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Ten Years In India, In The 16th Queen's Lancers: And Three Years In South Africa, In The Cape Corps Levies: Including Battles Of Ghuznee, Maharajpoor, Aliwal, Cabul, Buddewal, Sobraon, And Kaffir War Of 1850-51by W. J. D. Gould
"The Life of a Scarlet Lancer at war"This is an essential book for all those interested in the wars in India as the British Empire finally brought the jewel of the sub-continent into the crown of its young Queen-Empress, Victoria. It is also an ideal view of life within the ranks of a British cavalry regiment-the 16th Queen's Lancers-by one of its ordinary soldiers, Sergeant Gould. He experienced a time of conflict from the passes of the Hindu Kush to the veldt of South Africa and he tells his story across time in an engagingly direct and simple style that reveals him to be a typical man, and 'Soldier of the Queen,' of his day; this, of course, makes his account all the more valuable. We join the 16th Lancers and Gould in the Campaign of the Indus and the fall of Guznee as the British sought to place the puppet Shah Shuja on the throne of Afghanistan. We join him in the short but bloody Gwalior War and the fall of the Mahrattas. The Sikhs of the Punjab were possibly the most formidable martial force India had seen and at Aliwal, first as an orderly to Sir Harry Smith and then in the famous charge of the 16th Lancers itself, Gould recounts in graphic personal detail why that was so. This book concludes with Gould's time in South Africa, under Smith and others, as the British consolidated their territory in the Cape against the Kaffir tribes."-Print ed.
Mutiny Memoirs: Being Personal Reminiscences Of The Great Sepoy Revolt Of 1857 [Illustrated Edition]by Colonel Alfred Robert Davidson MacKenzie
[Illustrated with over one hundred maps, photos and portraits, of the battles, individuals and places involved in the Indian Mutiny]Colonel MacKenzie was only a young subaltern of three years' service when the great Sepoy Mutiny broke out in 1857. His regiment, the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry stationed in Meerut, was one of the worst effected and he and his fellow British officers had to fight for their lives as the native soldiers rioted. Having escaped narrowly from his erstwhile soldiers he rallied to the main garrison in Meerut, the rebels fled toward Delhi. He joined in the expedition to re-capture Delhi and relates his recollections with great spirit, there was no rest for the gallant young lieutenant as he joined in the effort to relieve Lucknow. During the last of the fighting his commanding officer, Captain Sanford, was killed and MacKenzie relates his hero's death with great empathy.After the mutiny MacKenzie achieved the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1878 and led his troops in the Second Afghan War, 1879-80. Promoted to full colonel four years later, he served as honorary ADC to Lansdowne, the Viceroy of India.
Includes more than 30 maps, plans and diagramsThe world-renowned military expert Major-General J.F.C. Fuller DSO, noted for his many works on military strategy, tactics and history, turns his attention to the famed Royal Tank Corps of World War I. He was in a particularly good position to write such a work as he served from 1916 as part of the Tanks Corps and planned the famous tank attack at Cambrai in 1917, he also took a leading role in the planning of the 1918 autumn offensives that broke the back of German resistance and ended the War. He covers in comprehensively the development of the tank, mechanical characteristics of early British tanks, particularly the Mark I, as well as the early battles at the Somme and Ancre. He also describes the growth of the Tank Corps itself, tank tactics, tank engineering plus the tank battles in 1917-1918. There are also appreciations of German, French and American tank activities.
This study is an analysis of Confederate cavalry operations in the Valley Campaign-5 November 1861 through 10 June 1862. In a campaign dominated by the leadership of Major General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson and his "foot cavalry," what role did his mounted arm play in the campaign?This study begins with a brief review of the historical evolution of American cavalry, explaining the differences between American and European cavalry. The study also includes background information on key issues of the campaign's cavalry leadership, organization, logistics, and tactics. The majority of the thesis discussion concerns the campaign's cavalry operations, including an evaluation of the cavalry's performance.The conclusion of the thesis is that Jackson's cavalry arm significantly contributed to the Confederate success in the campaign. Cavalry contributions were strongest at the operational level of war. Despite their contributions, the cavalry was inefficient. Organizational turmoil, poor logistical support, high operations tempo, and limited training worked in concert to reduce efficiency. Although completed over one hundred years ago, the cavalry operations of Shenandoah Valley Campaign has some particular lessons-learned that still apply today. Among these are support for the soldier in the field, innovation and improvisation, combat leadership, leadership development, and training.
History provides numerous examples of leaders who failed at some point in their career, yet went on to become great leaders. Their example demonstrates that experiencing failure does not necessarily equate to failed leadership-leaders can and do recover from failure to become better leaders. But how does this occur? How does a leader turn the psychological trauma of failure into an important learning experience that leads to personal growth? What leadership characteristics and actions are most important in recovering from a leadership failure? This paper examines these questions along several major themes: first, the psychological trauma of failure and the pathways to post-traumatic growth following failure; second, a study of how contemporary leaders grew from failure; and third, historical case studies on two strategic leaders who grew from the experience of failure: Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D Eisenhower. In conclusion, the paper compares the lessons from these historical case studies to those drawn from the first two themes to identify the key leadership characteristics and actions that enable leaders to recover from failure.
Wrestling The Initiative: Ridgway As Operational Commander In The Korean War, December 1950 To April 1951by Major Joseph R. Cerami
This monograph examines the conduct of operations of the U.S.' Eighth Army under the command of General Matthew B. Ridgway in the Korean War. During the period of Ridgway's command, from late Dec. of 1950 through April of 1951, the Eighth Army stopped an offensive campaign being conducted by Chinese Communist Forces. After completing a successful withdrawal and defense, Ridgway's Army mounted a series of offensive operations to regain lost territory and re-establish a defensive line along the 38th Parallel, Thus, this case study examines the campaign of an operational commander who successfully wrested the initiative back from the enemy and illustrates the significance of the AirLand Battle tenet of "initiative" at the operational level of war....In sum, this monograph uses classical theory, current doctrine, and history in evaluating Ridgway's operational design, planning and execution during the Eighth Army's withdrawal, defensive and offensive operations. This case study examines the linkages between the tactical, operational and strategic levels of war. The physical, cybernetic and moral domains of war are employed as a framework for analysis. Several insights emerge from this case study including the significance of: gaining and retaining the initiative in the conduct of both defensive and offensive operations; seeking tactical and operational success, even in the absence of clear strategic aims; building an army's will to fight and win, and the overriding importance of the moral domain; conducting realistic and deliberate planning, and the difficulty of transitioning from the operational defense to the operational offense; and using strength against weakness. Finally, and perhaps most significantly, this study reveals the importance of the operational commander and the genius of Matthew B. Ridgway in the Korean War.
Illustrated with 60 maps, plans and diagramsReconnaissance and counter-reconnaissance are battlefield missions as old as military history itself and missions for which many armies have created specialized units to perform. In most cases, these units were trained, equipped, and used differently from the majority of an army's fighting units. Horse cavalry performed these missions for centuries, for it had speed and mobility far in excess of main battle units. Once the horse was replaced by mechanization, however, the mobility advantage once enjoyed by the horse cavalry disappeared. Since the early 20th century, the search for the proper mix of equipment, the proper organization, and the proper employment of reconnaissance units has bedeviled armies around the world. This survey uses a diverse variety of historical cases to illustrate the enduring issues that surround the equipping, organizing, and employment of reconnaissance units.It seems that these specialized units are either too heavily or too lightly equipped and too narrowly specialized or too conventionally organized. Pre-war reconnaissance doctrines tend to undergo significant change once fighting begins, leading to post-conflict analysis that reconnaissance units were "misused" in one way or another. McGrath ends his study with an intriguing conclusion about the role that specialized reconnaissance units should have in the future that may surprise many readers.
Includes 6 charts and 20 photosPulitzer prize winning author C. Vann Woodward recounts the story of the largest naval battle of all time."The Battle for Leyte Gulf was the greatest naval battle of the Second World War and the largest engagement ever fought on the high seas. It was composed of four separate yet closely interrelated actions, each of which involved forces comparable in size with those engaged in any previous battle of the Pacific War. The four battles, two of them fought simultaneously, were joined in three different bodies of water separated by as much as 500 miles. Yet all four were fought between dawn of one day and dusk of the next, and all were waged in the repulse of a single, huge Japanese operation."They were guided by a master plan drawn up in Tokyo two months before our landing and known by the code name Sho Plan. It was a bold and complicated plan calling for reckless sacrifice and the use of cleverly conceived diversion. As an afterthought the suicidal Kamikaze campaign was inaugurated in connection with the plan. Altogether the operation was the most desperate attempted by any naval power during the war-and there were moments, several of them in fact, when it seemed to be approaching dangerously near to success."Unlike the majority of Pacific naval battles that preceded it, the Battle of Leyte Gulf was not limited to an exchange of air strikes between widely separated carrier forces, although it involved action of that kind. It also included surface and subsurface action between virtually all types of fighting craft from motor torpedo boats to battleships, at ranges varying from point-blank to fifteen miles, with weapons ranging from machine guns to great rifles of 18-inch bore, fired "in anger" by the Japanese for the first time in this battle."
FOUR-STAR GENERAL KENNEY pays a remarkable tribute to a remarkable man in this biography. Colonel Paul Irwin ("Pappy") Gunn met a tragic death in an airplane accident in the Philippines on October 11, 1957. Believing that our country owes a debt to a great character, a superb aviator, and a devoted American that has never been paid, General Kenney has written this story in the hope that it will help discharge a part of that debt.General Kenney's own words serve better than any others to describe this book:"This is the story of an extraordinary character. He was one of the great heroes of the Southwest Pacific in World War II, a mechanical genius, and one of the finest storytellers I have ever known. His deeds were real. His stories were often fantasies but they will be told and retold as long as any of his comrades-in-arms are still alive and then will be handed down to succeeding generations of airmen. Pappy Gunn is already a legendary figure."The saga of Pappy Gunn contains a wealth of stories, Spectacular things happened to this spectacular person....As the author points out, "He lived, died, and was even buried differently from other people." Faithfully, but with humor and warmth and understanding, General Kenney has constructed the life story, the saga, of his friend, Pappy Gunn.
Major Richard "Dick" Ira Bong died at the tender age of 24 on the 6th August 1945 in a flight accident during testing of the P-80 Shooting Star Fighter. His fame was such that news of his death vied with the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima in the US press, his legendary exploits at the helm of his P-38 Lightning had made him a household name. Bong had only recently received the Congressional Medal of Honor for his exploits of downing 40 enemy Japanese planes in the Southwestern Pacific. His tally of 40 victories made him the highest scoring American ace of all time, a record that is unlikely to ever be broken.In this biography his former commanding officer General George C. Kenney recounts his life; from his early life in Wisconsin, his sweetheart Marge, and his aerial exploits. Kenney enriches the narrative with personal anecdotes that illuminate the modest unassuming but determinedly heroic, Ace of Aces.Highly recommended.
[Illustrated with over one hundred maps, photos and portraits, of the battles, individuals and places involved in the Indian Mutiny]The siege of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny of 1857-8 was one of the focal points of the conflict that engulfed the sub-continent and threatened to bring the British Raj to its knees. Surrounded on all sides by large numbers of rebel sepoys, marauders and native malcontents, the British soldiers and loyal sepoys defended themselves and their families and children fiercely. Among those trapped was Mrs Adelaide Case, a lady who had been swept up into the hellish conditions of the Residency with her husband, Colonel William Case and her sister. Colonel Case was killed early in the brutal fighting that raged around the Residency for almost five months, despite this severe loss Mrs Case kept a daily diary, which is now one of the most valuable and harrowing memorials of the siege. Filled with the fear, suffering and gallantry displayed by the soldiers and the civilians of the shrinking garrison Day by Day, At Lucknow stands as a classic of its kind.
Includes over 75 maps, photos and plans.In Advice and Support: The Final Years the author describes the U.S. Army advisory effort to the South Vietnamese armed forces during the period when the U.S. commitment in Southeast Asia was at its peak. The account encompasses a broad spectrum of activities at several levels, from the physically demanding work of the battalion advisers on the ground to the more sophisticated undertakings of our senior military officers at the highest echelons of the American military assistance command in Saigon. Among critical subjects treated are our command relationships with the South Vietnamese army, our politico-military efforts to help reform both the South Vietnamese military and government, and our implementation of the Vietnamization policy inaugurated in 1969. The result tells us much about the U.S. Army's role as an agent of national policy in a critical but often neglected arena, and constitutes a major contribution to our understanding of not only the events that occurred in Vietnam but also the decisions and actions that produced them.
Includes over 75 maps, photos and plans.The present volume describes the activities of the U.S. Army in Vietnam during World War II, military advice and assistance to the French government during the immediate post-war years, and the advisory program that developed after the Geneva Agreements of 1954. Its scope ranges from high-level policy decisions to low-echelon advisory operations in the field, presented against a background of relevant military and political developments. The author enjoyed access to the official records of the period and examined personal papers, interviews, other documentary sources, and miscellaneous published materials. Useful not only as a study of military assistance but as a view of the Army as an agent of national policy, this volume is a fitting introduction to the overall study of the conflict in Vietnam.
General Sir Redvers Buller V.C. was among the most popular generals of his age, born in 1839 he was commissioned into the 60th Rifles in and started a military career that would last 40 years.His postings were many and varied; China in 1860, before many years in Canada and a distinguished part in the Red River expedition under Sir Garnet Wolseley in 1870 and under the same commander in the Second Ashanti War 1873-74. His next active command would earn him a Victoria Cross during the Anglo-Zulu war of 1879 at the head of the mounted infantry of Sir Evelyn Wood's No. 4 Column. During the bloody defeat at Hlobane, Buller rallied the demoralized retreating rearguard, and rode back in the face of the hotly pusuing Zulu warriors to rescue men who had been unhorsed, not once, twice but three times! As if this was not enough the next day he fought at the victorious at the battle of Kambula, and later at the decisive battle of Ulundi. Buller left Africa a hero among his men and respected by his peers.His final command, during the Second Anglo-Boer War was much less successful; sent out to command and retrieve a situation already bungled, at the age of sixty, despite his protests. Facing a guerrilla war he instituted new tactics that would become standard practice to the modern day; use of cover, fire and movement, creeping barrages. However, these innovations were not enough to bridge the gap between his opponents and his hidebound troops, and he suffered a number of high profile defeats.
[Illustrated with over one hundred maps, photos and portraits, of the battles, individuals and places involved in the Indian Mutiny]The Indian Mutiny, or Sepoy Revolt, flared up in many areas around the British controlled Raj in 1857. Government offices were sacked and many Europeans were put to the sword, the reasons for this sudden explosion of violence were many; religious affronts, British high-handedness and to some freedom from Imperialism. Delhi fell quickly to the rebels overcoming the small garrison and occupying the huge arsenal. As the former capital of the Mughal Empire Delhi was a beacon for those who sought to reinstate native control, many rebellious sepoys flocked to the city and the importance of Delhi as a symbol of the revolt gathered momentum by the day. The British forces, having recovered from the shock, understood the importance of Delhi as a focal point of resistance and dispatched a large force to retake the city, trusting in discipline and organised fighting power of the troops. The Siege of Delhi was pivotal to the entire Indian Mutiny and both sides were very aware of this, the fighting was among the bloodiest of the entire struggle. This account by an anonymous serving officer is a fabulously detailed account of the siege, full of the ebb and flow of the fortunes of the British besiegers as they sought to crush the rebellion.
Marshal Jean Lannes In The Battles Of Saalfeld, Pultusk, And Friedland, 1806 To 1807: The Application Of Combined Arms In The Opening Battleby Major Robert E. Everson
The French Army corps during the Napoleonic era was a combined arms organization, designed as a self-sustaining combat unit which could operate independently from the rest of the army. One corps was designated as the advanced guard to the French army's main body and acted as the unit which would make first contact with the enemy's army. This corps developed the situation while other corps would attempt to maneuver to the rear of the enemy force and consequently fight a major battle under Napoleon's control.The advanced guard corps which made first contact, would fight an opening battle which could last many hours until reinforcements arrived. The corps under Marshal Lannes in 1806 to 1807 fought three opening battles. During each battle the corps conducted their security and reconnaissance while moving towards the enemy, seized their initial positions on the impending battlefield and fought as a combined arms organization for the duration of the opening battle.This study shows how each of the branches; artillery, infantry, and cavalry, interacted in the opening battle. This study also reveals how Marshal Lannes established a combined arms advanced guard element within his corps each time he moved the corps as the advanced guard for the French Army. Although this advanced guard element was not a doctrinal organization for the French Army, the elements mission was strikingly similar to the larger corps acting as an advanced guard, but on a reduced scale.
"Characterized by precision of statement and clarity of detail, W.W. Blackford's memoir of his service in the Civil War is one of the most valuable to come out of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. It also provides a critically important perspective on one of the best-known Confederate cavalrymen, Major General J.E.B. Stuart.Blackford was thirty years old when the war began, and he served from June 1861, until January, 1864, as Stuart's adjutant, developing a close relationship with Lee's cavalry commander. He subsequently was a chief engineer and a member of the staff at the cavalry headquarters. Because Stuart was mortally wounded in 1864, he did not leave a personal account of his career. Blackford's memoir, therefore, is a vital supplement to Stuart's wartime correspondence and reports.In a vivid style, Blackford describes the life among the cavalrymen, including scenes of everyday camp life and portraits of fellow soldiers both famous and obscure. He presents firsthand accounts of, among others, the battles of First Bull Run, the Peninsular campaign, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and Cold Harbor, and describes his feelings at witnessing the surrender at Appomattox."-Print ed.
Includes 24 portraits, maps and plans."The only history of the Indian Corps in France in the Great War, from 1914 to 1915 when the Corps transferred to the Middle East. A fascinating story.The Indian Corps, consisting of two infantry divisions (Meerut and Lahore), arrived in France in September/October 1914. It was commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir James Willcocks who was the most senior officer in the BEF after Field Marshal Sir John French and General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien. The corps remained on the Western Front till the end of 1915, when it was transferred to the Middle East, a more suitable theatre of war for Indian Army troops. This history was published at the request and under the authority of the India Office, and apart from General Willcocks' own memoirs, With The Indians in France, it is the only record of the corps. It is not altogether a happy tale, as the book makes clear. While there was no questioning the bravery of the troops (five Indian/Gurkha VCs) there were problems of climate, reinforcements, officer casualties (the Indian battalion had only 13 British officers, who were first priority targets for the Germans), not to mention mishandling and lack of understanding on the part of the High Command. Total casualties among Indian Army units amounted to 21,413 (each division had, initially, three British battalions and divisional artillery was British). An unusual and fascinating story and history."-Print Ed.
"The author of this account, as well as being a Forces Chaplain, was a prolific military historian. His scholarly account of the first Afghan War begins with a detailed description of Afghanistan's hostile terrain and its equally hostile (to outsiders) history. The book describes the early stages of the war, including Britain's decision to cross the Indus river and invade; the march on Khandahar and the successful storming of Ghuznee. Rev. Gleig then narrates the surrender of the pro-Russian ruler of Afghanistan, Dost Mohammed, the peaceful occupation of the capital, Kabul, and the part that Sale's Brigade played in the lengthy attempts to subdue Afghanistan's unruly provinces. The narrative concludes with the capture of the city of Jellalabad, which was then besieged by hostile tribesmen before the garrison were relieved."-Print ed.
Eight Months’ Campaign Against The Bengal Sepoy Army During The Mutiny Of 1857 [Illustrated Edition]by Major-General Sir George Bourchier KCB
[Illustrated with over one hundred maps, photos and portraits, of the battles, individuals and places involved in the Indian Mutiny]"The Indian Mutiny from the siege of Delhi to the mutineers' defeat at Cawnpore, via the relief of Lucknow. Written by an officer of the British Horse Artillery.An account of the Indian Mutiny in 1857 by a British participant. The author, Col. Bourchier of the Bengal Horse Artillery, describes the British siege and storming of Delhi - including the foiling of a fiendish plan to intoxicate the besieging forces; the defeat of the mutineers at Agra; the siege and massacre at Cawnpore; the relief of Lucknow by Havelock and Outram and its second relief by Sir Colin Campbell; and finally the defeat of the Gwalior mutineers at Cawnpore. An action-packed account of eight months' of remorseless fighting."-Print Ed.
Illustrated with over 30 maps, diagrams and photosThis ninth essay of the Southeast Asia Monograph Series tells the stories of the 12 Air Force heroes who were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for action in Vietnam. The author, Major Schneider, has chosen a most unusual and effective way of presenting his material, for he is greatly concerned with the contextual aspects of what he describes; that is, he devotes considerable attention to the history of the Medal itself, particularly insofar as airmen of earlier wars are concerned, to the aircraft in which these latest recipients flew, and to the missions with which both the men and their machines were entrusted.These factors, then, are put in the context of the battle arena-Vietnam, with all of its special conditions and limitations. There 12 airmen of the United States Air Force acted with such courage, devotion, and utter selflessness that they were subsequently awarded the highest recognition that their country could bestow, the Medal of Honor. Three of the men died in the actions for which they were cited. But in one sense at least they and the others will never die, for their actions have insured that their names will live as long as determination, fidelity, bravery, and nobility of spirit are traits that human beings admire.
With 30 illustrationsThis is a narrative drawn from the era of the Southeast Asian conflict, detailing a unique event in that lengthy struggle. The event was called LINEBACKER II, a nickname like thousands of others, used to identify an operation, project, or mission associated with military affairs. It so differed from the many others, however, in its execution and outcome, that it stands alone. For the first time in contemporary warfare, heavy jet bombers were employed in their designed role to conduct extended strategic operations against the warmaking capacity of a hostile nation.This monograph tells part of the story of Strategic Air Command's participation in LINEBACKER II. In so doing, it addresses the efforts of a complex mixture of Air Force and sister service operations, with all services working in concert towards a common goal. Rather than develop a complete chronology or blow-by-blow account, which are matters of record in other works, the campaign is pursued more from the personal perspective.Herein is described the impact of LINEBACKER II on those in command, plus those in operations, maintenance and support who undergirded the effort, and the crewmembers. The narrative tells how they successfully met a staggering challenge. There was no book to follow. In only eleven days of intense combat operations they wrote their own book as they supported and flew the missions.In reviewing their story we find insight as to why the nation and the military need this caliber of people, who stepped forward when the need arose, demonstrated superior leadership, determination, and resiliency, did the job, and then dispersed into the more normal patterns of life. Many have since retired or separated from active service. Yet, it is clear that the ultimate well-being of our military structure in society must hinge on the continuing presence of this breed of people. Theirs was an achievement born of great ability and courage, and deserving of great honor.
Illustrated with over 30 maps, diagrams and photosTHIS slender volume has value for both the general reader and the aviation specialist. For the latter there are lessons regarding command and control and combined-unit operations that need to be learned to achieve battlefield success. For the former there is a straightforward narrative about American aviators of all four services struggling in the most difficult of conditions to try to rescue more than 1,500 American and Vietnamese military and civilians. Not all the Americans moving through the events recounted in this monograph acted heroically, but most did, and it was their heroism that gave the evacuation the success it had.Airpower and the Airlift Evacuation of Kham Duc is fully documented so that readers wishing to look deeper into this incident may do so. Those who study the battle will see that it was something of a microcosm of the entire Vietnam War in the relationship of airpower to tactical ground efforts. Kham Duc sat at the bottom of a small green mountain bowl, and during most of 12 May 1968 the sky was full of helicopters, forward air controller aircraft, transports, and fighters, all striving to succeed and to avoid running into each other in what were most trying circumstances. In the end they carried the day, though by the narrowest of margins and with heavy losses.
Illustrated with over 30 maps, diagrams and photosThe Southeast Asia Monograph Series is designed and dedicated to telling the story of USAF's participation in the Vietnam War. This monograph, the sixth in the Series, adds another exciting chapter to our continuing effort to bring forth and highlight the dedication, courage, and professionalism of the U.S. airman in combat. The primary intent of this series is to emphasize and dramatize the human aspects of this long and frustrating struggle, straying somewhat away from the cold hard statistics of "tons of bombs dropped" and "structures destroyed," etc., frequently the headliners in historical presentations."Last Flight From Saigon" is an exciting and moving account of how all our Services, as well as several civilian agencies, pulled together to pull-off the largest aerial evacuation in history-what many have referred to as a modern day Dunkirk. The three authors, intimately involved with the evacuation from beginning to end, have carefully pieced together an amazing story of courage, determination and American ingenuity. Above all, it's a story about saving lives; one that is seldom told in times of war. All too often, critics of armed conflict make their targets out to be something less than human, bent on death and destruction. One need only study the enormity of the effort and cost that went into the "evacuation of Saigon," and the resultant thousands of lives that were saved, to realize that the American fighting man is just as capable, and more eager, to save lives than he is in having to wage war.
The Vietnamese Air Force, 1951-1975 — An Analysis Of Its Role In Combat And Fourteen Hours At Koh Tang [Illustrated Edition]by Major A. J. C. Lavalle
Illustrated with over 30 maps, diagrams and photosAs the final days of Vietnam unfolded, the question was raised, "What happened to the Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF)?" This monograph addresses that question in considerable detail. In order to sift out the story, three periods in the life of VNAF were selected-the Tet offensive of 1968, the Easter offensive of 1972, and lastly the March offensive of 1975. By examining each of these time periods, the factors at work in each period could be isolated so as to determine the performance of the VNAF.The role of the USAF was dominant in the 1968 and 1972 offensives. Although VNAF had grown in size to about 44 squadrons and 42,000 people by the time of the 1972 offensive, application of airpower at the major points of the enemy assault was U.S. Further, the bombing of the North Vietnam heartland during these two periods was the compelling leverage that resulted in the initiation and pursuit of active negotiations to stop the war.The intervening period between the peace agreement of January 27, 1973 and the North Vietnamese offensive of March 1975, was marked by fundamental changes in the character of the NVA forces and their deployment for battle. The NVA moved its center of logistics near the DMZ and into South Vietnam proper. The magnitude of SAM and AAA defenses constituted a major departure from those of the 1968 and 1972 campaigns. The VNAF, structured for a low scale war, was confronted with an enemy having the most sophisticated air defense weapons of the day.
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