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This volume addresses the study of family law and society in Europe, from medieval to contemporary ages. It examines the topic from a legal and social point of view. Furthermore, it investigates those aspects of the new family legal history that have not commonly been examined in depth by legal historians. The volume provides a new 'global' interpretative key of the development of family law in Europe. It presents essays about family and the Christian influence, family and criminal law, family and civil liability, filiation (legitimate, natural and adopted children), and family and children labour law. In addition, it explores specific topics related to marriage, such as the matrimonial property regime from a European comparative perspective, and impediments to marriage, such as bigamy. The book also addresses topics including family, society and European juridical science.
This book was written for anyone wishing to understand how sustainable scenarios emerge from current innovations. It complements current sustainability transition research by providing a "socio-technical map," an analytical and operational tool that can be used to explain the current positioning of innovators and their networks; to form alternative transition pathways and scenarios; and to design policies for a sustainability transition. Drawing on multiple disciplinary approaches to the study of "green" innovations and focusing specifically on operational directives, it examines and assesses multiple transition pathways (and supporting networks). Lastly, it presents three sectorial case studies (urban mobility, agri-food, and lighting) to demonstrate how the "socio-technical map" can be concretely put into practice.
This volume features 16 essays on the philosophy of technology that discuss its identity, its position in philosophy in general, and the role of empirical studies in philosophical analyses of engineering ethics and engineering practices. This volume is published about fifteen years after Peter Kroes and Anthonie Meijers published a collection of papers under the title The empirical turn in the philosophy of technology, in which they called for a reorientation toward the practice of engineering, and sketched the likely benefits for philosophy of technology of pursuing its major questions in an empirically informed way. The essays in this volume fall apart in two different kinds. One kind follows up on The empirical turn discussion about what the philosophy of technology is all about. It continues the search for the identity of the philosophy of technology by asking what comes after the empirical turn. The other kind of essays follows the call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of technology by showing how it may be realized with regard to particular topics. Together these essays offer the reader an overview of the state of the art of an empirically informed philosophy of technology and of various views on the empirical turn as a stepping stone into the future of the philosophy of technology.
This book provides an accessible and timely analysis of how the British discourse on Europe has evolved over the past forty years. It focuses on three key episodes: the 1975 referendum on the UK's continued membership of the European Economic Community; the 1992-3 debates on ratification of the Maastricht Treaty; and the more recent proto-referendum debates sparked by David Cameron's Bloomberg speech in January 2013. Using a discourse-analytical approach, the book analyses how political and media voices seek to delineate a British sense of self from a Continental other. Importantly, the book also pays close attention to the rising prominence of immigration issues within the British discourse on Europe.
Thistextbook approaches optimization from a multi-aspect, multi-criteria perspective. By using a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach, it avoids thelimits and oversimplifications that can come with optimization models with onecriterion. The book is presented in a concise form, addressing how to solve decisionproblems in sequences of intelligence, modelling, choice and review phases,often iterated, to identify the most preferred decision variant. The approachtaken is human-centric, with the user taking the final decision is a sole andsovereign actor in the decision making process. To ensure generality, noassumption about the Decision Maker preferences or behavior is made. The presentationof these concepts is illustrated by numerous examples, figures, and problems tobe solved with the help of downloadable spreadsheets. This electroniccompanion contains models of problems to be solved built in Excel spreadsheetfiles. Optimizationmodels are too often oversimplifications of decision problems met in practice. For instance, modeling company performance by an optimization model in whichthe criterion function is short-term profit to be maximized, does not fullyreflect the essence of business management. The company's managing staff isaccountable not only for operational decisions, but also for actions whichshall result in the company ability to generate a decent profit in the future. This calls for management decisions and actions which ensure short-termprofitability, but also maintaining long-term relations with clients,introducing innovative products, financing long-term investments, etc. Each ofthose additional, though indispensable actions and their effects can be modeledseparately, case by case, by an optimization model with a criterion functionadequately selected. However, in each case the same set of constraintsrepresents the range of company admissible actions. The aim and the scope ofthis textbook is to present methodologies and methods enabling modeling of suchactions jointly.
This book examines sustainable energy development in China, a non-liberal state, as a counterexample to conventional wisdom that effective policy outcomes are premised on the basis of decentralized governance. The use of sustainable energies as part of the solution for stabilising global warming has been promoted in industrialised countries for the past three decades. In the last ten years, China has expanded its renewable energy capacity with unprecedented speed and breadth. This phenomenon seems to contradict the principle of orthodox environmental governance, in which stakeholder participation is deemed a necessary condition for effective policy outcomes. Based upon policy documents, news report and interviews with 32 policy makers, business leaders, and NGO practitioners in selected subnational governments, this book examines the politics of sustainable energy in China. It engages debates over the relationships among democratic prioritisation, environmental protection, and economic empowerment, arguing that China's quasi-corporatist model in the sustainable energy field challenges Western scholars' dominant assumptions about ecopolitics.
This book aims to identify ways of overcoming the limitations of the communicative tradition in understanding participatory spatial planning. Three conceptual models that offer different perspectives on public and civic participation in complex urban planning processes are presented and reviewed: the consensual model, which conceives of planning as a collective decision-making practice geared toward consensus building and conflict resolution; the conflictual model, which views planning as a social mobilization practice addressed at empowerment of marginalized groups; and the trading zone model, which reframes collaborative planning as a coordination activity with respect to practical proposals in the presence of unstable and conflicting rationalities and values. The controversial story of the Integrated Intervention Program "PII Isola Lunetta" in Milan is examined through the interpretative lenses of these models, with detailed interpretation of how each model performs in the field. The book concludes by offering critical reflections on the reframing of participatory spatial planning, highlighting the value of trading zones/trading languages and boundary objects as tools for understanding and addressing collaborative practices in complex and conflictual urban planning processes.
This first volume of an exciting annual series presents important new developments in the psychology behind issues in the law and its applications. Psychological theory is used to explore why many current legal policies and procedures can be ineffective or counterproductive, with special emphasis on new findings on how witnesses, jurors, and suspects may be influenced, sometimes leading to injustice. Expert scholars make recommendations for improvements, suggesting both future directions for research inquiries on topics and needed policy changes. Topics included in this initial offering have rarely been considered in such an in-depth fashion or are in need of serious re-thinking: Interrogation of minority suspects: pathways to true and false confessions. A comprehensive evaluation of showups. The weapon focus effect for person identifications and descriptions. The psychology of criminal jury instructions. Structured risk assessment and legal decision making. Children's participation in legal proceedings: stress, coping, and consequences. Sex offender policy and prevention. The psychology of tort law. Demonstrating the scope and rigor that will characterize the series, Volume 1 of Advances in Psychology and Law will interest psychology and legal experts as well as practicing psychologists, and will inspire fresh thinking as the two fields continue to interact.
This volume examines emotions andemotional well-being from a rich variety of theological, philosophical andscientific and therapeutic perspectives. To experience emotion is a part ofbeing human; but what are emotions? How can theology, philosophy and thenatural sciences unpack the nature and content of emotions? This volume is based on contributions to the15th European Conference on Science and Theology held in Assisi, Italy. Itbrings together contributions from scholars of various academic backgrounds from around the world, whose individual insights are made all the richer bytheir juxtaposition with those from experts in other fields, leading to aunique exchange of ideas.
This book is about enforcing privacy and data protection. It demonstrates different approaches - regulatory, legal and technological - to enforcing privacy. If regulators do not enforce laws or regulations or codes or do not have the resources, political support or wherewithal to enforce them, they effectively eviscerate and make meaningless such laws or regulations or codes, no matter how laudable or well-intentioned. In some cases, however, the mere existence of such laws or regulations, combined with a credible threat to invoke them, is sufficient for regulatory purposes. But the threat has to be credible. As some of the authors in this book make clear - it is a theme that runs throughout this book - "carrots" and "soft law" need to be backed up by "sticks" and "hard law". The authors of this book view privacy enforcement as an activity that goes beyond regulatory enforcement, however. In some sense, enforcing privacy is a task that befalls to all of us. Privacy advocates and members of the public can play an important role in combatting the continuing intrusions upon privacy by governments, intelligence agencies and big companies. Contributors to this book - including regulators, privacy advocates, academics, SMEs, a Member of the European Parliament, lawyers and a technology researcher - share their views in the one and only book on Enforcing Privacy.
This book examines the legality, adequacy and efficacy of using the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) for commercially-exploited fish species and assesses whether the existing institutional cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) is efficient. This case-study also provides an interesting lens to approaching wider international law issues. Indeed, finding ways to achieve effective governance of transboundary or global natural resources is central to the peaceful use of oceans and land. Furthermore, the role of science in advising decision-makers is a sensitive issue, which deserves scrutiny and is similar in many regimes. Finally, the complex problem of fragmentation of international law is acute in various fields of environmental law, as in all rapidly developing areas of international regulations.
This monograph covers different aspects of sensor network security including new emerging technologies. The authors present a mathematical approach to the topic and give numerous practical examples as well as case studies to illustrate the theory. The target audience primarily comprises experts and practitioners in the field of sensor network security, but the book may also be beneficial for researchers in academia as well as for graduate students.
Disgorgement of profits is not exactly a household word in private law. Particularly in civil law jurisdictions - as opposed to those of the common law - the notion is not well known. What does it stand for? It is best illustrated by examples. One of the best known being the British case of Blake v Attorney General,  1 AC 268. In which a double spy had been imprisoned by the UK government before escaping and settling in the former Soviet Union. While there wrote a book on his experiences, upon which the UK government claimed the proceeds of the book. The House of Lords, as it then was, allowed the claim on the basis of Blake's breach of his employment contract. Other examples are the infringement of intellectual property rights, where the damages of the owner are limited, but the profits of the wrongdoer immense. In such cases, the question arises whether the infringing party should be disgorged of his profits. This volume aims at establishing the notion of disgorgement of profits as a keyword in the discourse of private law. It does not purport to answer the question whether or not such damages should or should not be awarded. It does however aim to contribute to the discussion, the arguments in favour and against, and the organisation of the various actions.
This book discusses the economics of the music industry in the context of the changing landscape brought about by innovation, technological change, and rapid digitization. The ability of digital technology to reduce the transaction costs of music copyright licensing has all but destroyed the traditional media business models of incumbent Performance Rights Organizations (PROs), music publishers, record labels, and radio and television stations. In a climate where streaming services are rapidly proliferating and consumers prefer subscription models over direct ownership, new business models, such as direct licensing, are developing. This book provides an overview of the economics of the traditional music industry, the technology-induced changes in business models and copyright law, and the role of publishers, copyright holders and songwriters in the emerging direct licensing model. In Part One, the author examines the economic aspects of direct licensing as an alternative to the traditional blanket license for copyrighted musical compositions, with an emphasis on the often monopolistic nature of PROs. In Part Two, the author focuses on the music publisher and the role direct licensing and competition may play in the changing business models in the music industry and the potential benefits this may bring to copyright holders, such as songwriters. To compliment this model, the author proposes a maximum statutory fixed-rate for musical performances to further streamline the royalty process, especially where distributors such as Google and YouTube are concerned. This book adds to the growing body of literature on the economics of music licensing in the digital age. It will be useful to those in the fields of economics and law, as well as music executives, musicians, songwriters, composers, and other industry professionals who are interested in understanding how technology, innovation and competition have reshaped the music industry.
This book examines how prisons meet challenges of religious diversity, in an era of increasing multiculturalism and globalization. Social scientists studying corrections have noted the important role that religious or spiritual practice can have on rehabilitation, particularly for inmates with coping with stress, mental health and substance abuse issues. In the past, the historical figure of the prison chaplain operated primarily in a Christian context, following primarily a Christian model. Increasingly, prison populations (inmates as well as employees) display diversity in their ethnic, cultural, religious and geographic backgrounds. As public institutions, prisons are compelled to uphold the human rights of their inmates, including religious freedom. Prisons face challenges in approaching religious plurality and secularism, and maintaining prisoners' legal rights to religious freedom. The contributions to this work present case studies that examine how prisons throughout Europe have approached challenges of religious diversity. Featuring contributions from the UK, France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Belgium and Spain, this interdisciplinary volume includes contributions from social and political scientists, religion scholars and philosophers examining the role of religion and religious diversity in prison rehabilitation. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Social and Political Science, Human Rights, Public Policy, and Religious Studies.
This book deals with foundational issues in Phenomenology as they arise in the smoldering but tense dispute between Husserl and Heidegger, which culminates in the late 1920s. The work focuses on three key issues around which a constellation of other important problems revolves. More specifically, it elucidates the phenomenological method of the reductions, the identity and content of primordial givenness, and the meaning and character of categorial intuition. The text interrogates how Husserl and Heidegger understand these points, and clarifies the precise nature of their disagreements. The book thus sheds light on the meaning of intentionality and of its foundation on pre-objective time, on the sense of the phenomenological a priori, on intentional constitution, on the relatedness between intentionality and world, and on Heidegger's debt to Husserl's categorial intuition in formulating the question regarding Being/Nothing. The author revisits these fundamental issues in order to suggest a general intra-phenomenological settlement, and to do justice to the corresponding contributions of these two central figures in phenomenological philosophy. He also indicates a way of reconciling and interweaving some of their views in order to free Phenomenology from its inner divisions and limitations, enabling it to move forward. Phenomenology can re-examine itself, its obligations, and its possibilities, and this can be of benefit to contemporary philosophy, especially with regard to problems concerning consciousness, intentionality, experience, and human existence and praxis within a historical world in crisis. This book is ideally suited to students and scholars of Husserl and Heidegger, to philosophers of mind, consciousness and cognition, and to anyone with a serious interest in Phenomenology.
This book analyzes Italy's external competitiveness in detail and introduces a new index, devised by Marco Fortis and Stefano Corradini for Fondazione Edison, that highlights the strengths of Italy's foreign trade. Compared with the Trade Performance Index compiled and updated annually by UNCTAD/WTO's International Trade Centre, the Fortis-Corradini Index (FCI) provides greater sectorial detail by referring to 5117 products identified according to the six-digit HS 1996 international classification available on the UN Comtrade database. The new index confirms that, contrary to widespread opinion, Italy is one of the world's most competitive countries, with an extraordinary position of leadership in world trade. Thus, according to the FCI, for 932 products Italy was either first, second or third worldwide in terms of foreign trade surplus in 2012. Furthermore, the FCI reveals, for example, that only three countries (China, Germany and the United States) surpassed Italy in 2012 in terms of the number of first, second and third places in their trade balance worldwide. In presenting the FCI and meticulous statistical data, this highly original study will be of wide interest.
At the present time, when so-called Islamic radicalism, terrorism and Jihadism occupy major media space, with Islam often depicted as the main culprit, the book attempts a tour de force. It proposes that Islam is as much victim as culprit in the history that has led to the current hostility. This is because the common claims of both mainstream and radical Islam that Islam represents the high point of the Abrahamic tradition, and therefore a purification of Judaism and Christianity, have been largely ignored, misunderstood or blatantly rejected by these faiths and therefore by 'the West' in general. This rejection has effectively rendered Islam as the poor cousin, if not the illegitimate sibling, of the tradition. In turn, this has created long-term resentment and hostility within Islam as well as robbed the 'Judaeo-Christian West' of a rich, inter-faith understanding of the wider Abrahamic tradition. The book explores these claims through textual, historical and theological analyses, proposing that many of them stand up better to critical scrutiny than has been commonly acknowledged. It further proposes that seeing Islam in this way has potential to re-awaken its self-understanding as a leader of accord among the Abrahamic faiths, of the kind that characterized the era of Convivencia when, in medieval Spain, Islam constructed and contributed to advanced civilizations characterized by relatively harmonious co-existence between Muslims, Christians and Jews. The book focuses on the role that a more respected and self-confident Islam could play in forging enhanced inter-faith relations in a world that desperately needs them as it struggles to understand and deal with modern and particularly vicious forms of radical Islamism.
The purpose of law is to prevent the society from harm by declaring what conduct is criminal, and prescribing the punishment to be imposed for such conduct. The pervasiveness of the internet and its anonymous nature make cyberspace a lawless frontier where anarchy prevails. Historically, economic value has been assigned to visible and tangible assets. With the increasing appreciation that intangible data disseminated through an intangible medium can possess economic value, cybercrime is also being recognized as an economic asset. The Cybercrime, Digital Forensics and Jurisdiction disseminate knowledge for everyone involved with understanding and preventing cybercrime - business entities, private citizens, and government agencies. The book is firmly rooted in the law demonstrating that a viable strategy to confront cybercrime must be international in scope.
This cutting-edge book will cover various aspects of headache management, with a focus on difficult patients. Practical, step-by-step advice for treating challenging headaches, including migraine, refractory and cluster headaches, will be provided in detail along with how to approach patients of different ages and those with psychological disorders. Unique and complex case studies and complete explanations to the vast array of medications will also be featured. Authored by one of the leading experts on refractory headaches, Advanced Headache Management will be an invaluable guide for the resident or clinician and an easy-to-read resource for many patients.
This volume addresses the dynamics of sustainable development in the healthcare industry, covering all major aspects, including R&D, manufacturing, regulation, market access, commercialization, and general management. Healthcare markets are evolving under demographic and economic pressures. In mature markets, patients navigate complex systems with limited control on healthcare quality and outcomes, while in developing markets, patients have limited awareness, access, and ability to pay for healthcare. The industry needs to identify which business targets are genuinely attractive for major or new investments. At the same time, development of new products and services must be tackled within the context of environmental sustainability. Rather than focusing on the traditional issues of innovation, cost management, and commercial effectiveness associated with growth, the authors explore such emerging topics as: The mutations of innovation management The need to foster patient-centricity along the entire value chain of the healthcare industry and company-wide Issues related to improving healthcare access and disease management The allocation of educational resources focused on the patient to increase the effectiveness of disease management The preservation of natural resources and the environmental effect of pollution and hazards created by the handling of pharmaceutical products Issues related to the size of medical need and/or market demand The private-public partnerships necessary to address the full spectrum of public health issues, from basic patient access to care to managing global health crises The required organizational and governance evolutions for the healthcare industry to maintain profitability and sustainable growth. Featuring contributions from leading academics and industry insiders with emphasis on environmental, economically, and socially sustainable practices, the authors present a unique, multi-faceted set of perspectives on this vital and rapidly evolving field.
Customer value management is a managerial approach in which customers are perceived as the company's asset, the value of which may be measured and increased through the organization of processes around customer relationships. This book deals with the topic of managing customer lifetime value on the internet, and more specifically on including the role of the internet in customer value proposition to enhance stakeholder and shareholder value. This book also discusses the possibilities of internet-based customer value management and presents a model describing the process leading to it. Its uniqueness lies in presenting a managerial approach to customer relationships rather than offering just another tool of e-marketing. The author's approach is not limited by branches or sectors - differences in customer value management approaches are perceived through a prism of relationships between the company and its customers.
Natural disasters traumatize individuals, disrupt families, and destabilize communities. Surviving these harrowing events calls for courage, tenacity, and resilience. Professional planning requires specific types of knowledge of how people meet and cope with extreme challenges. Disaster Resilience from a Sociological Perspective examines three major earthquakes occurring in Italy over a fourteen - year period for a well-documented analysis of populations' responses to and recovery from disaster, the social variables involved, and the participation of public agencies. This timely volume reviews sociological definitions and models of disaster, identifying core features of vulnerability and multiple levels of individual and social resilience. The analysis contrasts the structural and supportive roles of Italy's civil protection and civil defense services in emergency planning and management as examples of what the author terms professional resilience. And testimony from earthquake survivors and volunteers gives voice to the social processes characteristic of disaster. Among the areas covered: Social context for concepts of disaster, vulnerability, risk, and resilience Types of resilience: a multidimensional analysis, focused on a physical, ecological, and ecosystem perspective Findings from three earthquakes: loss, hope, and community. Two systems of organizational response to emergencies Toward a relational approach to disaster resilience planning Plus helpful tables, methodological notes, and appendices For researchers in disaster preparedness, psychology, and sociology, Disaster Resilience from a Sociological Perspective raises--and addresses--salient questions about people and communities in crisis, and how studying them can improve preparedness in an uncertain future.
This book presents an interdisciplinary exploration of the origins of happiness in the modern Western culture and makes the argument that happiness is not universal but is instead a culturally and historically specific experience, characteristic only to the Western world. It begins with an overview of the main research approaches to happiness and then studies the important but elusive theme in the context of culture and relations of power. The second part of the book analyses the social, religious, ethical and political processes that lead to the emergence of the experience of happiness, including consumer culture in contemporary societies. It presents an analysis of the medieval Christian experience which concludes that the modern experience of happiness only emerged in the 17th and 18th century, when the ideal of human existence increasingly started to be pursued in the present life. In its conclusion, this book explores the concept of modernization as the collective pursuit of happiness.
This interdisciplinary work draws on research from psychology and behavioral economics to evaluate the plausibility of moral contract theory. In a compelling manner with implications for moral theory more broadly, the author's novel approach resolves a number of key contingencies in contractarianism and contractualism. Acting in accordance with principles that we could all agree to under certain conditions requires that agents are capable of taking up the perspectives of others. Research in social and developmental psychology shows just how challenging this can be. The author discusses in detail what implications findings on perspective-taking have for contract theory. He concludes with cautious optimism that, despite our limitations, it lies within our power to become better at perspective-taking and to adopt a contractarian or contractualist mode of moral thinking. This does however require us to be much more attentive to the standpoints of others than we tend to be. Contract theorists also assume that agents can be moved to comply with principles that would be the object of agreement, with some arguing they can be so moved out of their own interest. The book show that, in contrast to the suspicion of many philosophers, this idea is largely supported by research on the dynamics of trust and our ability to distinguish trustworthy from untrustworthy others. Bringing a welcome dose of realism to the debate on contract theory, the author shows the value of assessing moral theories from an empirical perspective.
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