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Recent research cited above has documented that QRS/T angle and other novel repolarization measures of deviant repolarization are potent predictors of cardiac morbidity and mortality over and above the traditional risk factors such as old ECG-MI, ECG-LVH or QT prolongation. A novel ECG model of repolarization based on electrophysiological considerations developed by the author has been the cornerstone in this search for improved predictors. The concepts involved in these quantitative methods are advanced and clinicians may not readily understand their utility in patient care. Their value is perhaps more easily comprehended by investigators who are collaborating in preventive studies and evaluation of adverse effects of cardio-active agents. It is expected that this book will facilitate understanding how these new ECG finding can be used in both clinical and epidemiological application.
This book introduces audio watermarking methods for copyright protection, which has drawn extensive attention for securing digital data from unauthorized copying. The book is divided into two parts. First, an audio watermarking method in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) domains using singular value decomposition (SVD) and quantization is introduced. This method is robust against various attacks and provides good imperceptible watermarked sounds. Then, an audio watermarking method in fast Fourier transform (FFT) domain using SVD and Cartesian-polar transformation (CPT) is presented. This method has high imperceptibility and high data payload and it provides good robustness against various attacks. These techniques allow media owners to protect copyright and to show authenticity and ownership of their material in a variety of applications. · Features new methods of audio watermarking for copyright protection and ownership protection · Outlines techniques that provide superior performance in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and data payload · Includes applications such as data authentication, data indexing, broadcast monitoring, fingerprinting, etc.
This SpringerBrief explores graphical password systems and examines novel drawing-based methods in terms of security, usability, and human computer-interactions. It provides a systematic approach for recognizing, comparing, and matching sketch-based passwords in the context of modern computing systems. The book offers both a security and usability analysis of the accumulative framework used for incorporating handwriting biometrics and a human computer-interaction performance analysis. The chapters offer new perspectives and experimental results regarding model uniqueness, recognition tolerance, and the human-computer interaction. The results demonstrate that biometrics reduce the equal error rate (EER) by more than 10%, and show that people are capable of accurately reproducing a sketch-based password. Fundamentals of Sketch-based Passwords: A General Framework targets computer scientists and engineers focused on computer security, biometrics, and human factors. Advanced-level students in computer science and electrical engineering will find this material useful as a study guide for their classes.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the scientific track of the 7th Software Quality Days Conference, SWQD 2015, held in Vienna, Austria, in January 2015. The SWQD conference offers a range of comprehensive and valuable information by presenting new ideas from the latest research papers, keynote speeches by renowned academics and industry leaders, professional lectures, exhibits, and tutorials. The four scientific full papers accepted for SWQD were each peer reviewed by three or more reviewers and selected out of 13 high-quality submissions. Further, four short papers were also presented and are included in this book. The papers are organized into topical sections on risk management and inspection, change impact analysis and systems testing, and software and systems architectures.
Heterogeneously catalyzed selective oxidations of alcohols is a highly topical field. The first chapter of this brief describes the importance of the selective oxidation of alcohols and advantages of heterogeneous catalysts over conventional catalysts, use of environmentally benign oxidants, and the design of selective catalysts by tailoring of polyoxometalates at the molecular level. Chapter 2 describes synthesis, characterization 11-molybdophosphate based supported materials and their use as heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of alcohols with molecular oxygen under solvent free mild reaction condition. ZrO2, Al2O3, MCM-41 and zeolite Hβ were used as supports. Chapter 3 describes synthesis, characterization of transition metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu)- substituted phosphomolybdates and their use as heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of alcohols with molecular oxygen under solvent free mild reaction condition. Chapter 4 describes conclusive remarks for present catalytic systems.
This monograph provides a concise, accessible snapshot of key topics in several complex variables, including the Cauchy Integral Formula, sequences of holomorphic functions, plurisubharmonic functions, the Dirichlet problem, and meromorphic functions. Based on a course given at Université de Montréal, this brief introduction covers areas of contemporary importance that are not mentioned in most treatments of the subject, such as modular forms, which are essential for Wiles' theorem and the unification of quantum theory and general relativity. Also covered is the Riemann manifold of a function, which generalizes the Riemann surface of a function of a single complex variable and is a topic that is well-known in one complex variable, but rarely treated in several variables. Many details, which are intentionally left out, as well as many theorems are stated as problems, providing students with carefully structured instructive exercises. Prerequisites for use of this book are functions of one complex variable, functions of several real variables, and topology, all at the undergraduate level. Lectures on Several Complex Variables will be of interest to advanced undergraduate and beginning undergraduate students, as well as mathematical researchers and professors.
This text provides physicians with the basic business skills in order for them to become involved in the financial aspect of their practices. The text will help the physician decide what kind of practice they would like to join (i. e. private practice, small group practice, solo practice, hospital employment, large group practice, academic medicine, or institutional\government practice) as well as understand the basics of contracting, restrictive covenants and how to navigate the road to partnership. Additional topics covered include, monthly balance sheets, productivity, overhead costs and profits, trend analysis and benchmarking. Finally, the book provides advice on advisors that doctors will need to help with the business of their professional and personal lives. These include accountants, bankers, lawyers, insurance agents and other financial advisors. The Complete Business Guide for a Successful Medical Practice provides a roadmap for physicians to be not only good clinical doctors but also good businessmen and businesswomen. It will help doctors make a difference in the lives of their patients as well as sound financial decisions for their practice.
This is the first comprehensive volume to compare the sociolinguistic situations of minorities in Russia and in Western Europe. As such, it provides insight into language policies, the ethnolinguistic vitality and the struggle for reversal of language shift, language revitalization and empowerment of minorities in Russia and the European Union. The volume shows that, even though largely unknown to a broader English-reading audience, the linguistic composition of Russia is by no means less diverse than multilingualism in the EU. It is therefore a valuable introduction into the historical backgrounds and current linguistic, social and legal affairs with regard to Russia's manifold ethnic and linguistic minorities, mirrored on the discussion of recent issues in a number of well-known Western European minority situations.
This book attempts to bridge the considerable gaps that exist between spiritual philosophies and evidence-based medicine and between the psychotherapeutic models of the East and the West. Based on the insights of both the ancient wisdom and modern medicine, this book presents Yogic science not just as a set of physical exercises or religious rituals but as theories about the mind that have bio-psycho-social implications in relation to health and illness. Drawing on his years of monastic training and his extensive experiential, clinical and research knowledge on the utility of Yoga meditation in standardized and evidence-based medicine protocols, the author describes symptom-specific clinical applications of Yogic/meditative techniques using standardized protocols for the various psychiatric and psychosomatic conditions. In addition, he explains the value of these techniques in reducing stress and improving quality of life in healthy populations. Dr. Pradhan names the proposed integrative model of psychotherapy Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (Y-MBCT). Unlike other models, Y-MBCT uses Yoga in its entirety (all eight limbs, including meditation) rather than piecemeal. The standardized and evidence-based format of Yoga meditation described in this book will help all aspiring Yoga practitioners and will hopefully also provide the impetus for multicenter research studies on the value of this ancient wisdom.
This comprehensive text presents a rigorous framework from within which regulators can respond strategically to the claim by the pharmaceutical industry that lower drug prices today lead to a loss for the population's future health due to less innovation. It starts with a critical review of the empirical evidence of the return to consumers on their ongoing investment into high drug prices in order to increase future innovation. The implicit, critical and unrealistic assumption inherent in these studies is identified, namely that the health budget can be expanded to purchase drugs at higher prices without an opportunity cost, for example, the foregone benefits of alternative investments in health care infrastructure. Price effectiveness analysis (PEA), is introduced. PEA informs the question of how the innovative surplus from the new drug should be allocated between the manufacturer and the consumer so as to optimise society's welfare. The method allows the decisions by the regulator and the firm to be analysed jointly by specifying the firm's production and revenue functions in terms of the clinical innovation of a new drug; the incremental effect used in the summary metric of cost effectiveness analysis. An economic value of innovation that takes into account opportunity cost under conditions of economic efficiency in the health system is proposed: the health shadow price. The limitations of the non-strategic methods that currently inform the highly contested new drug subsidy game are presented and the relative strengths of PEA are demonstrated. Health technology assessment quantifies both the clinical innovation of a new drug and its financial impact on the health system. Cost effectiveness analysis tests the relationship between the incremental cost and incremental effect of a new drug for target patients, at a given price. PEA tests the relationship between the price of a new drug and the health of the whole population, now and into the future. It achieves this by taking into account current inefficiency in both resource allocation and the displacement process, and the relationship between price and future innovation.
This timely and important work takes a critical look at the shifting role of police, who are becoming increasingly responsible for handling terrorism threats on top of their regular responsibilities. With an unprecedented empirical study, the authors of this book examine whether this increased focus on security-related threats may come at the expense of addressing "classic" police responsibilities, such as fighting crime and dealing with local, day-to-day community problems. They also examine whether this shift has had a detrimental effect on police-community relationships and perceptions of police legitimacy, as their role changes from "service" to "suspicion. " Through a four-year, multi-method study specifically focused on the Israel National Police, the authors of this work have examined the effects of this shifting role on a number of key areas of policing concern, namely: police effectiveness at fighting crime and police legitimacy, drawing conclusions applicable to any democratic police force. The results of the study provide a number of concrete recommendations for maintaining effectiveness and community relationships of the police, with increasing responsibilities, challenges, and limited resources. This work will be of interest for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly with a focus on police studies and counter-terrorism; police administrators; and researchers in related disciplines, such as sociology and public administration.
As a collection of papers that includes material presented at the 2008 International Congress for Plant Pathology, this text features research right at the leading edge of the field. The latest findings are particularly crucial in their implications for fruit production; an important market sector where in some areas up to 50 per cent of the crop can be lost after harvest. While post-harvest fruit treatments with fungicides are the most effective means to reduce decay, rising concerns about toxicity have led to the development of alternative approaches to disease control, including biological methods, the subject of three chapters of this book. With several new techniques requiring modification of current post-harvest practices, it is more important than ever to stay abreast of the latest information. Other chapters deal with the mechanisms of host fruit and vegetable resistance, fungal pathogenicity factors and their relationship with the host response, and a number of subjects related to disease assessments before harvest as well as their relationship to the postharvest treatment of fruits and vegetables. The book also includes several useful case studies of crops such as kiwifruit and peaches, where different approaches at the pre- and post-harvest levels are combined to good effect. With food production issues gaining an ever higher profile internationally, this text makes an important contribution to the debate.
This work explores the function of both divisive and uniting symbols in various conflict settings around the world It takes a fairly broad perspective on what constitutes a symbol, to include objects such as flags, signs, language, and monuments, all of which convey conflicting meanings in a society affected by conflict In addition, the authors include commemorations and other dynamic events that serve as a means for groups or individuals to connect with past generations, celebrate a heritage, and possibly express religiosity. In order to provide context for the nuances surrounding the symbols, there are brief historical overviews for each conflict featured in the volume. In each chapter, three issues are emphasized: the particular symbols that are divisive in the specific culture; how these symbols were used to perpetuate conflict; and how these symbols can be used or modified to bring unification. Contributions come from authors from around the world that have conducted empirical studies on intergroup relationships or have provided significant academic contributions in the area of symbols and collective memories represented in theoretical publications Taken together, the contents of the volume provide a rich tapestry of intellectual analyses to the diverse selection of conflict settings from around the globe In addition to the nine case studies, there is an introductory chapter, which grounds the discussion in current peace psychology literature as well as provides future directions. This volume is a valuable resource to many, as the focus on symbols can span many disciplines such as political science, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and art Furthermore, it is of significant interest to all scholars and peace activists studying these various countries and their conflicts.
This book covers two lesser known but important members of the Italian Mafia: the 'Ndrangheta and the Sacra Corona Unita. Italian criminal organizations, in particular Mafia, are one of the most commonly researched organized crime groups, usually focusing on the Sicilian Mafia, Cosa Nostra, or the Neapolitan Mafia, Camorra. However, Italy has other two other Mafias, one in Apulia, Sacra Corona Unita, and the other in Calabria, 'Ndrangheta. Although an extensive literature is available on Cosa Nostra and Camorra, less is known about the other two organizations, particularly their operations in the United States. Territory is one of the most important elements in the Mafia because the criminal organization operates its signoria territoriale, controlling every illegal activity in its sphere of action. This territorial power goes beyond the Italian boundaries reaching the United States of America and other non-European countries, with the mere aim of developing their drug/weapon deals and money laundering businesses. Mafia, therefore, is not a uniquely Italian phenomenon as it might appear, but a worldwide phenomenon, affecting many societies and economies. This unique volume is its interest into a field as yet completely provides new information about the 'Ndrangheta and Sacra Corona Unita written by an interdisciplinary group of Italian scholars. It covers organizational, hierarchic, and operative aspects: that is, the role that they have in politics, in their own families, in business relations in Italy and abroad. It also highlights the particular role that Cosa Nostra and Camorra had in their development. This work will be of interest to criminology researchers studying organized crime, corruption, money laundering and trafficking, as well as researchers from related fields, such as political science, economics, and international relations.
The work reviews issues concerning the protection of folklore through the intellectual property legal system, then explores two main issues in the protection of Chinese folklore. The first issue is the influence of Chinese traditional culture on the Chinese intellectual property legal system and Chinese society. The second concerns the deficiencies of the Chinese intellectual property system with regard to folklore. Both issues are examined through a survey on the weak public recognition of intellectual property law and folklore in Chinese society. The book also reveals the practical issues that have arisen in Southwest China through case studies. After analysing these issues, the work designs a model law specifically for folklore and also provides suggestions for how the current intellectual property legal system could establish a comprehensive legal protection system for folklore. Furthermore, the work shows that its proposed model law is effective in practice by resolving the issues in the case studies presented.
This book describes the trends in digital innovation that are of most importance for businesses and explores the key challenges. The book is in three parts, the first of which focuses on developments in digital systems. Here, the ever-growing relevance of big data, cloud computing, and mobile services for business is discussed, and detailed consideration is given to the importance of social listening for understanding user behavior and needs and the implications of IT consumerization. In the second part, trends in digital management are examined, with chapters devoted to work practice, digital business identity as well as branding and governance. The final part of the book presents and reviews case studies of digital innovation at the global level that provide a benchmark of best practices, with inclusion of instructive fact sheets. While the book offers academic coverage of the digital transformation of business organizations and the associated challenges, it also describes concrete, real-world issues in clear, easy-to-understand language and will serve as a toolbox for managers that can be readily consulted. The text is supported by informative illustrations and tables, and practitioners will also benefit from the reported case studies and highlighted insights and recommendations.
In an era in which environmental education has been described as one of the most pressing educational concerns of our time, further insights are needed to understand how best to approach the learning and teaching of environmental education in early childhood education. In this book we address this concern by identifying two principles for using play-based learning early childhood environmental education. The principles we identify are the result of research conducted with teachers and children using different types of play-based learning whilst engaged in environmental education. Such play-types connect with the historical use of play-based learning in early childhood education as a basis for pedagogy In the book 'Beyond Quality in ECE and Care' authors Dahlberg, Moss and Pence implore readers to ask critical questions about commonly held images of how young children come to construct themselves within social institutions. In similar fashion, this little book problematizes the taken-for-grantedness of the childhood development project in service to the certain cultural narratives. Cutter-Mackenzie, Edwards, Moore and Boyd challenge traditional conceptions of play-based learning through the medium of environmental education. This book signals a turning point in social thought grounded in a relational view of (environmental) education as experiential, intergenerational, interspecies, embodied learning in the third space. As Barad says, such work is based in inter-actions that can account for the tangled spaces of agencies. Through the deceptive simplicity of children's play, the book stimulates deliberation of the real purposes of pedagogy and of schooling. Paul Hart, University of Regina, Canada
Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature is written with students and scholars of literature in mind but will be applicable to other humanists and social scientists wishing to extend their methodological tool kit to include quantitative and computational approaches to the study of text. Computation provides access to information in text that we simply cannot gather using traditional qualitative methods of close reading and human synthesis. Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature provides a practical introduction to computational text analysis using the open source programming language R. R is extremely popular throughout the sciences and because of its accessibility, R is now used increasingly in other research areas. Readers begin working with text right away and each chapter works through a new technique or process such that readers gain a broad exposure to core R procedures and a basic understanding of the possibilities of computational text analysis at both the micro and macro scale. Each chapter builds on the previous as readers move from small scale "microanalysis" of single texts to large scale "macroanalysis" of text corpora, and each chapter concludes with a set of practice exercises that reinforce and expand upon the chapter lessons. The book's focus is on making the technical palatable and making the technical useful and immediately gratifying.
This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their energy and put the network out of service due to the unreliable energy supply. This brief also studies network resource management issues in green wireless networks to minimize cost. It jointly considers the relay node (RN) placement and sub-carrier allocation (RNP-SA) issues in wireless networks with sustainable energy, and then formulates the problem into a mixed integer non-linear programming problem. Concise and informative, this brief is a useful resource for professionals or researchers studying wireless networks, communication networks, and energy efficiency. Advanced-level students interested in energy technology or communications engineering will also find the material valuable.
Two prisoners are told that they will be brought to a room and seated so that each can see the other. Hats will be placed on their heads; each hat is either red or green. The two prisoners must simultaneously submit a guess of their own hat color, and they both go free if at least one of them guesses correctly. While no communication is allowed once the hats have been placed, they will, however, be allowed to have a strategy session before being brought to the room. Is there a strategy ensuring their release? The answer turns out to be yes, and this is the simplest non-trivial example of a "hat problem. " This book deals with the question of how successfully one can predict the value of an arbitrary function at one or more points of its domain based on some knowledge of its values at other points. Topics range from hat problems that are accessible to everyone willing to think hard, to some advanced topics in set theory and infinitary combinatorics. For example, there is a method of predicting the value f(a) of a function f mapping the reals to the reals, based only on knowledge of f's values on the open interval (a - 1, a), and for every such function the prediction is incorrect only on a countable set that is nowhere dense. The monograph progresses from topics requiring fewer prerequisites to those requiring more, with most of the text being accessible to any graduate student in mathematics. The broad range of readership includes researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the fields of set theory, mathematical logic, and combinatorics. The hope is that this book will bring together mathematicians from different areas to think about set theory via a very broad array of coordinated inference problems.
Recently the interest in Bohm realist interpretation of quantum mechanics has grown. The important advantage of this approach lies in the possibility to introduce non-locality ab initio, and not as an "unexpected host". In this book the authors give a detailed analysis of quantum potential, the non-locality term and its role in quantum cosmology and information. The different approaches to the quantum potential are analysed, starting from the original attempt to introduce a realism of particles trajectories (influenced by de Broglie's pilot wave) to the recent dynamic interpretation provided by Goldstein, Durr, Tumulka and Zanghì, and the geometrodynamic picture, with suggestion about quantum gravity. Finally we focus on the algebraic reading of Hiley and Birkbeck school, that analyse the meaning of the non-local structure of the world, bringing important consequences for the space, time and information concepts.
Information and communication technologies can provide new paradigms in healthcare provision. In particular, new Pervasive Healthcare technologies can revolutionise the dynamics of healthcare, enabling people to remain at home for longer, at lower costs to health and welfare organisations. This book reveals how pervasive healthcare technologies can be designed in conjunction with users and carers, as well as exploring the application of novel methods and technologies.
In one hundred years, or even fifty, the Arctic will look dramatically different than it does today. As polar ice retreats and animals and plants migrate northward, the arctic landscape is morphing into something new and very different from what it once was. While these changes may seem remote, they will have a profound impact on a host of global issues, from international politics to animal migrations. In Future Arctic, journalist and explorer Edward Struzik offers a clear-eyed look at the rapidly shifting dynamics in the Arctic region, a harbinger of changes that will reverberate throughout our entire world. Future Arctic reveals the inside story of how politics and climate change are altering the polar world in a way that will have profound effects on economics, culture, and the environment as we know it. Struzik takes readers up mountains and cliffs, and along for the ride on snowmobiles and helicopters, sailboats and icebreakers. His travel companions, from wildlife scientists to military strategists to indigenous peoples, share diverse insights into the science, culture and geopolitical tensions of this captivating place. With their help, Struzik begins piecing together an environmental puzzle: How might the land's most iconic species--caribou, polar bears, narwhal--survive? Where will migrating birds flock to? How will ocean currents shift? And what fundamental changes will oil and gas exploration have on economies and ecosystems? How will vast unclaimed regions of the Arctic be divided? A unique combination of extensive on-the-ground research, compelling storytelling, and policy analysis, Future Arctic offers a new look at the changes occurring in this remote, mysterious region and their far-reaching effects.
As managers grapple with the challenges of climate change and volatility in a hyper-connected, global economy, they are paying increasing attention to their organization's resilience--its capacity to survive, adapt, and flourish in the face of turbulent change. Sudden natural disasters and unforeseen supply chain disruptions are increasingly common in the new normal. Pursuing business as usual is no longer viable, and many companies are unaware of how fragile they really are. To cope with these challenges, management needs a new paradigm that takes an integrated view of the built environment, the ecosystems, and the social fabric in which their businesses operate. Resilient by Design provides business executives with a comprehensive approach to achieving consistent success in a changing world. Rich with examples and case studies of organizations that are designing resilience into their business processes, it explains how to connect with important external systems--stakeholders, communities, infrastructure, supply chains, and natural resources--and create innovative, dynamic organizations that survive and prosper under any circumstances. Resilient enterprises continue to grow and evolve in order to meet the needs and expectations of their shareholders and stakeholders. They adapt successfully to turbulence by anticipating disruptive changes, recognizing new business opportunities, building strong relationships, and designing resilient assets, products, and processes. Written by one of the leading experts in enterprise resilience and sustainability, Resilient by Design offers a confident path forward in a world that is increasingly less certain.
This volume presents new theoretical insights, practical strategies, and policy initiatives in the rapidly evolving field of global supply chain security. As businesses, governments, and society at large have become increasingly dependent on a global network to provide goods and services, protecting global supply chains has become an issue of vital importance for industries, nations, and regions. The "supply chain" encompasses all the links connecting a manufacturer to end users of its products. Links may take the form of plants, supplier warehouses, vendor facilities, ports or hubs, retail warehouses or facilities, and outbound shipping centers. Links also involve all the ways goods are moved-by truck, ship, airplane, or rail car. A great deal can go wrong in the supply chain due to company or systemic mismanagement and inefficiency, criminal activity, employee or technology errors, or terrorism, to name just a few of the threats. Then there are government regulation, industry or association oversight, and security agencies (both public and private) keeping track. Globalization, stricter security regimes, and increasingly sophisticated criminal activity have made cross-border cargo movements more complex, putting the integrity of end-to-end supply chains at much greater risk. This is why the security of the supply chain has become such an important issue for business people: there is too much at stake to let problems proliferate or stagnate. It has been estimated, for example, that thieves now steal $50 billion in goods each year from various points along the supply chain. Synthesizing the most current research, practical application, and policy, Global Supply Chain Security covers a range of emerging topics--from risk assessment to technology deployment to continuity planning--and will serve as a useful resource for anyone concerned with supply chain security issues, including scholars, students, business executives and policymakers.