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## Abortion and Contraception in Modern Greece, 1830-1967: Medicine, Sexuality and Popular Culture (Medicine and Biomedical Sciences in Modern History)

by Violetta HionidouThe book examines the history of abortion and contraception in Modern Greece from the time of its creation in the 1830s to 1967, soon after the Pill became available. It situates the history of abortion and contraception within the historiography of the fertility decline and the question of whether the decline was due to adjustment to changing social conditions or innovation of contraceptive methods. The study reveals that all methods had been in use for other purposes before they were employed as contraceptives. For example, Greek women were employing emmenagogues well before fertility was controlled; they did so in order to ‘put themselves right’ and to enhance their fertility. When they needed to control their fertility, they employed abortifacients, some of which were also emmenagogues, while others had been used as expellants in earlier times. Curettage was also employed since the late nineteenth century as a cure for sterility; once couples desired to control their fertility curettage was employed to procure abortion. Thus couples did not need to innovate but rather had to repurpose old methods and materials to new birth control methods. Furthermore, the role of physicians was found to have been central in advising and encouraging the use of birth control for ‘health’ reasons, thus facilitating and speeding fertility decline in Greece. All this occurred against the backdrop of a state and a church that were at times neutral and at other times disapproving of fertility control.

## About the Hearth

by David G. Anderson Virginie Vate Robert P. WishartDue to changing climates and demographics, questions of policy in the circumpolar north have focused attention on the very structures that people call home. Dwellings lie at the heart of many forms of negotiation. Based on years of in-depth research, this book presents and analyzes how the people of the circumpolar regions conceive, build, memorialize, and live in their dwellings. This book seeks to set a new standard for interdisciplinary work within the humanities and social sciences and includes anthropological work on vernacular architecture, environmental anthropology, household archaeology and demographics.

## About Vectors (Dover Books on Mathematics)

by Banesh HoffmannFrom his unusual beginning in "Defining a vector" to his final comments on "What then is a vector?" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar products; vector products and quotients of vectors; and tensors. The author writes with a fresh, challenging style, making all complex concepts readily understandable. Nearly 400 exercises appear throughout the text. Professor of Mathematics at Queens College at the City University of New York, Banesh Hoffmann is also the author of The Strange Story of the Quantum and other important books. This volume provides much that is new for both students and their instructors, and it will certainly generate debate and discussion in the classroom.

## Abraham Lincoln’s Cyphering Book and Ten other Extraordinary Cyphering Books

by M. A. Ken Clements Nerida F. EllertonThis well-illustrated book provides strong qualitative and comparative support for the main arguments developed by Nerida Ellerton and Ken Clements in their groundbreaking Rewriting this History of School Mathematics in North America 1607-1861: The Central Role of Cyphering Books. Eleven extraordinary handwritten school mathematics manuscripts are carefully analyzed--six were prepared entirely in Great Britain, four entirely in North America, and 1 partly in Great Britain and partly in North America. The earliest of the 11 cyphering books was prepared around 1630, and the latest in 1835. Seven of the manuscripts were arithmetic cyphering books; three were navigation cyphering books, and one was a mensuration/surveying manuscript. One of the cyphering books examined in this book was prepared, over the period 1819-1826, by a young Abraham Lincoln, when he was attending small one-teacher schools in remote Spencer County, Indiana. Chapter 6 in this book provides the first detailed analysis of young Abraham's cyphering book--which is easily the oldest surviving Lincoln manuscript. Another cyphering book, this one prepared by William Beattie in 1835, could have been prepared as a special gift for the King of England. The analyses make clear the extent of the control which the cyphering tradition had over school mathematics in North America and Great Britain between 1630 and 1840. In their final chapter Ellerton and Clements identify six lessons from their research into the cyphering tradition which relate to present-day circumstances surrounding school mathematics. These lessons are concerned with sharp differences between intended, implemented and attained curricula, the remarkable value that many students placed upon their cyphering books, the ethnomathematical circumstances which surrounded the preparations of the extraordinary cyphering books, and qualitative differences between British and North American school mathematics.

## The Absolute Differential Calculus: Calculus Of Tensors (Dover Books on Mathematics)

by Tullio Levi-CivitaWritten by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical introduction to theory. The second part addresses covariant differentiation, curvature-related Riemann's symbols and properties, differential quadratic forms of classes zero and one, and intrinsic geometry. The final section focuses on physical applications, covering gravitational equations and general relativity.

## Absolute Risk: Methods and Applications in Clinical Management and Public Health (Chapman & Hall/CRC Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability)

by Ruth M. Pfeiffer Mitchell H. GailAbsolute Risk: Methods and Applications in Clinical Management and Public Health provides theory and examples to demonstrate the importance of absolute risk in counseling patients, devising public health strategies, and clinical management. The book provides sufficient technical detail to allow statisticians, epidemiologists, and clinicians to build, test, and apply models of absolute risk. Features: Provides theoretical basis for modeling absolute risk, including competing risks and cause-specific and cumulative incidence regression Discusses various sampling designs for estimating absolute risk and criteria to evaluate models Provides details on statistical inference for the various sampling designs Discusses criteria for evaluating risk models and comparing risk models, including both general criteria and problem-specific expected losses in well-defined clinical and public health applications Describes many applications encompassing both disease prevention and prognosis, and ranging from counseling individual patients, to clinical decision making, to assessing the impact of risk-based public health strategies Discusses model updating, family-based designs, dynamic projections, and other topics Ruth M. Pfeiffer is a mathematical statistician and Fellow of the American Statistical Association, with interests in risk modeling, dimension reduction, and applications in epidemiology. She developed absolute risk models for breast cancer, colon cancer, melanoma, and second primary thyroid cancer following a childhood cancer diagnosis. Mitchell H. Gail developed the widely used "Gail model" for projecting the absolute risk of invasive breast cancer. He is a medical statistician with interests in statistical methods and applications in epidemiology and molecular medicine. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and former President of the American Statistical Association. Both are Senior Investigators in the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.

## Abstract Algebra (Dover Books on Mathematics)

by W. E. DeskinsThis excellent textbook provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the basic concepts of abstract algebra and to the analysis of abstract algebraic systems. These systems, which consist of sets of elements, operations, and relations among the elements, and prescriptive axioms, are abstractions and generalizations of various models which evolved from efforts to explain or discuss physical phenomena.In Chapter 1, the author discusses the essential ingredients of a mathematical system, and in the next four chapters covers the basic number systems, decompositions of integers, diophantine problems, and congruences. Chapters 6 through 9 examine groups, rings, domains, fields, polynomial rings, and quadratic domains.Chapters 10 through 13 cover modular systems, modules and vector spaces, linear transformations and matrices, and the elementary theory of matrices. The author, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Pittsburgh, includes many examples and, at the end of each chapter, a large number of problems of varying levels of difficulty.

## Abstract Algebra: Structure and Application (Springer Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics and Technology)

by David R. Finston Patrick J. MorandiThis text seeks to generate interest in abstract algebra by introducing each new structure and topic via a real-world application. The down-to-earth presentation is accessible to a readership with no prior knowledge of abstract algebra. Students are led to algebraic concepts and questions in a natural way through their everyday experiences. Applications include: Identification numbers and modular arithmetic (linear) error-correcting codes, including cyclic codes ruler and compass constructions cryptography symmetry of patterns in the real plane Abstract Algebra: Structure and Application is suitable as a text for a first course on abstract algebra whose main purpose is to generate interest in the subject or as a supplementary text for more advanced courses. The material paves the way to subsequent courses that further develop the theory of abstract algebra and will appeal to students of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, and engineering interested in applications of algebraic concepts.

## Abstract Algebra: An Introductory Course (Springer Undergraduate Mathematics Series #First Edition)

by Gregory T. Lee<P>This carefully written textbook offers a thorough introduction to abstract algebra, covering the fundamentals of groups, rings and fields. <P> The first two chapters present preliminary topics such as properties of the integers and equivalence relations. The author then explores the first major algebraic structure, the group, progressing as far as the Sylow theorems and the classification of finite abelian groups. An introduction to ring theory follows, leading to a discussion of fields and polynomials that includes sections on splitting fields and the construction of finite fields. The final part contains applications to public key cryptography as well as classical straightedge and compass constructions. <P> Explaining key topics at a gentle pace, this book is aimed at undergraduate students. It assumes no prior knowledge of the subject and contains over 500 exercises, half of which have detailed solutions provided.

## Abstract Algebra: A Gentle Introduction

by Gary L. Mullen James A. SellersAbstract Algebra: A Gentle Introduction advantages a trend in mathematics textbook publishing towards smaller, less expensive and brief introductions to primary courses. The authors move away from the ‘everything for everyone’ approach so common in textbooks. Instead, they provide the reader with coverage of numerous algebraic topics to cover the most important areas of abstract algebra. Through a careful selection of topics, supported by interesting applications, the authors Intend the book to be used for a one-semester course in abstract algebra. It is suitable for an introductory course in for mathematics majors. The text is also very suitable for education majors who need to have an introduction to the topic. As textbooks go through various editions and authors employ the suggestions of numerous well-intentioned reviewers, these book become larger and larger and subsequently more expensive. This book is meant to counter that process. Here students are given a "gentle introduction," meant to provide enough for a course, yet also enough to encourage them toward future study of the topic. Features Groups before rings approach Interesting modern applications Appendix includes mathematical induction, the well-ordering principle, sets, functions, permutations, matrices, and complex nubers. Numerous exercises at the end of each section Chapter "Hint and Partial Solutions" offers built in solutions manual

## Abstract Algebra: A Comprehensive Treatment (Pure and Applied Mathematics #267)

by Freddy Van Oystaeyen Claudia MeniniIn one exceptional volume, Abstract Algebra covers subject matter typically taught over the course of two or three years and offers a self-contained presentation, detailed definitions, and excellent chapter-matched exercises to smooth the trajectory of learning algebra from zero to one. Field-tested through advance use in the ERASMUS educational project in Europe, this ambitious, comprehensive book includes an original treatment of representation of finite groups that avoids the use of semisimple ring theory and explains sets, maps, posets, lattices, and other essentials of the algebraic language; Peano's axioms and cardinality; groupoids, semigroups, monoids, groups; and normal subgroups.

## Abstract Algebra: An Interactive Approach (Second Edition) (Textbooks in Mathematics)

by William Paulsen<p>The new edition of Abstract Algebra: An Interactive Approach presents a hands-on and traditional approach to learning groups, rings, and fields. It then goes further to offer optional technology use to create opportunities for interactive learning and computer use. This new edition offers a more traditional approach offering additional topics to the primary syllabus placed after primary topics are covered. This creates a more natural flow to the order of the subjects presented. This edition is transformed by historical notes and better explanations of why topics are covered. <p>This innovative textbook shows how students can better grasp difficult algebraic concepts through the use of computer programs. It encourages students to experiment with various applications of abstract algebra, thereby obtaining a real-world perspective of this area. Each chapter includes, corresponding Sage notebooks, traditional exercises, and several interactive computer problems that utilize Sage and Mathematica® to explore groups, rings, fields and additional topics. This text does not sacrifice mathematical rigor. It covers classical proofs, such as Abel’s theorem, as well as many topics not found in most standard introductory texts. The author explores semi-direct products, polycyclic groups, Rubik’s Cube®-like puzzles, and Wedderburn’s theorem. The author also incorporates problem sequences that allow students to delve into interesting topics, including Fermat’s two square theorem.</p>

## Abstract Algebra (Third Edition)

by John A. Beachy William D. BlairBeachy and Blair’s clear narrative presentation responds to the needs of inexperienced students who stumble over proof writing, who understand definitions and theorems but cannot do the problems, and who want more examples that tie into their previous experience. The authors introduce chapters by indicating why the material is important and, at the same time, relating the new material to things from the student’s background and linking the subject matter of the chapter to the broader picture.

## Abstract Algebra with Applications: Volume 2: Rings and Fields (Pure and Applied Mathematics)

by Karlheinz SpindlerA comprehensive presentation of abstract algebra and an in-depth treatment of the applications of algebraic techniques and the relationship of algebra to other disciplines, such as number theory, combinatorics, geometry, topology, differential equations, and Markov chains.

## Abstract Algebra with Applications: Volume 1: Vector Spaces and Groups (Pure and Applied Mathematics)

by Karlheinz SpindlerA comprehensive presentation of abstract algebra and an in-depth treatment of the applications of algebraic techniques and the relationship of algebra to other disciplines, such as number theory, combinatorics, geometry, topology, differential equations, and Markov chains.

## Abstract Analytic Number Theory (Dover Books on Mathematics #Volume 12)

by John Knopfmacher"This book is well-written and the bibliography excellent," declared Mathematical Reviews of John Knopfmacher's innovative study. The three-part treatment applies classical analytic number theory to a wide variety of mathematical subjects not usually treated in an arithmetical way. The first part deals with arithmetical semigroups and algebraic enumeration problems; Part Two addresses arithmetical semigroups with analytical properties of classical type; and the final part explores analytical properties of other arithmetical systems.Because of its careful treatment of fundamental concepts and theorems, this text is accessible to readers with a moderate mathematical background, i.e., three years of university-level mathematics. An extensive bibliography is provided, and each chapter includes a selection of references to relevant research papers or books. The book concludes with an appendix that offers several unsolved questions, with interesting proposals for further development.

## Abstract Lie Algebras

by David J WinterSolid but concise, this account of Lie algebra emphasizes the theory's simplicity and offers new approaches to major theorems. Author David J. Winter, a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Michigan, also presents a general, extensive treatment of Cartan and related Lie subalgebras over arbitrary fields.Preliminary material covers modules and nonassociate algebras, followed by a compact, self-contained development of the theory of Lie algebras of characteristic 0. Topics include solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras, Cartan subalgebras, and Levi's radical splitting theorem and the complete reducibility of representations of semisimple Lie algebras. Additional subjects include the isomorphism theorem for semisimple Lie algebras and their irreducible modules, automorphism of Lie algebras, and the conjugacy of Cartan subalgebras and Borel subalgebras. An extensive theory of Cartan and related subalgebras of Lie algebras over arbitrary fields is developed in the final chapter, and an appendix offers background on the Zariski topology.

## Abstract Methods in Partial Differential Equations

by Robert W. CarrollDetailed and self-contained, this treatment is directed to graduate students with some previous exposure to classical partial differential equations. The author examines a variety of modern abstract methods in partial differential equations, especially in the area of abstract evolution equations. Additional topics include the theory of nonlinear monotone operators applied to elliptic and variational problems. 1969 edition.

## Abstract Sets and Finite Ordinals: An Introduction to the Study of Set Theory

by G. B. KeeneThis text unites the logical and philosophical aspects of set theory in a manner intelligible both to mathematicians without training in formal logic and to logicians without a mathematical background. It combines an elementary level of treatment with the highest possible degree of logical rigor and precision.Starting with an explanation of all the basic logical terms and related operations, the text progresses through a stage-by-stage elaboration that proves the fundamental theorems of finite sets. It focuses on the Bernays theory of finite classes and finite sets, exploring the system's basis and development, including Stage I and Stage II theorems, the theory of finite ordinals, and the theory of finite classes and finite sets. This volume represents an excellent text for undergraduates studying intermediate or advanced logic as well as a fine reference for professional mathematicians.

## Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B, TLA, VDM, and Z: 5th International Conference, Abz 2016, Linz, Austria, May 23-27, 2016, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science #9675)

by Michael Butler Atif Mashkoor Miklos Biro Laus-Dieter ScheweThis book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B, TLA, VDM, and Z, ABZ 2016, held in Linz, Austria, in May 2016. <P><P> The 17 full and 15 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 61 submissions. They record the latest research developments in state-based formal methods Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B, Circus, Event-B, TLS+, VDM and Z.

## Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B, TLA, VDM, and Z: 5th International Conference, ABZ 2016, Linz, Austria, May 23-27, 2016, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science #9675)

by Michael Butler Klaus-Dieter Schewe Atif Mashkoor Miklos BiroThis bookconstitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on AbstractState Machines, Alloy, B, TLA, VDM, and Z, ABZ 2016, held in Linz, Austria, inMay 2016. The 17 full and 15 short papers presented in this volume were carefullyreviewed and selected from 61 submissions. They record the latest researchdevelopments in state-based formal methods Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B,Circus, Event-B, TLS+, VDM and Z.

## Accelerated Lattice Boltzmann Model for Colloidal Suspensions: Rheology and Interface Morphology

by Hassan Farhat Joon Sang Lee Sasidhar KondarajuColloids are ubiquitous in the food, medical, cosmetics, polymers, water purification, and pharmaceutical industries. The thermal, mechanical, and storage properties of colloids are highly dependent on their interface morphology and their rheological behavior. Numerical methods provide a convenient and reliable tool for the study of colloids. Accelerated Lattice Boltzmann Model for Colloidal Suspensions introduce the main building-blocks for an improved lattice Boltzmann-based numerical tool designed for the study of colloidal rheology and interface morphology. This book also covers the migrating multi-block used to simulate single component, multi-component, multiphase, and single component multiphase flows and their validation by experimental, numerical, and analytical solutions. Among other topics discussed are the hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for surfactant-covered droplets; biological suspensions such as blood; used in conjunction with the suppression of coalescence for investigating the rheology of colloids and microvasculature blood flow. The presented LBM model provides a flexible numerical platform consisting of various modules that could be used separately or in combination for the study of a variety of colloids and biological flow deformation problems.

## Accelerated Optimization for Machine Learning: First-Order Algorithms

by Zhouchen Lin Huan Li Cong FangThis book on optimization includes forewords by Michael I. Jordan, Zongben Xu and Zhi-Quan Luo. Machine learning relies heavily on optimization to solve problems with its learning models, and first-order optimization algorithms are the mainstream approaches. The acceleration of first-order optimization algorithms is crucial for the efficiency of machine learning. Written by leading experts in the field, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to, and state-of-the-art review of accelerated first-order optimization algorithms for machine learning. It discusses a variety of methods, including deterministic and stochastic algorithms, where the algorithms can be synchronous or asynchronous, for unconstrained and constrained problems, which can be convex or non-convex. Offering a rich blend of ideas, theories and proofs, the book is up-to-date and self-contained. It is an excellent reference resource for users who are seeking faster optimization algorithms, as well as for graduate students and researchers wanting to grasp the frontiers of optimization in machine learning in a short time.

## Accentuate the Negative: Integers and Rational Numbers

by Glenda Lappan James T. Fey Susan N. Friel Elizabeth Difanis PhillipsIn this book; you will study integers and rational numbers, two specific sets of numbers that include positive and negative numbers. You will explore models that help you think about adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing these numbers. You will also learn about the properties of operations on positive and negative numbers. Connected Mathematics® is a registered trademark of Pearson Education, Inc.