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Zygmunt Bauman and the Theory of Culture

by Dariusz Brzeziński

One of the most influential intellectuals of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, sociologist and philosopher Zygmunt Bauman (1925–2017) made reflection on culture a fundamental part of his academic work. He published a substantial number of papers on the topic, and many of his concepts would go on to significantly influence the social sciences and humanities. Bauman began his theoretical studies on culture when working at the University of Warsaw and continued them all his life. Inspired by the many intellectual currents he encountered over his more than six decades of work, Bauman wrote on culture in the contexts of such issues as Marxism and socialism, modernity and the Holocaust, postmodernity and liquid modernity, and contemporary nostalgia. In Zygmunt Bauman and the Theory of Culture Dariusz Brzeziński uses the evolution of Bauman’s theory of culture as a prism through which to offer a comparative analysis, putting Bauman’s work in conversation with the writings of other contemporary intellectuals.In this first comprehensive and critical assessment of Bauman’s lifelong work on culture, Brzeziński includes Bauman’s Polish-language papers and books, as well as his works discovered only posthumously, presenting them to an international audience.

Zweck und Zweckfreiheit: Zum Funktionswandel der Künste im 21. Jahrhundert (Ästhetiken X.0 – Zeitgenössische Konturen ästhetischen Denkens)

by Judith Siegmund

In der Theoriegeschichte der ästhetischen Theorie hat sich im 20. Jahrhundert eine Lesart der Kantischen Analytik des Schönen herausgebildet, welche die Zweckfreiheit der Künste als Dogma ihrer Funktionslosigkeit versteht. Dem gegenüber gibt es Entwicklungen auf dem Feld der Künste, die in eine andere Richtung weisen. Das Buchprojekt geht von der impliziten Annahme aus, dass ästhetische Theorie sich ihrem Gegenstand gegenüber als angemessen erweisen muss. Es besteht daher eine Notwendigkeit, die theoretischen Parameter der Zweckfreiheit, Autonomie und Funktionslosigkeit neu zu überdenken. Die Strategie dieser Operation besteht darin, sich mit der philosophischen Geschichte des Zweckbegriffs auseinanderzusetzen und diese in ein Verhältnis zu aktuellen Diskursen und Phänomenologien der Kunst zu setzen. Auf dem Prüfstand steht damit die Funktion/Funktionslosigkeit der Kunst in der Gesellschaft sowie eine Neufassung ihrer Zwecke.

The Zurau Aphorisms of Franz Kafka

by Franz Kafka

The essential philosophical writings of one of the twentieth century's most influential writers are now gathered into a single volume with an introduction and afterword by the celebrated writer and publisher Roberto Calasso. Illness set him free to write a series of philosophical fragments: some narratives, some single images, some parables. These "aphorisms" appeared, sometimes with a few words changed, in other writings--some of them as posthumous fragments published only after Kafka's death in 1924. While working on K., his major book on Kafka, in the Bodleian Library, Roberto Calasso realized that the Zürau aphorisms, each written on a separate slip of very thin paper, numbered but unbound, represented something unique in Kafka's opus--a work whose form he had created simultaneously with its content.The notebooks, freshly translated and laid out as Kafka had intended, are a distillation of Kafka at his most powerful and enigmatic. This lost jewel provides the reader with a fresh perspective on the collective work of a genius.

Zur Philosophie der Mathematik: Logizismus, Intuitionismus, Finitismus, Gödel'sche Unvollständigkeitssätze

by Alexander George Daniel J. Velleman

Dieses Buch bietet einen lebendig geschriebenen Überblick über die Philosophie der MathematikGibt eine gut motivierte und verständliche Einführung in die axiomatische Mengenlehre.<P><P> Zeigt in vorbildlicher Weise die Verzahnung von Mathematik und Philosophie der Mathematik.<P> Dieses Buch blickt in eine bedeutende Epoche der Philosophie der Mathematik zurück, deren Strömungen die heutige Gestalt der Mathematik prägten. <P> In der Wende vom 19. zum 20. Jahrhundert befand sich die Mathematik in einem fundamentalen Umbruch, der die Mathematiker dieser Zeit herausforderte. Sie mussten Stellung beziehen. Die Grundsätze und Wege der philosophischen Richtungen, die dieses Buch verständlich, kritisch und anerkennend beschreibt, wurden von Mathematikern formuliert. Eine Zeit gravierender Disharmonien begann, die bis in Streit und Feindschaften mündeten und zugleich faszinierende und fruchtbare Ergebnisse hervorbrachten, mathematisch wie philosophisch.<P> Es war ein aufregendes, intellektuelles Abenteuer zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts auf einem außergewöhnlich scharfsinnigen und kreativen Niveau. Die Debatte über die unversöhnlichen Ansichten versiegte allmählich und inzwischen ist wieder relative Ruhe in die Gemeinde der Mathematiker eingekehrt. Zentrale philosophische Fragen aber, die damals die Protagonisten spalteten, sind nach wie vor unbeantwortet.<P> Die Suche nach dem Wesen der Mathematik geht weiter und greift auf die Ideen dieser Kontroversen zurück.<P>

Zur Herstellung von Öffentlichkeit in der Migrationsgesellschaft: Digitale Handlungsstrategien Jugendlicher und junger Erwachsener (Digitale Kultur und Kommunikation #8)

by Lea Braun

Gegenstand dieses Bandes ist die Frage, wie Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene im digitalen Raum ihre eigene Rolle in der Migrationsgesellschaft bearbeiten. Dazu werden die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Forschungsarbeit vorgestellt, in der narrative Interviews mit jungen Medienproduzent*innen geführt wurden. Das Sample der Untersuchung umfasst sieben Fälle, in denen junge Menschen im Alter zwischen 16 und 25 Jahren digitale Öffentlichkeiten herstellen und damit transkulturelle Machtverhältnisse bearbeiten. Zudem etablieren sie neue ästhetische Darstellungsformen und treten als aktive Gestalter*innen von Medienkultur auf. Dabei liegt die methodische Besonderheit der Untersuchung in der Triangulation von dokumentarischer Bild- bzw. Videoanalyse mit der dokumentarischen Interpretation narrativer Interviews.

Zum christlichen Menschenbild (Das Bild vom Menschen und die Ordnung der Gesellschaft)

by Rémi Brague

Dieses Buch entfaltet das christliche Menschenbild in seinen Umrissen. Die Frage nach dem Menschen verdient es nämlich, wieder neu gestellt zu werden, weil heute der ‚Humanismus‘ von einem zerstörerischen ‚Antihumanismus‘ bedroht ist.Warum besitzt der Mensch eine Würde und mithin Rechte? Die Antwort auf diese Frage fällt sehr unterschiedlich aus. Entsprechend unbestimmt, verschwommen und vieldeutig bleibt das Lippenbekenntnis zu Menschenwürde und Menschenrechten. Wer also ist jenes Lebewesen, das wir ‚Mensch‘ nennen? Jeder Versuch einer wissenschaftlichen ‚Definition‘ führt theoretisch und praktisch zu unmenschlichen Folgen, wie zahllose Beispiele in der Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts auf erschreckende Weise zeigen. Das christliche Menschenbild verzichtet auf eine solche Definition und zeichnet jene Kontur eines Vorbildes, auf die hin der Mensch in Christus seine vollkommene, abgeschlossene Gestalt gefunden hat.Die anthropologischen, sozialen und politischen Folgen eines so geprägten Menschenbildes werden in diesem Buch erörtert: als Plädoyer für die Achtung der Natur des Menschen, die nicht der eigenen Verfügungsgewalt noch der Beherrschung durch Dritte in die Hand gelegt ist.

Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics Of Keeping Animals

by Stephen St Bostock

First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Zoographies: The Question of the Animal from Heidegger to Derrida

by Matthew Calarco

Zoographies challenges the anthropocentrism of the Continental philosophical tradition and advances the position that, while some distinctions are valid, humans and animals are best viewed as part of an ontological whole. Matthew Calarco draws on ethological and evolutionary evidence and the work of Heidegger, who called for a radicalized responsibility toward all forms of life. He also turns to Levinas, who raised questions about the nature and scope of ethics; Agamben, who held the "anthropological machine" responsible for the horrors of the twentieth century; and Derrida, who initiated a nonanthropocentric ethics. Calarco concludes with a call for the abolition of classical versions of the human-animal distinction and asks that we devise new ways of thinking about and living with animals.

Zones of Rebellion: Kurdish Insurgents and the Turkish State

by Aysegul Aydin Cem Emrence

How do insurgents and governments select their targets? Which ideological discourses and organizational policies do they adopt to win civilian loyalties and control territory? Aysegul Aydin and Cem Emrence suggest that both insurgents and governments adopt a wide variety of coercive strategies in war environments. In Zones of Rebellion, they integrate Turkish-Ottoman history with social science theory to unveil the long-term policies that continue to inform the distribution of violence in Anatolia. The authors show the astonishing similarity in combatants’ practices over time and their resulting inability to consolidate Kurdish people and territory around their respective political agendas. The Kurdish insurgency in Turkey is one of the longest-running civil wars in the Middle East. Zones of Rebellion demonstrates for the first time how violence in this conflict has varied geographically. Identifying distinct zones of violence, Aydin and Emrence show why Kurds and Kurdish territories have followed different political trajectories, guaranteeing continued strife between Kurdish insurgents and the Turkish state in an area where armed groups organized along ethnic lines have battled the central state since Ottoman times. Aydin and Emrence present the first empirical analysis of Kurdish insurgency, relying on original data. These new datasets include information on the location, method, timing, target, and outcome of more than ten thousand insurgent attacks and counterinsurgent operations between 1984 and 2008. Another data set registers civilian unrest in Kurdish urban centers for the same period, including nearly eight hundred incidents ranging from passive resistance to active challenges to Turkey’s security forces. The authors argue that both state agents and insurgents are locked into particular tactics in their conduct of civil war and that the inability of combatants to switch from violence to civic politics leads to a long-running stalemate. Such rigidity blocks negotiations and prevents battlefield victories from being translated into political solutions and lasting agreements.

Zombies, Vampires, and Philosophy

by Richard Greene K. Silem Mohammad

Since 1968's Night of the Living Dead, zombie culture has steadily limped and clawed its way into the center of popular culture. Today, zombies and vampires have taken over TV shows, comic books, cartoons, video games, and movies. Zombies, Vampires, and Philosophy drags the theories of famous philosophers like Socrates and Descartes into the territory of the undead, exploring questions like: Why do vampires and vegetarians share a similar worldview? Why is understanding zombies the key to health care reform? And what does "healthy in mind and body" mean for vampires and zombies? Answers to these questions and more await readers brave enough to make this fun, philosophical foray into the undead.

Zombie University: Thinking Under Control

by Sinead Murphy

In this full-blooded attack on the institutions of higher education, Sinéad Murphy shows the neoliberal university for what it really is: a zombie institution, churning out generations of the thinking dead.What if we have lost the ability to think straight? And what if this is why the shocking injustices of contemporary life go unchallenged in spite of being widely acknowledged? And what if the institution that is supposed to help us to think is in on the act? This is the thesis put forward by Zombie University, which shows the modern university as the fulcrum of our societies’ mode of control, tempting more and more young people to rituals of education that work to keep us down rather than raise us up.

Zizek's Politics

by Jodi Dean

A critical introduction to the political thought of one of the most important, original and enigmatic philosophers writing today. Zizek's Politics provides an original interpretation and defence of the Slovenian philosopher's radical critique of liberalism, democracy, and global capital.

Zizek and Law (Nomikoi: Critical Legal Thinkers)

by Laurent De Sutter

The very first book dedicated to Slavoj Zizek’s theoretical treatment of law, this book gathers widely recognized Zizek scholars as well as legal theorists to offer a sustained analysis of the place of law in Zizek’s work. Whether it is with reference to symbolic law, psychoanalytical law, religious law, positive law, human rights, to Lacan’s, Hegel’s, or Kant’s philosophies of law, or even to Jewish or Buddhist law, Zizek returns again and again to law. And what his work offers, this volume demonstrates, is a radically new approach to law, and a rethinking of its role within the framework of radical politics. With the help of Zizek himself – who here, and for the first time, directly engages with the topic of law – this collection provides an authoritative account of ‘Zizek and law’. It will be invaluable resource for researchers and students in the fields of law, legal theory, legal philosophy, political theory, psychoanalysis, theology, and cultural studies.

Zivilgesellschaft in Subsahara Afrika

by Walter Eberlei

Der ,,arabische Frühling" hat vielfaches Erstaunen über die Kraft zivilgesellschaftlicher politischer Arbeit ausgelöst. So unbemerkt wie das Pulverfass in Nordafrika entstand, so unbeachtet scheinen auch die gesellschaftspolitischen Dynamiken in den Ländern südlich der Sahara zu sein. Die Wahrnehmung politischer Entwicklungen in diesem ärmsten Teil der Welt begrenzt sich vielfach auf zerfallene Staaten wie Somalia, korrupte Kleptokratien wie Simbabwe oder in schier endlosen Kriegen und Konflikten versunkene Länder wie dem Kongo. Der Band beschäftigt sich mit gesellschaftspolitischen Dynamiken jenseits dieser Extreme, genauer: mit dem vielfach erkennbaren Phänomen verstärkter zivilgesellschaftlicher politischer Einflussnahme in Subsahara Afrika. Das Autorenteam leistet einen Beitrag dazu, diese neuere politische Entwicklung zu verstehen und seine Ausprägungen zu erklären.

Zivil - Gesellschaft - Staat

by Thomas Bibisidis Jaana Eichhorn Ansgar Klein Christa Perabo Susanne Rindt

Der Band thematisiert die Bedeutung der Freiwilligendienste hinsichtlich ihrer Potenziale und Wirkungen für die Zivilgesellschaft, ihre Handlungsfelder und Rahmenbedingungen und nimmt die beteiligten Akteure in den Blick. Dabei geht es um Entwicklungslinien, Profildiskussionen und aktuelle Debatten, u. a. zu Fragen der Qualitätssicherung, zum Bildungsbegriff, der politischen Indienstnahme von Freiwilligendiensten, zur Arbeitsmarktneutralität und zum Trägerprinzip als konstitutivem Merkmal der Freiwilligendienste.

Zionism and Melancholy: The Short Life of Israel Zarchi (New Jewish Philosophy and Thought)

by Nitzan Lebovic

Nitzan Lebovic claims that political melancholy is the defining trait of a generation of Israelis born between the 1960s and 1990s. This cohort came of age during wars, occupation and intifada, cultural conflict, and the failure of the Oslo Accords. The atmosphere of militarism and conservative state politics left little room for democratic opposition or dissent. Lebovic and others depict the failure to respond not only as a result of institutional pressure but as the effect of a long-lasting "left-wing melancholy." In order to understand its grip on Israeli society, Lebovic turns to the novels and short stories of Israel Zarchi. For him, Zarchi aptly describes the gap between the utopian hope present in Zionism since its early days and the melancholic reality of the present. Through personal engagement with Zarchi, Lebovic develops a philosophy of melancholy and shows how it pervades Israeli society.

Zionism and Melancholy: The Short Life of Israel Zarchi (New Jewish Philosophy and Thought)

by Nitzan Lebovic

“Lebovic reveals a great deal about the work of Zarchi and the melancholic mindset of an entire generation of contemporary Israelis . . . Highly recommended.” —ChoiceNitzan Lebovic claims that political melancholy is the defining trait of a generation of Israelis born between the 1960s and 1990s. This cohort came of age during wars, occupation and intifada, cultural conflict, and the failure of the Oslo Accords. The atmosphere of militarism and conservative state politics left little room for democratic opposition or dissent.Lebovic and others depict the failure to respond not only as a result of institutional pressure but as the effect of a long-lasting “left-wing melancholy.” In order to understand its grip on Israeli society, Lebovic turns to the novels and short stories of Israel Zarchi. For him, Zarchi aptly describes the gap between the utopian hope present in Zionism since its early days and the melancholic reality of the present. Through personal engagement with Zarchi, Lebovic develops a philosophy of melancholy and shows how it pervades Israeli society.

Zhuangzi (Longman Library of Primary Sources in Philosophy)

by Daniel Kolak Chuang Tzu Yang Guorong Hyun Hochsmann

Part of the “Longman Library of Primary Sources in Philosophy,” this translation/edition of Chuang Tzu's works is framed by a pedagogical structure designed to make this important work of philosophy more accessible and productive for undergraduates.

Zhuangzi: The Complete Writings

by Zhuangzi

Brook Ziporyn's carefully crafted, richly annotated translation of the complete writings of Zhuangzi—including a lucid Introduction, a Glossary of Essential Terms, and a Bibliography—provides readers with an engaging and provocative deep dive into this magical work.

Zhuangzi: Basic Writings (Translations from the Asian Classics)

by Zhuangzi

Only by inhabiting Dao (the Way of Nature) and dwelling in its unity can humankind achieve true happiness and freedom, in both life and death. This is Daoist philosophy's central tenet, espoused by the person—or group of people—known as Zhuangzi (369?–286? BCE) in a text by the same name. To be free, individuals must discard rigid distinctions between right and wrong, and follow a course of action not motivated by gain or striving. When one ceases to judge events as good or bad, man-made suffering disappears, and natural suffering is embraced as part of life.Zhuangzi elucidates this mystical philosophy through humor, parable, and anecdote, using non sequitur and even nonsense to illuminate truths beyond the boundaries of ordinary logic. Boldly imaginative and inventively written, the Zhuangzi floats free of its historical period and society, addressing the spiritual nourishment of all people across time. One of the most justly celebrated texts of the Chinese tradition, the Zhuangzi is read by thousands of English-language scholars each year, yet, until now, only in the Wade-Giles romanization. Burton Watson's conversion to pinyin in this book brings the text in line with how Chinese scholars, and an increasing number of other scholars, read it.

Zhuangzi: A New Translation of the Sayings of Master Zhuang as Interpreted by Guo Xiang (Translations from the Asian Classics)

by Richard John Lynn

The Zhuangzi (Sayings of Master Zhuang) is one of the foundational texts of the Chinese philosophical tradition and the cornerstone of Daoist thought. The earliest and most influential commentary on the Zhuangzi is that of Guo Xiang (265–312), who also edited the text into the thirty-three-chapter version known ever since. Guo’s commentary enriches readings of the Zhuangzi, offering keen insights into the meaning and significance of its pithy but often ambiguous aphorisms, narratives, and parables.Richard John Lynn’s new translation of the Zhuangzi is the first to follow Guo’s commentary in its interpretive choices. Unlike any previous translation into any language, its guiding principle is how Guo read the text; Lynn renders the Zhuangzi in terms of Guo’s understanding. This approach allows for the full integration of the text of the Zhuangzi with Guo’s commentary. The book also features a translation of Guo’s complete interlinear commentary and is annotated throughout.A critical introduction includes a detailed account of Guo’s life and times as well as analysis of his essential contributions to the arcane learning (xuanxue) of the fourth century and the development of Chinese philosophy. Lynn sheds new light on how the Daoist classic, which has often been seen as a timeless book of wisdom, is situated in its historical context, while also considering it as a guide to personal cultivation and self-realization.

Zhuangzi: With Selections from Traditional Commentaries

by Brook Ziporyn Zhuangzi

Ideal for students and scholars alike, this edition of Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) includes the complete Inner Chapters, extensive selections from the Outer and Miscellaneous Chapters, and judicious selections from two thousand years of traditional Chinese commentaries, which provide the reader access to the text as well as to its reception and interpretation. A glossary, brief biographies of the commentators, a bibliography, and an index are also included.

Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary, and the Classical Tradition

by Daniel Gardner

The Analects is a compendium of the sayings of Confucius (551–479 b.c.e.), transcribed and passed down by his disciples. How it came to be transformed by Zhu Xi (1130–1200) into one of the most philosophically significant texts in the Confucian tradition is the subject of this book.Scholarly attention in China had long been devoted to the Analects. By the time of Zhu Xi, a rich history of commentary had grown up around it. But Zhu, claiming that the Analects was one of the authoritative texts in the canon and should be read before all others, gave it a still more privileged status in the tradition. He spent decades preparing an extended interlinear commentary on it. Sustained by a newer, more elaborate language of metaphysics, Zhu's commentary on the Analects marked a significant shift in the philosophical orientation of Confucianism—a shift that redefined the Confucian tradition for the next eight centuries, not only in China, but in Japan and Korea well.Gardner's translations and analysis of Zhu Xi's commentary on the Analects show one of China's great thinkers in an interesting and complex act of philosophical negotiation. Through an interlinear, line-by-line "dialogue" with Confucius, Zhu effected a reconciliation of the teachings of the Master, commentary by later exegetes, and contemporary philosophical concerns of Song-dynasty scholars. By comparing Zhu's reading of the Analects with the earlier standard reading by He Yan (190–249), Gardner illuminates what is dramatically new in Zhu Xi's interpretation of the Analects.A pioneering study of Zhu Xi's reading of the Analects, this book demonstrates how commentary is both informed by a text and informs future readings, and highlights the importance of interlinear commentary as a genre in Chinese philosophy.

Zhu Xi: Basic Teachings

by Xi Zhu

Zhu Xi (1130–1200) was the preeminent Confucian thinker of the Song dynasty (960–1279). His teachings profoundly influenced China, where for centuries after his death they formed the basis of the country’s educational system. In Korea, Japan, and Vietnam as well, elites embraced his inspired and authoritative synthesis of Confucian thought.In Zhu’s eyes, the great Way of China was in decline, with its very survival threatened by external enemies and internal moral weakness. In his writings and teaching, Zhu took as his mission the revival of the Confucian tradition, the source of China’s greatness, and its transmission to future generations. For him, restoring Confucianism to its rightful place required drawing on the tradition’s whole sweep, from the sacred texts of the sages and worthies of antiquity to the more recent writings of the great thinkers of the tenth and eleventh centuries.This book presents the essential teachings of the new Confucian (“Neo-Confucian”) philosophical system that Zhu Xi forged, providing a concise introduction to one of the most important figures in the history of Chinese thought. It offers selections from the Classified Conversations of Master Zhu (Zhuzi yulei), a lengthy collection of Zhu’s conversations with disciples. In these texts, Zhu Xi reflects on the Confucian teachings of the past, revising and refining his understanding of them and shaping that understanding into a cohesive system of thought. Daniel K. Gardner’s translation renders these discussions and sayings in a conversational style that is accessible to new and more advanced readers alike.

Zhong and Zhongyong in Confucian Classics (Key Concepts in Chinese Thought and Culture)

by Chunqing Li

This Key Concept pivot explores the trajectory of the semantic generation and evolution of two core concepts of ancient Chinese Confucianism, ‘Zhong’ (middle) and ‘Zhongyong’ (golden mean). In the pre-Qin period, Confucius advocated ‘middle line’ and ‘golden mean’ as the highest standards for gentlemanly behaviour and culture. In The Doctrine of the Mean the Confucian classic of the late Warring States Period, ‘middle’ obtained the ontological meaning of ‘great fundamental virtues of the world’, due to the influence of Taoism and Yinyang School. It became not only the norm of human behaviours, but also the law governing the operation of heaven and earth. Since then, idealist Confucian scholars of the Song and Ming dynasties have developed the meaning of ‘middle’ from the perspective of the relationships between heaven and man, a fundamental norm of Confucian ethics.

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