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Summarizes and synthesizes materials in the following notes: Marketing Situation Assessment, Marketing Research: An Overview of Research Methods, and Research Methods in Marketing: Survey Research.
Results-based leaders must demonstrate an ability to make decisions and act in ways that build investor confidence. This chapter offers suggestions to leaders in publicly traded firms for increasing shareholder value.
Describes how JCDecaux, the second largest global outdoor advertising company, became the world leader in street furniture advertising in a fast consolidating business environment. Also explains why, in the late 1990s, JCDecaux diversified its activities into billboards and transport outdoor advertising in reaction to competitor attacks. Places students in the position of Jean-Francois Decaux and his brother Jean-Charles Decaux, the sons of the founder and JC Decaux's co-CEOs who, in late 2004, explore ways to continue the success of the 73% family-owned business.
In December 1999, Newbridge Capital, an equity investment fund based in San Francisco, successfully negotiated with the Korean government to acquire a controlling interest in Korea First Bank. It was the first time a foreign financial institution acquired a Korean Bank. The negotiation was difficult and protracted, and the two sides tried hard to reach an agreement that would preserve the interests of both. The case examines the conditions and the motivations underlying one of the most significant acquisition deals in the Korean economy.
Discusses techniques entrepreneurs use to manage risk and reward in the early stages of the venture.
This Reading focuses on the three issues a company must address in developing its product policy: 1. Product mix breadth refers to the variety and number of product lines offered. 2. Product line depth is the number of items in a given product line. 3. Product item design refers to each individual product's specifications. This Reading contains two Interactive Illustrations: the first, "Altius Golf Ball Positioning," allows students to explore the effect of product positioning on market share in markets with different degrees of cannibalization from the perspective of a golf ball manufacturer that plans to extend its product line. The second, "Product Bundling," allows students to explore how pricing "bundles" of products and services is influenced by their perceived value, using the example of hotel accommodation prices in different locations and for different segments of hotel guests (business travelers, vacationing families, and budget-minded students). The Reading also contains two videos, one on strategies for creating new product categories and one on using a customer feedback loop to manage the uncertainty of product innovation.
Beginning in 1994, Mobil launched its Balanced Scorecard initiative, transforming what had been an underperforming organization that was inwardly focused, bureaucratic, and inefficient into the leader in its industry. This chapter examines the case of Mobil NAM&R, illustrating how putting the five principles of a Strategy-Focused Organization into practice and integrating and aligning the entire organization to a new strategy for growth enabled the company to achieve sustained competitive advantage in a mature and fiercely competitive commodity industry.
Describes IDEO, the world's leading product design firm, and its innovation culture and process. Emphasis is placed on the important role of prototyping and experimentation in general, and in the design of the very successful Palm V handheld computer in particular. A studio leader is asked by a business start-up (Handspring) to develop a novel hand-held computer (Visor) in less than half the time it took to develop the Palm V, requiring several shortcuts to IDEO's legendary innovation process. Focuses on: 1) prototyping and experimentation practices at a leading product developer; 2) the role of playfulness, discipline, and structure in innovation processes; and 3) the managerial challenges of creating and managing an unusually creative and innovative company culture. Includes color exhibits.
The Individual's Guide to the Shifting Landscape: Charting Your Career Path Within the Corporate Lattice Structureby Molly Anderson Cathleen Benko
The traditional corporate ladder is giving way to a new kind of organizational structure-the corporate lattice-in which success is no longer defined as a linear climb to the top, and rigid definitions of what work is, how it should be accomplished, and who gets to participate are being transformed. In this chapter, the authors explore the changing role each individual plays in directing his or her own lattice journey. Individuals need to treat their skills, experiences, and capabilities as valuable assets and navigate the lattice world by following three personal asset-building strategies: 1) Think option value: Actively seek out opportunities that open up multiple career paths; 2) Market your individual assets: Periodically inventory your skills and experiences and assess their relevance to the market; and 3) Optimize career-life fit: Continuously seek an effective and efficient tradeoff between your career and life goals at any point in time, recognizing that this is an ever-changing equation. Woven together, these three strategies ensure that you'll experience a high level of engagement-and satisfaction-no matter where you are in your career. This chapter was originally published as Chapter 7 of "The Corporate Lattice: Achieving High Performance in the Changing World of Work."
E-mail and Web-based merchandising are the key forms of Internet marketing. E-mail campaigns build customer relationships, drive sales, and begin valuable customer service when purchases have been made. Web site merchandising gives vendors a direct link with customers, eradicating the retail middlemen and retail overhead. And although snares do exist in Internet marketing, this chapter focuses on how to capitalize fully on Web-based options.
Charles Foley, vice president of the computer retailing firm Sayer MicroWorld, must decide whether or not to fire his employee, Kathryn McNeil, a 37-year-old product manager who has been unable to work as many hours as her colleagues due to her status as a single parent of a six-year-old boy. The company's recent risk-laden acquisition of another ailing firm has intensified the office's already high-pressure environment by necessitating that all employees work 13- and 14-hour days. Although McNeil appears to be doing her best to fulfill both her parental and professional responsibilities, her immediate supervisor insists that McNeil has not been able to complete her share of the work.
South Korea's economic success and its transition from authoritarianism to democracy teach important lessons in national strategy and political economy. Now, though, its famous chaebols may need reform, the population is aging, and relations with the North are as tense as ever. What should the country's leaders do?
The case describes IDEO, one of the world's leading design firms, and its human-centered innovation culture and processes. It is an example of what managers can do to make their own organizations more innovative. In reaction to a rapidly changing competitive landscape, a team of IDEO designers have been hired by Cineplanet, the leading movie cinema chain in Peru, to reinvent the movie-going experience for Peruvians. Cineplanet wishes to better align their operating model with the needs and behaviors of its customers.
Supplements the (A) case.
Brazilian meat packer JBS surprised many in the U.S. beef industry when it acquired Swift & Co.--a company more than five times its size--in 2007, then moved to acquire the U.S.'s fourth and fifth largest beef producers in 2008. The new JBS Swift slashed costs and restructured, turning around a quarterly loss of $99 million to a gain of $140 million within 6 months. JBS aimed to position itself to supply beef markets around the world, but it faced a perfect storm of rising feed and fuel prices, a global credit crisis and industry analysts skeptical about the company's debt load.
This chapter shows you how to apply the diamond model for project management in your organization and how to include this adaptive approach as part of your existing project management procedures. It also covers how to perform project planning, handle project uncertainty and risk, and improve overall project activity efficiency.
This Reading begins with an overview of marketing communications strategy and then presents a framework for designing strategies to optimize consumer engagement. This framework offers managers three broad phases for developing a marketing communications plan: strategic intent, strategic execution, and strategic impact. Crafting such a plan ensures that coordinated and complementary messages are delivered in an integrated marketing communications plan across all consumer touch points. This Reading contains two Interactive Illustrations, "Budgeting for Marketing Communications," which illustrates the objective-and-task budgeting method with a hierarchy of effects perspective, and "Viral Effect of Marketing," which explores the likelihood that a shared YouTube video will "go viral." The Reading also contains links to two video clips, the Taco Bell "Routine Republic" advertisement, a classic example of a conflict-based story, and "Cracking the Code of Super Bowl Ad Effectiveness," which describes research linking viewers' brain activity to the emotional connection of effective ads. Please note: this Reading does not cover the complexity of digital marketing. Its influence on marketing communications is covered in greater depth in Core Reading: Digital Marketing (HBP No. 8224), which is a recommended pairing (assignment) with this Reading.
This note explains how identity dynamics underlie many of the observable interpersonal problems that team members encounter, ranging from lack of participation and low involvement to misunderstandings and dysfunctional emotional conflict. It provides a framework for understanding how to recognize and manage identity issues in teams, including sections on communicating identities, forming impressions, and the consequences of the resulting level of congruence between people's identities and others' impressions of them. Outlines action steps managers can take to increase the level of interpersonal congruence in their teams, which should, in turn, make their teams more effective.
Examines investor relations and financial communications in a large company with a diverse group of financial stakeholders. Total is an "energy major" based in Paris, France. The importance of its product and its impact on economies and environments combine with the size of the company to make Total highly visible to investors, governments, environmental groups, and other shareholders. The highly technical nature of Total's many internal activities and the breadth of its complex operations further impacts communication efforts. In addition, as a Continental European firm (in particular, French), Total has strong societal expectations regarding its interactions with employees/citizens vs. shareholders. Examines how Total creates a consistent and clear financial communication that provides information to these diverse stakeholder bases and their different desires for the company. Also asks students to consider how this communication strategy will need adjustment due to a period of high oil prices and a resulting windfall profit during 2005.
Details the career of Katharine Graham of the Washington Post Co., a pioneer in her field and one of the first high-profile women to lead a major public company. Her story is a unique example of how power and expertise are built over time, and differs from those of other business leaders in that she was unexpectedly thrust into a leadership position. Though Graham could have been a figurehead leader of the Washington Post Co., she gradually became a powerful national player: a publisher and CEO in more than title. Graham's strong values impel many of her decisions throughout the course of her career and help her through times of uncertainty. Her values are a stark contrast to strictly data-based decision making. Explores Graham's ability to master the newspaper business and succeed in a man's world. Additionally, Graham's unique ability to adapt her influence style in different social and career networks is also explored, as the distinction between Graham's employees, mentors, and friends is often blurred.
Once you have made the decision to pursue a strategic opportunity, the danger isn't over--new and changing business models imply new customers, competitors, and competences. For example: how do you assess and manage a project's progress when the outcomes are highly uncertain? This chapter outlines an approach to developing leading indicators of the progress of your project, to help you figure out where things are going at the earliest possible time, when the least amount of resources have been expended. This chapter is excerpted from "The Entrepreneurial Mindset: Strategies for Continuously Creating Opportunity in an Age of Uncertainty."
Are leaders born or made? In other words, are leadership skills innate or can they be taught? The consensus is that leaders are made-but that people start with different levels of innate ability. Using this assumption as a jumping-off point, the authors of this chapter argue that the development of leadership skills is directly linked to a person's self-concept or identity. In exploring this identity-based model of leadership development, they discuss the key transitions and experiences that shape leaders' careers, such as taking a significant (and role-changing) step up the organizational ladder. They suggest that helping people make "identity transitions"-allowing them to shed outdated identities that hinder change and creating opportunities for them to practice (and make mistakes with) new identities is a key component of leadership development-and one that invites further research. This chapter was originally published as Chapter 22 of "Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice: A Harvard Business School Centennial Colloquium."
Kathy Levinson, the president and COO of ETRADE and a lesbian mother of two children, must decide whether and how to participate in the "No on Knight" campaign. The campaign opposes California ballot proposition 22, which requires California to recognize only marriages between a man and a woman. This case provides background for Levinson's decision, in which she must balance her obligations as an executive with her personal values and commitments.
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