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Zweck und Zweckfreiheit: Zum Funktionswandel der Künste im 21. Jahrhundert (Ästhetiken X.0 – Zeitgenössische Konturen ästhetischen Denkens)

by Judith Siegmund

In der Theoriegeschichte der ästhetischen Theorie hat sich im 20. Jahrhundert eine Lesart der Kantischen Analytik des Schönen herausgebildet, welche die Zweckfreiheit der Künste als Dogma ihrer Funktionslosigkeit versteht. Dem gegenüber gibt es Entwicklungen auf dem Feld der Künste, die in eine andere Richtung weisen. Das Buchprojekt geht von der impliziten Annahme aus, dass ästhetische Theorie sich ihrem Gegenstand gegenüber als angemessen erweisen muss. Es besteht daher eine Notwendigkeit, die theoretischen Parameter der Zweckfreiheit, Autonomie und Funktionslosigkeit neu zu überdenken. Die Strategie dieser Operation besteht darin, sich mit der philosophischen Geschichte des Zweckbegriffs auseinanderzusetzen und diese in ein Verhältnis zu aktuellen Diskursen und Phänomenologien der Kunst zu setzen. Auf dem Prüfstand steht damit die Funktion/Funktionslosigkeit der Kunst in der Gesellschaft sowie eine Neufassung ihrer Zwecke.

The Zurau Aphorisms of Franz Kafka

by Franz Kafka

The essential philosophical writings of one of the twentieth century's most influential writers are now gathered into a single volume with an introduction and afterword by the celebrated writer and publisher Roberto Calasso. Illness set him free to write a series of philosophical fragments: some narratives, some single images, some parables. These "aphorisms" appeared, sometimes with a few words changed, in other writings--some of them as posthumous fragments published only after Kafka's death in 1924. While working on K., his major book on Kafka, in the Bodleian Library, Roberto Calasso realized that the Zürau aphorisms, each written on a separate slip of very thin paper, numbered but unbound, represented something unique in Kafka's opus--a work whose form he had created simultaneously with its content.The notebooks, freshly translated and laid out as Kafka had intended, are a distillation of Kafka at his most powerful and enigmatic. This lost jewel provides the reader with a fresh perspective on the collective work of a genius.

Zur Philosophie der Mathematik: Logizismus, Intuitionismus, Finitismus, Gödel'sche Unvollständigkeitssätze

by Alexander George Daniel J. Velleman

Dieses Buch bietet einen lebendig geschriebenen Überblick über die Philosophie der MathematikGibt eine gut motivierte und verständliche Einführung in die axiomatische Mengenlehre.<P><P> Zeigt in vorbildlicher Weise die Verzahnung von Mathematik und Philosophie der Mathematik.<P> Dieses Buch blickt in eine bedeutende Epoche der Philosophie der Mathematik zurück, deren Strömungen die heutige Gestalt der Mathematik prägten. <P> In der Wende vom 19. zum 20. Jahrhundert befand sich die Mathematik in einem fundamentalen Umbruch, der die Mathematiker dieser Zeit herausforderte. Sie mussten Stellung beziehen. Die Grundsätze und Wege der philosophischen Richtungen, die dieses Buch verständlich, kritisch und anerkennend beschreibt, wurden von Mathematikern formuliert. Eine Zeit gravierender Disharmonien begann, die bis in Streit und Feindschaften mündeten und zugleich faszinierende und fruchtbare Ergebnisse hervorbrachten, mathematisch wie philosophisch.<P> Es war ein aufregendes, intellektuelles Abenteuer zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts auf einem außergewöhnlich scharfsinnigen und kreativen Niveau. Die Debatte über die unversöhnlichen Ansichten versiegte allmählich und inzwischen ist wieder relative Ruhe in die Gemeinde der Mathematiker eingekehrt. Zentrale philosophische Fragen aber, die damals die Protagonisten spalteten, sind nach wie vor unbeantwortet.<P> Die Suche nach dem Wesen der Mathematik geht weiter und greift auf die Ideen dieser Kontroversen zurück.<P>

Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics Of Keeping Animals

by Stephen St Bostock

First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Zoographies: The Question of the Animal from Heidegger to Derrida

by Matthew Calarco

Zoographies challenges the anthropocentrism of the Continental philosophical tradition and advances the position that, while some distinctions are valid, humans and animals are best viewed as part of an ontological whole. Matthew Calarco draws on ethological and evolutionary evidence and the work of Heidegger, who called for a radicalized responsibility toward all forms of life. He also turns to Levinas, who raised questions about the nature and scope of ethics; Agamben, who held the "anthropological machine" responsible for the horrors of the twentieth century; and Derrida, who initiated a nonanthropocentric ethics. Calarco concludes with a call for the abolition of classical versions of the human-animal distinction and asks that we devise new ways of thinking about and living with animals.

Zones of Rebellion: Kurdish Insurgents and the Turkish State

by Aysegul Aydin Cem Emrence

How do insurgents and governments select their targets? Which ideological discourses and organizational policies do they adopt to win civilian loyalties and control territory? Aysegul Aydin and Cem Emrence suggest that both insurgents and governments adopt a wide variety of coercive strategies in war environments. In Zones of Rebellion, they integrate Turkish-Ottoman history with social science theory to unveil the long-term policies that continue to inform the distribution of violence in Anatolia. The authors show the astonishing similarity in combatants’ practices over time and their resulting inability to consolidate Kurdish people and territory around their respective political agendas. The Kurdish insurgency in Turkey is one of the longest-running civil wars in the Middle East. Zones of Rebellion demonstrates for the first time how violence in this conflict has varied geographically. Identifying distinct zones of violence, Aydin and Emrence show why Kurds and Kurdish territories have followed different political trajectories, guaranteeing continued strife between Kurdish insurgents and the Turkish state in an area where armed groups organized along ethnic lines have battled the central state since Ottoman times. Aydin and Emrence present the first empirical analysis of Kurdish insurgency, relying on original data. These new datasets include information on the location, method, timing, target, and outcome of more than ten thousand insurgent attacks and counterinsurgent operations between 1984 and 2008. Another data set registers civilian unrest in Kurdish urban centers for the same period, including nearly eight hundred incidents ranging from passive resistance to active challenges to Turkey’s security forces. The authors argue that both state agents and insurgents are locked into particular tactics in their conduct of civil war and that the inability of combatants to switch from violence to civic politics leads to a long-running stalemate. Such rigidity blocks negotiations and prevents battlefield victories from being translated into political solutions and lasting agreements.

Zombies, Vampires, and Philosophy

by Richard Greene K. Silem Mohammad

Since 1968's Night of the Living Dead, zombie culture has steadily limped and clawed its way into the center of popular culture. Today, zombies and vampires have taken over TV shows, comic books, cartoons, video games, and movies. Zombies, Vampires, and Philosophy drags the theories of famous philosophers like Socrates and Descartes into the territory of the undead, exploring questions like: Why do vampires and vegetarians share a similar worldview? Why is understanding zombies the key to health care reform? And what does "healthy in mind and body" mean for vampires and zombies? Answers to these questions and more await readers brave enough to make this fun, philosophical foray into the undead.

Zombie University: Thinking Under Control

by Sinead Murphy

In this full-blooded attack on the institutions of higher education, Sinéad Murphy shows the neoliberal university for what it really is: a zombie institution, churning out generations of the thinking dead.What if we have lost the ability to think straight? And what if this is why the shocking injustices of contemporary life go unchallenged in spite of being widely acknowledged? And what if the institution that is supposed to help us to think is in on the act? This is the thesis put forward by Zombie University, which shows the modern university as the fulcrum of our societies’ mode of control, tempting more and more young people to rituals of education that work to keep us down rather than raise us up.

Zizek's Politics

by Jodi Dean

A critical introduction to the political thought of one of the most important, original and enigmatic philosophers writing today. Zizek's Politics provides an original interpretation and defence of the Slovenian philosopher's radical critique of liberalism, democracy, and global capital.

Zizek and Law (Nomikoi: Critical Legal Thinkers)

by Laurent De Sutter

The very first book dedicated to Slavoj Zizek’s theoretical treatment of law, this book gathers widely recognized Zizek scholars as well as legal theorists to offer a sustained analysis of the place of law in Zizek’s work. Whether it is with reference to symbolic law, psychoanalytical law, religious law, positive law, human rights, to Lacan’s, Hegel’s, or Kant’s philosophies of law, or even to Jewish or Buddhist law, Zizek returns again and again to law. And what his work offers, this volume demonstrates, is a radically new approach to law, and a rethinking of its role within the framework of radical politics. With the help of Zizek himself – who here, and for the first time, directly engages with the topic of law – this collection provides an authoritative account of ‘Zizek and law’. It will be invaluable resource for researchers and students in the fields of law, legal theory, legal philosophy, political theory, psychoanalysis, theology, and cultural studies.

Zivilgesellschaft in Subsahara Afrika

by Walter Eberlei

Der ,,arabische Frühling" hat vielfaches Erstaunen über die Kraft zivilgesellschaftlicher politischer Arbeit ausgelöst. So unbemerkt wie das Pulverfass in Nordafrika entstand, so unbeachtet scheinen auch die gesellschaftspolitischen Dynamiken in den Ländern südlich der Sahara zu sein. Die Wahrnehmung politischer Entwicklungen in diesem ärmsten Teil der Welt begrenzt sich vielfach auf zerfallene Staaten wie Somalia, korrupte Kleptokratien wie Simbabwe oder in schier endlosen Kriegen und Konflikten versunkene Länder wie dem Kongo. Der Band beschäftigt sich mit gesellschaftspolitischen Dynamiken jenseits dieser Extreme, genauer: mit dem vielfach erkennbaren Phänomen verstärkter zivilgesellschaftlicher politischer Einflussnahme in Subsahara Afrika. Das Autorenteam leistet einen Beitrag dazu, diese neuere politische Entwicklung zu verstehen und seine Ausprägungen zu erklären.

Zivil - Gesellschaft - Staat

by Thomas Bibisidis Jaana Eichhorn Ansgar Klein Christa Perabo Susanne Rindt

Der Band thematisiert die Bedeutung der Freiwilligendienste hinsichtlich ihrer Potenziale und Wirkungen für die Zivilgesellschaft, ihre Handlungsfelder und Rahmenbedingungen und nimmt die beteiligten Akteure in den Blick. Dabei geht es um Entwicklungslinien, Profildiskussionen und aktuelle Debatten, u. a. zu Fragen der Qualitätssicherung, zum Bildungsbegriff, der politischen Indienstnahme von Freiwilligendiensten, zur Arbeitsmarktneutralität und zum Trägerprinzip als konstitutivem Merkmal der Freiwilligendienste.

Zionism and Melancholy: The Short Life of Israel Zarchi (New Jewish Philosophy and Thought)

by Nitzan Lebovic

Nitzan Lebovic claims that political melancholy is the defining trait of a generation of Israelis born between the 1960s and 1990s. This cohort came of age during wars, occupation and intifada, cultural conflict, and the failure of the Oslo Accords. The atmosphere of militarism and conservative state politics left little room for democratic opposition or dissent. Lebovic and others depict the failure to respond not only as a result of institutional pressure but as the effect of a long-lasting "left-wing melancholy." In order to understand its grip on Israeli society, Lebovic turns to the novels and short stories of Israel Zarchi. For him, Zarchi aptly describes the gap between the utopian hope present in Zionism since its early days and the melancholic reality of the present. Through personal engagement with Zarchi, Lebovic develops a philosophy of melancholy and shows how it pervades Israeli society.

Zhuangzi (Longman Library of Primary Sources in Philosophy)

by Daniel Kolak Chuang Tzu Yang Guorong Hyun Hochsmann

Part of the “Longman Library of Primary Sources in Philosophy,” this translation/edition of Chuang Tzu's works is framed by a pedagogical structure designed to make this important work of philosophy more accessible and productive for undergraduates.

Zhuangzi: The Complete Writings

by Zhuangzi

Brook Ziporyn's carefully crafted, richly annotated translation of the complete writings of Zhuangzi—including a lucid Introduction, a Glossary of Essential Terms, and a Bibliography—provides readers with an engaging and provocative deep dive into this magical work.

Zhuangzi: Basic Writings

by Burton Watson

Only by understanding Dao (the Way of Nature) and dwelling in its unity can humankind achieve true happiness and freedom, in both life and death. This is the central tenet of the philosophy that was to become Daoism, espoused by the person -- or group of people -- known as Zhuanzi (369?-286? B.C.), in the text of the same name. In order to be free, individuals must discard rigid conventions that distinguish good from bad, right from wrong, and follow a course of action not founded on motives of gain or striving. When one ceases to judge events as good or bad, man-made suffering disappears and natural suffering is embraced as part of life. Elucidating a mystical philosophy dedicated to the spiritual nourishment of the individual, Zhuangzi makes many points through humor. He also uses parable and anecdote, non sequitur and even nonsense, to jolt the reader into awareness of truth outside the pale of ordinary logic. With inspired, unconventional language and visionary ideas, the Zhuangzi seems to float free of the historical period and society in which it was written, addressing all people across all ages. Columbia presents this renowned translation by Burton Watson of a seminal text in Chinese philosophy in pinyin romanization for the first time.

Zhuangzi: With Selections from Traditional Commentaries

by Brook Ziporyn Zhuangzi

Ideal for students and scholars alike, this edition of Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) includes the complete Inner Chapters, extensive selections from the Outer and Miscellaneous Chapters, and judicious selections from two thousand years of traditional Chinese commentaries, which provide the reader access to the text as well as to its reception and interpretation. A glossary, brief biographies of the commentators, a bibliography, and an index are also included.

Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary and the Classical Tradition

by Daniel Gardner

The Analects is a compendium of the sayings of Confucius (551--479 b.c.e.), transcribed and passed down by his disciples. How it came to be transformed by Zhu Xi (1130--1200) into one of the most philosophically significant texts in the Confucian tradition is the subject of this book. Scholarly attention in China had long been devoted to the Analects. By the time of Zhu Xi, a rich history of commentary had grown up around it. But Zhu, claiming that the Analects was one of the authoritative texts in the canon and should be read before all others, gave it a still more privileged status in the tradition. He spent decades preparing an extended interlinear commentary on it. Sustained by a newer, more elaborate language of metaphysics, Zhu's commentary on the Analects marked a significant shift in the philosophical orientation of Confucianism -- a shift that redefined the Confucian tradition for the next eight centuries, not only in China, but in Japan and Korea well. Gardner's translations and analysis of Zhu Xi's commentary on the Analects show one of China's great thinkers in an interesting and complex act of philosophical negotiation. Through an interlinear, line-by-line "dialogue" with Confucius, Zhu effected a reconciliation of the teachings of the Master, commentary by later exegetes, and contemporary philosophical concerns of Song-dynasty scholars. By comparing Zhu's reading of the Analects with the earlier standard reading by He Yan (190--249), Gardner illuminates what is dramatically new in Zhu Xi's interpretation of the Analects. A pioneering study of Zhu Xi's reading of the Analects, this book demonstrates how commentary is both informed by a text and informs future readings, and highlights the importance of interlinear commentary as a genre in Chinese philosophy.

Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea

by Charles Seife

The Babylonians invented it, the Greeks banned it, the Hindus worshiped it, and the Church used it to fend off heretics. Now it threatens the foundations of modern physics. For centuries the power of zero savored of the demonic; once harnessed, it became the most important tool in mathematics. For zero, infinity's twin, is not like other numbers. It is both nothing and everything. In Zero, Science Journalist Charles Seife follows this innocent-looking number from its birth as an Eastern philosophical concept to its struggle for acceptance in Europe, its rise and transcendence in the West, and its ever-present threat to modern physics. Here are the legendary thinkers—from Pythagoras to Newton to Heisenberg, from the Kabalists to today's astrophysicists—who have tried to understand it and whose clashes shook the foundations of philosophy, science, mathematics, and religion. Zero has pitted East against West and faith against reason, and its intransigence persists in the dark core of a black hole and the brilliant flash of the Big Bang. Today, zero lies at the heart of one of the biggest scientific controversies of all time: the quest for a theory of everything. .

Zen's Chinese Heritage

by Tenshin Reb Anderson Steven Heine Andy Ferguson

Zen's Chinese Heritage traces twenty-five generations of inlightened Buddhist teachers, supplementing their core teachings with history, biography, and poetry. The result is an intimate and profound human portrait of the enlightened Zen ancients, and an unprecedented look into the depths of the rich cultural heritage. In this new edition with even more valuable material, Ferguson surveys generations of Zen masters, moving chronologically through successive generations of ancestral teachers, supplementing their core teachings with history, biography, and starkly beautiful poetry. In addition to giving the reader the engaging sense of the "family history" of Zen, this uniquely valuable book paints a clear picture of the tradition's evolution as a religious, literary, and historical force.

Zeno and the Tortoise: How to Think Like a Philosopher

by Nicholas Fearn

For those who don't know the difference between Lucretius's spear and Hume's fork, Zeno and the Tortoise explains not just who each philosopher was and what he thought, but exactly how he came to think in the way he did. Nicholas Fearn presents philosophy as a collection of tools — the tricks of a trade that, in the end, might just be all tricks, each to be fruitfully applied to a variety of everyday predicaments. In a witty and engaging style that incorporates everything from Sting to cell phones to Bill Gates, Fearn demystifies the ways of thought that have shaped and inspired humanity — among many others, the Socratic method, Descartes's use of doubt, Bentham's theory of utilitarianism, Rousseau's social contract, and, of course, the concept of common sense. Along the way, there are fascinating biographical snippets about the philosophers themselves: the story of Thales falling down a well while studying the stars, and of Socrates being told by a face-reader that his was the face of a monster who was capable of any crime. Written in twenty-five short chapters, each readable during the journey to work, Zeno and the Tortoise is the ideal course in intellectual self-defense. Acute, often irreverent, but always authoritative, this is a unique introduction to the ideas that have shaped us all. "Entertaining and witty. A smooth, sweet concoction that should tickle the taste buds of the most philosophobic readers." — Julian Boggini, The Times Educational Supplement (U.K.) "A concise and entertaining attempt to place the skills of philosophy at our fingertips." — Olivier Burckhardt, The Independent on Sunday (U.K.)

Zen Wisdom for Christians

by Christopher Collingwood

As spiritual paths, Zen and Christianity can learn from one another. In this book, Anglican priest and Zen teacher Christopher Collingwood sets out how Zen can return Christians to their roots with renewed energy, and allow others to consider Christianity in a new and more favourable light. For the many Christians searching for a greater depth of spirituality, Zen offers a way to achieve openness. Drawing on Zen experience and the teachings of Jesus as depicted in the gospels, Zen Wisdom for Christians enables Christians to explore avenues of thought and experience that are fresh and creative. Using examples of Zen koans and Zen readings of Christian texts, the author provides a radical reorientation of life - away from one based on self-centredness and the notion of a separate, isolated self, to a way that is inclusive and at one with all.Zen Wisdom for Christians proves that the practice of Zen can lead Christians towards deeper spirituality and enhance religious experience through mutual appreciation, in a way that is truly eye-opening and life-changing.

Zen Way - Jesus Way

by Tucker N. Callaway

This groundbreaking book successfully fuses the two overlapping traditions of Zen Buddhism and Christianity.Very few Christians who are interested in Zen Buddhism understand the fundamentals of the religion itself. <P><P>Most of the books which are available on Zen are superficial and fraught with caricatures and erroneous generalizations - concentrating more on meditation than on the real essence of Zen. Now the Christian who has been waiting for a clear and thorough explanation of Zen in terms he can understand has been provided with Zen Way--Jesus Way--a unique inside look at Christianity and Zen Buddhism by Dr. Tucker N. Callaway, a committed Christian missionary who for twenty years has practiced zazen in Japanese temples in an effort to reach the heart of the faith.Calloway has a knack for making philosophical concepts clear to the general reader and begins Zen Way--Jesus Way by presenting the fundamental presuppositions of Zen and several of the concepts which are logically deduced from them. Next he relates some of his experiences in Buddhist temples, while explaining the practical applications of Zen philosophy. Finally he interprets the Jesus Way in a manner that makes possible a genuine comparison with the Zen way.

The Zen Way

by Myokyo-Ni

Myokyo-ni is the Buddhist name of Dr. Irmgard Schloegl, who directs the Zen center Shobo-an in London. Here she seeks to describe Zen and Zen practice from a few different approaches, presenting basic Buddhist thought as well as an overview of the life of the historical Buddha. She gives a section on training in a Japanese Rinzai Zen monastery-perhaps the most unique feature of the book, although her presentation is rather impersonal. Her final section, "Fundamentals," is rambling and might have benefited from further organization and subdivision. The author's style throughout is decidedly Western, with a psychological, philosophical tone that does not sit comfortably with some of the more esoteric writings in the field. For an introduction to the subject, there are better sources, such as Robert Aitken's Taking the Path of Zen (Farrar, 1982). For serious students of Zen, there are valuable insights hidden in the sometimes difficult but heartfelt analyses scattered through the book.

The Zen Way

by Myokyo-Ni

Myokyo-ni is the Buddhist name of Dr. Irmgard Schloegl, who directs the Zen center Shobo-an in London. Here she seeks to describe Zen and Zen practice from a few different approaches, presenting basic Buddhist thought as well as an overview of the life of the historical Buddha. She gives a section on training in a Japanese Rinzai Zen monastery-perhaps the most unique feature of the book, although her presentation is rather impersonal. Her final section, "Fundamentals," is rambling and might have benefited from further organization and subdivision. The author's style throughout is decidedly Western, with a psychological, philosophical tone that does not sit comfortably with some of the more esoteric writings in the field. For an introduction to the subject, there are better sources, such as Robert Aitken's Taking the Path of Zen (Farrar, 1982). For serious students of Zen, there are valuable insights hidden in the sometimes difficult but heartfelt analyses scattered through the book.

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