signals from natural radio emissions are extremely weak, and the equipment used to measure them is becoming ever-more sophisticated and sensitive. The radio spectrum is also being used by radiating, or "active," services, ranging from aircraft radars to rapidly expanding consumer services such as cellular telephones and wireless internet. These valuable active services transmit radio waves and thereby potentially interfere with the receive-only, or "passive," scientific services. Transmitters for the active services create an artificial "electronic fog" which can cause confusion, and, in severe cases, totally blinds the passive receivers. Both the active and the passive services are increasing their use of the spectrum, and so the potential for interference, already strong, is also increasing. This book addresses the tension between the active services' demand for greater spectrum use and the passive users' need for quiet spectrum. The included recommendations provide a pathway for putting in place the regulatory mechanisms and associated supporting research activities necessary to meet the demands of both users.

Spectrum Sharing in Wireless Networks: Fairness, Efficiency, and Security

by Sunil Kumar Fei Hu John Matyjas

Spectrum Sharing in Wireless Networks: Fairness, Efficiency, and Security provides a broad overview of wireless network spectrum sharing in seven distinct sections: The first section examines the big picture and basic principles, explaining the concepts of spectrum sharing, hardware/software function requirements for efficient sharing, and future trends of sharing strategies. The second section contains more than 10 chapters that discuss differing approaches to efficient spectrum sharing. The authors introduce a new coexistence and sharing scheme for multi-hop networks, describe the space-time sharing concept, introduce LTE-U, and examine sharing in broadcast and unicast environments. They then talk about different cooperation strategies to achieve mutual benefits for primary users (PU) and secondary users (SU), discuss protocols in a spectrum sharing context, and provide different game theory models between PUs and SUs. The third section explains how to model the interactions of PUs and SUs, using an efficient calculation method to determine spectrum availability. Additionally, this section explains how to use scheduling models to achieve efficient SU traffic delivery. The subject of the fourth section is MIMO-oriented design. It focuses on how directional antennas and MIMO antennas greatly enhance wireless network performance. The authors include a few chapters on capacity/rate calculations as well as beamforming issues under MIMO antennas. Power control is covered in the fifth section which also describes the interference-aware power allocation schemes among cognitive radio users and the power control schemes in cognitive radios. The sixth section provides a comprehensive look at security issues, including different types of spectrum sharing attacks and threats as well as corresponding countermeasure schemes. The seventh and final section covers issues pertaining to military applications and examines how the military task protects its data flows when sharing the spectrum with civilian applications.

Specyfikacja oprogramowania. In?ynieria wymaga?. Wydanie III

by Karl E Wiegers Joy Beatty

Zebranie i opracowanie wymaga? dotycz?cych tworzonego oprogramowania to jeden z fundamentów udanego projektu. Znajomo?? zakresu prac jest kluczow? informacj? dla wszystkich osób prowadz?cych projekt oraz bezcennym ?ród?em wiedzy dla deweloperów tworz?cych kod. Brzmi prosto, ale wcale tak nie jest! Identyfikacja interesariuszy, dokumentacja wymaga?, okre?lanie ich warto?ci biznesowej — to tylko niektóre z wyzwa? stoj?cych przed analitykami i ich zespo?ami!Si?gnij po t? ksi??k?, by unikn?? typowych problemów i pu?apek. W kolejnych rozdzia?ach znajdziesz kluczowe informacje na temat wymaga? dotycz?cych oprogramowania, roli analityka biznesowego oraz dobrych praktyk w in?ynierii wymaga?. Cz??? II tej ksi??ki zosta?a po?wi?cona opracowywaniu wymaga?. Dowiedz si?, jak okre?la? wymagania biznesowe, rozmawia? z u?ytkownikami oraz dokumentowa? i walidowa? wymagania. W prawdziwym ?wiecie spotkasz si? z ró?nymi typami projektów. W zale?no?ci od ich charakteru trzeba b?dzie na bie??co dostosowywa? poznane techniki. Projekty zwinne, projekty systemów wbudowanych, automatyzacja procesów biznesowych to tylko cz??? z omawianych obszarów. Ksi??ka ta jest klasycznym podr?cznikiem, obowi?zkow? lektur? ka?dego analityka oraz osób odpowiedzialnych za wymagania.Dzi?ki tej ksi??ce:- nauczysz si? identyfikowa? interesariuszy oraz rozmawia? z klientami- poznasz dobre praktyki w in?ynierii wymaga?- zrozumiesz zadania analityka biznesowego- ograniczysz ryzyko dzi?ki prototypowaniu- poznasz projekty ró?nego typu- zrozumiesz proces zarz?dzania wymaganiamiLektura obowi?zkowa ka?dego analityka i osób odpowiedzialnych za wymagania!

Speech and Audio Processing: A MATLAB®-based Approach

by Ian Vince Mcloughlin

With this comprehensive and accessible introduction to the field, you will gain all the skills and knowledge needed to work with current and future audio, speech, and hearing processing technologies. Topics covered include mobile telephony, human-computer interfacing through speech, medical applications of speech and hearing technology, electronic music, audio compression and reproduction, big data audio systems and the analysis of sounds in the environment. All of this is supported by numerous practical illustrations, exercises, and hands-on MATLAB examples on topics as diverse as psychoacoustics (including some auditory illusions), voice changers, speech compression, signal analysis and visualisation, stereo processing, low-frequency ultrasonic scanning, and machine learning techniques for big data. With its pragmatic and application driven focus, and concise explanations, this is an essential resource for anyone who wants to rapidly gain a practical understanding of speech and audio processing and technology.

Speech and Audio Processing for Coding, Enhancement and Recognition

by Tokunbo Ogunfunmi Roberto Togneri Madihally Sim Narasimha

This book describes the basic principles underlying the generation, coding, transmission and enhancement of speech and audio signals, including advanced statistical and machine learning techniques for speech and speaker recognition with an overview of the key innovations in these areas. Key research undertaken in speech coding, speech enhancement, speech recognition, emotion recognition and speaker diarization are also presented, along with recent advances and new paradigms in these areas.

Speech and Computer: 20th International Conference, SPECOM 2018, Leipzig, Germany, September 18–22, 2018, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science #11096)

by Rodmonga Potapova Alexey Karpov Oliver Jokisch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Speech and Computer, SPECOM 2018, held in Leipzig, Germany, in September 2018.The 79 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 132 submissions. The papers present current research in the area of computer speech processing, including recognition, synthesis, understanding and related domains like signal processing, language and text processing, computational paralinguistics, multi-modal speech processing or human-computer interaction.

Speech and Computer

by Rodmonga Potapova Alexey Karpov Iosif Mporas

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Speech and Computer, SPECOM 2014, held in Novi Sad, Serbia. The 56 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 initial submissions. It is a conference with long tradition that attracts researchers in the area of computer speech processing (recognition, synthesis, understanding etc. ) and related domains (including signal processing, language and text processing, multi-modal speech processing or human-computer interaction for instance).

Speech and Computer

by Andrey Ronzhin Rodmonga Potapova Nikos Fakotakis

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Speech and Computer, SPECOM 2015, held in Athens, Greece, in September 2015. The 59 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 104 initial submissions. The papers cover a wide range of topics in the area of computer speech processing such as recognition, synthesis, and understanding and related domains including signal processing, language and text processing, multi-modal speech processing or human-computer interaction.

Speech and Computer

by Andrey Ronzhin Rodmonga Potapova Géza Németh

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Speech and Computer, SPECOM 2014, held in Novi Sad, Serbia. The 56 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 initial submissions. It is a conference with long tradition that attracts researchers in the area of computer speech processing (recognition, synthesis, understanding etc. ) and related domains (including signal processing, language and text processing, multi-modal speech processing or human-computer interaction for instance).

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Showing 25,176 through 25,200 of 28,771 results