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This book explores teaching and learning in lower secondary classrooms in the three PISA domains science, mathematics and reading. Based on extensive video documentation from science, math and reading classrooms in Norwegian secondary schooling, it analyzes how offered and experienced teaching and learning opportunities in these three subject areas support students' learning. The in-depth investigations of video documentation are combined with analysis of the Norwegian PISA results in order to understand how teaching and learning in science, mathematics and reading can be improved. Recent reviews indicate that instructional practice does make a difference to students learning - and is more important than other factors including students' socioeconomic background, class size, classroom climate, and teachers' experience and formal training. This book opens the discussion on a European basis about contemporary challenges in teaching and learning in secondary schooling. Norway as a test bed is particularly interesting due to its long tradition with national curricula, and its unitary and non- streamed structure. Furthermore, ideas of educational progressivism and students' active ways of working (such as individualized teaching, adapted teaching, inquiry based teaching etc. ) have for a long time been actively promoted within Norwegian educational policies. The book draws on analyses that combine expertise in psychometrics and video-based micro genetic classroom studies with expertise in domain-specific instruction (math, science and reading). It feeds the conversation how issues of communication patterns are dealt with and made productive within different instructional formats, and presents possibilities to compare and analyze instructional formats and discursive practices for students' learning.
The purpose of this edited collection is to analyse the cultural aspects of Indian organizations. As the world's largest and most diverse democracy, Indian society can be best described as an amalgam of multiple cultures, value systems, socio-political and institutional orientations. This book offers a theoretical and empirical basis for understanding the evolving and changing nature of these aspects in Indian organizations. The World Bank predicts that in the near future India will become the world's second largest economy. The recent high growth rates reported by businesses in the Indian economy needs to be sustainable, especially amidst its high cultural diversity. Whilst there is tremendous interest in understanding the intricacies of Indian culture and a growing literature focusing on topics such as India-specific management and internationalization strategies of Indian firms, the cultural aspects of Indian businesses have been largely ignored. This book aims to fill this gap. It covers various topics in organizational culture and management such as human resource management, cross-cultural communication and coaching, cultural similarity, cultural literacy, multiculturalism, generational cultural values, talent acquisition and knowledge management. It also features case studies from high growth sectors such as the IT and health industries. Presenting contributions from local Indian and international researchers, this book provides a multidimensional perspective that will appeal to students, scholars and practitioners interested in organizational culture and management in India.
The widespread use of mouse models in developmental, behavioural and genetic studies has sparked wider interest in rodent biology as a whole. This book brings together the latest research on rodents to better understand the evolution of both living and extinct members of this fascinating group. Topics analysed include the role of molecular techniques in the determination of robust phylogenetic frameworks; how geometric morphometric methods help quantify and analyse variation in shape; and the role of developmental biology in elucidating the origins of skeletal elements and the teeth. The editors unite these disciplines to present the current state of knowledge in rodent biology, whilst setting the landscape for future research. This book highlights interdisciplinary links across palaeontology, developmental biology, functional morphology, phylogenetics and biomechanics, making it a valuable resource for evolutionary biologists in all fields.
This book offers a clearly written, entertaining and comprehensive source of medical information for both writers and readers of science fiction. Science fiction in print, in movies and on television all too often presents dubious or simply incorrect depictions of human biology and medical issues. This book explores the real science behind such topics as how our bodies adapt to being in space, the real-life feasibility of common plot elements such as suspended animation and medical nanotechnology, and future prospects for improving health, prolonging our lives, and enhancing our bodies through technology. Each chapter focuses on a single important science fiction-related subject, combining concise factual information with examples drawn from science fiction in all media. Chapters conclude with a "Bottom Line" section summarizing the most important points discussed in the chapter and giving science fiction writers practical advice on how to incorporate them into their own creations, including a list of references for further reading. The book will appeal to all readers interested in learning about the latest ideas on a variety of science fiction-related medical topics, and offers an invaluable reference source for writers seeking to increase the realism and readability of their works. Henry G. Stratmann, MD, FACC, FACP is a cardiologist with board certifications in internal medicine, cardiology, and nuclear cardiology. Befor e entering private practice he became Professor of Medicine at St. Louis University School of Medicine and performed clinical medical research. Henry received a BA in chemistry from St. Louis University and his MD at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. He is currently enrolled at Missouri State University to obtain a BS in physics with a minor in astronomy. His professional publications include being an author or coauthor of many research articles for medical journals, primarily in the field of nuclear cardiology. Henry is also a regular contributor of both stories and science fact articles to Analog Science Fiction and Fact.
Summarising the striking advances of the last two decades, this reliable introduction to modern astronomical polarimetry provides a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art techniques, models and research methods. Focusing on optical and near-infrared wavelengths, each detailed, up-to-date chapter addresses a different facet of recent innovations, including new instrumentation, techniques and theories; new methods based on laboratory studies, enabling the modelling of polarimetric characteristics for a wide variety of astronomical objects; emerging fields of polarimetric exploration, including proto-planetary and debris discs, icy satellites, transneptunian objects, exoplanets, and the search for extraterrestrial life; and unique results produced by space telescopes, and polarimeters aboard exploratory spacecraft. With contributions from an international team of accomplished researchers, this is an ideal resource for astronomers and researchers working in astrophysics, earth sciences, and remote sensing keen to learn more about this valuable diagnostic tool. The book is dedicated to the memory of renowned polarimetrist Tom Gehrels.
This investigation of the barriers to and opportunities for promoting environmental sustainability in company law provides an in-depth comparative analysis of company law regimes across the world. The social norm of shareholder primacy is the greatest barrier preventing progress, and it also helps explain why voluntary action by companies and investors is insufficient. By deconstructing the myth that shareholder primacy has a legal basis and challenging the economic postulates on which mainstream corporate governance debate is based, Company Law and Sustainability reveals a surprisingly large unexplored potential within current company law regimes for companies to reorient themselves towards sustainability. It also suggests possible methods of reforming the existing legal infrastructure for companies and provides an important contribution to the broader debate on how to achieve sustainability.
Best-worst scaling (BWS) is an extension of the method of paired comparison to multiple choices that asks participants to choose both the most and the least attractive options or features from a set of choices. It is an increasingly popular way for academics and practitioners in social science, business, and other disciplines to study and model choice. This book provides an authoritative and systematic treatment of best-worst scaling, introducing readers to the theory and methods for three broad classes of applications. It uses a variety of case studies to illustrate simple but reliable ways to design, implement, apply, and analyze choice data in specific contexts, and showcases the wide range of potential applications across many different disciplines. Best-worst scaling avoids many rating scale problems and will appeal to those wanting to measure subjective quantities with known measurement properties that can be easily interpreted and applied.
This book examines the foundations of multiculturalism in the context of émigré societies and from a multi-dimensional perspective. The work considers the politics of multiculturalism and focuses on how the discourse of cultural rights and intercultural relations in western societies can and should be accounted for at a philosophical, as well as performative level. Theoretical perspectives on current debates about cultural diversity, religious minorities and minority rights emerge in this volume. The book draws our attention to the polarised nature of contemporary multicultural debates through a well-synthesised series of empirical case studies that are grounded in solid epistemological foundations and contributed by leading experts from around the world. Readers will discover a fresh re-examination of prominent multicultural settings such as Canada and Australia but also an emphasis on less examined case studies among multicultural societies, as with New Zealand and Italy. Authors engage critically and innovatively with the various ethical challenges and policy dilemmas surrounding the management of cultural and religious diversity in our contemporary societies. Comparative perspectives and a focus on core questions related to multiculturalism, not only at the level of practice but also from historical and philosophical perspectives, tie these chapters from different disciplines together. This work will appeal to a multi-disciplinary audience, including scholars of political philosophy, sociology, religious studies and those with an interest in migration, culture and religion in contemporary societies.
This book is about the International Criminal Court (ICC), a new and highly distinctive criminal justice institution with the ability to prosecute the highest-level government officials, including heads of state, even in countries that have not accepted its jurisdiction. The book explores the historical development of international criminal law and the formal legal structure created by the Rome Statute, against the background of the Court's search for objectivity in a political global environment. The book reviews the operations of the Court in practice and the Court's position in the power politics of the international system. It discusses and clarifies all stages of an international criminal proceeding from the opening of the investigation to sentencing, reparations, and final appeals in the context of its restorative justice mission. Making appropriate comparisons and contrasts between the international criminal justice system and domestic and national systems, the book fills a gap in international criminal justice study.
Attraction, mating, reproduction: it is a given that as a species, human beings are concerned with sex. And whether the study compares sexual behaviors of men and women or considers the proportions between nature and nurture, most roads lead back to our distant ancestors and/or our fellow animals. The Evolution of Sexuality collects stimulating new empirical findings and theoretical concepts regarding both familiar themes and emerging areas of interest. Following earlier titles in this series, an interdisciplinary panel of contributors examines topics specific to the whys of male and female sex-related behavior, here ranging from biological bases for male same-sex attraction to the seemingly elusive purpose of the female orgasm. This vantage point between biology and psychology gives readers profound insights not just into human differences and similarities, but also why they continue to matter despite our vast understanding of culture and socialization. And intriguing dispatches from the humanities review sexual themes in classic works of literature and explore the role of parent-offspring conflict in the English Revolution of the seventeenth century. Among the topics covered: Sexual conflict and evolutionary psychology: toward a unified framework. Assortative mating, caste, and class. The functional design and phylogeny of female sexuality. Is oral sex a form of mate retention behavior? Two behavioral hypotheses for the evolution or male homosexuality in humans. Sperm competition and the evolution of human sexuality. The Evolution of Sexuality will attract evolutionary scientists across a variety of disciplines. Faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, and researchers interested in sexuality will find it a springboard for discussion, debate, and further study.
A social representations approach offers an empirical utility for addressing myriad social concerns such as social order, ecological sustainability, national identity, racism, religious communities, the public understanding of science, health and social marketing. The core aspects of social representations theory have been debated over many years and some still remain widely misunderstood. This Handbook provides an overview of these core aspects and brings together theoretical strands and developments in the theory, some of which have become pillars in the social sciences in their own right. Academics and students in the social sciences working with concepts and methods such as social identity, discursive psychology, positioning theory, semiotics, attitudes, risk perception and social values will find this an invaluable resource.
Though globalisation of the world economy is currently a powerful force, people's international mobility appears to still be very limited. The goal of this book is to improve our knowledge of the true effects of migration flows. It includes contributions by prominent academic researchers analysing the socio-economic impact of migration in a variety of contexts: interconnection of people and trade flows, causes and consequences of capital remittances, understanding the macroeconomic impact of migration and the labour market effects of people's flows. The latest analytical methodologies are employed in all chapters, while interesting policy guidelines emerge from the investigations. The style of the volume makes it accessible for both non-experts and advanced readers interested in this hot topic of today's world.
This book challenges functional models for more aesthetic and ethical models, where communication is grounded in values systems of cultures. Here, communication is treated as a distributed phenomenon involving networks of persons, activities and artifacts, and extends beyond doctor-patient relationships to working in and across teams around patients. The purpose of the book is to stimulate thinking about how patient care and safety may be improved through a focus upon the 'non-technical' work of doctors - interpersonal communication, teamwork and situation awareness in teams. The focus is then not on the personality of the doctor, but on the dynamics of relationships which form doctors' multiple identities.
This book examines the growing trend of recognition and practices of CSR in private enterprises in developing countries. It identifies the challenges and deficiencies in these practices and proposes means for improvement. Based on a sound theoretical foundation, this book focusses on the case of Bangladesh and the ready-made garment industry to exemplify the described developments. After a brief introduction the book outlines the standards of Corporate Social Responsibility. It compares the trends in CSR practices both in developed and developing countries and then embarks on CSR practices in the private sector in Bangladesh to finally present a detailed analysis of CSR and its practices in the ready-made garment industry. The book not only compares developing countries with developed, but as well provides an assessment and analysis of different stages of CSR within the South Asian area.
A practical approach to the field of androgen excess or deprivation in women's health. The content includes multiple viewpoints on the most common disorders in this class, such as polycystic ovary disease, hirsutism and menopausal issues. Each chapter provides a combination of long-lasting clinical principles in the diagnosis and management of these patients along with a state-of-the-art review. This text takes an innovative approach to uncommon conditions (such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, transgender conditions). In addition to presenting clinical insights, and a review of the basic science underpinning these conditions, it focuses on key concepts that can be derived from these rare conditions to the entire field. This book is an essential addition to the library for any busy clinician who is looking for a practical reference guide but also for the sub-specialist who is looking for new and thought-provoking insights in this complex scientific area.
In this book, internationally respected scholars from the disciplines of educational science, business administration and psychology thoroughly discuss practice-related questions on learning transfer in organizations. Readers will learn solid concepts for securing and evaluating learning transfer. This volume offers new insights about learning transfer in organizations and their implications for both research and practice. It examines the actual state in practice and provides the foundation for improvements in the design and evaluation of further training measures that are conducive to the transfer of learning. In addition, coverage details theoretical models on learning transfer in further vocational training and develops concepts that enable the transfer of learning for further training in organizations. The book also evaluates further training measures on different levels on the basis of relevant criteria.
The 24th century: humankind has become a spacefaring civilization, colonizing the solar system and beyond. While no alien forms of life have yet been encountered in this expansion into space, colonists suddenly encounter machines of alien origin - huge robots able to reproduce themselves. Called replicators by the colonists, they seem to have but a single goal: to destroy all organic life they come in contact with. Since the colonial governments have no means to fight this menace directly, they instead promise huge rewards to whoever destroys a replicator. As a result, the frontier attracts a new kind of adventurers, the Hunters, who work to find and destroy the replicators. Mike Edwards, a skilled young maintenance technician and robotics expert at a faraway outpost, will not only become one of them - but be the very first one to unlock the secret behind the replicators' origin and mission. The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot - in particular space travel, robotics and self-replicating spacecraft - are introduced and discussed by the author in an extensive non-technical appendix.
This textbook provides a concise, conceptually clear, and legally rigorous introduction to contemporary international environmental law and practice. Written in an accessible style, the book covers all the major multilateral environmental agreements, paying particular attention to their underlying structure, their main legal provisions, and their practical operation. The material is structured into four sections: (I) Foundations, (II) Substantive regulation, (III) Implementation, and (IV) International environmental law as a perspective. The presentation of the material blends policy and legal analysis and makes extensive reference to the relevant treaties, instruments and jurisprudence. All chapters include a detailed bibliography along with numerous figures to summarise the main components of the regulation. It covers emerging topics such as foreign investment and the environment, environmental migration, climate change and human rights, technology diffusion, and environmental security in post-conflict settings.
This book is unique in the sense that it offers a comprehensive review and analysis of human communication and mediated communication around the world. This is one of the first attempts to do so in a systematic, comprehensive way. It challenges the assumption that Western theories of human communication and mass communication have universal applicability. It surveys the applicability of mass communication theories to other than Western cultures. The book explains the influence of culture on all forms of communication behavior, be it personal, mediated or mass communication. It presents communication theories from around the world, incorporating a vast body of literature from Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. This updated information on important international perspectives that includes both interpersonal and mediated communication is presently not readily available in other sources. The book offers an integrated approach to understanding the working of electronic means of communication that are hybrid media combining human and mediated communication. These new media that are often presented as universal are even more culture-bound than the traditional media.
As children begin to use language in early childhood, they produce increasingly large units of coherent speech, including narrative descriptions of events. This book examines the process of narrative development in young children, focusing on the development of 'cohesion' - the use of speech and gesture to create coherent perspectives on events. Surveying early narrative development in which gesture plays an integral part, the book explores the development of cohesive, clause-linking devices during the period from age two to three. Illustrated with longitudinal cases studies, the book examines the crib-talk of two-year-old Emily and compares it to the discourse patterns of storybooks and nursery rhymes, and to her father's pre-bedtime routines. In a second case study, the authors trace the changing relationships between speech and gesture in the spontaneous narratives of two-year-old Ella. This book will be invaluable to students and researchers in language acquisition, developmental psychology and gesture studies.
This text collates and examines the jurisprudence that currently exists in respect of blood-tied genetic connection, arguing that the right to identity often rests upon the ability to identify biological ancestors, which in turn requires an absence of adult-centric veto norms. It looks firstly to the nature and purpose of the blood-tie as a unique item of birthright heritage, whose socio-cultural value perhaps lies mainly in preventing, or perhaps engendering, a feared or revered sense of 'otherness.' It then traces the evolution of the various policies on 'telling' and accessing truth, tying these to the diverse body of psychological theories on the need for unbroken attachments and the harms of being origin deprived. The 'law' of the blood-tie comprises of several overlapping and sometimes conflicting strands: the international law provisions and UNCRC Country Reports on the child's right to identity, recent Strasbourg case law, and domestic case law from a number of jurisdictions on issues such as legal parentage, vetoes on post-adoption contact, court-delegated decision-making, overturned placements and the best interests of the relinquished child. The text also suggests a means of preventing the discriminatory effects of denied ancestry, calling upon domestic jurists, legislators, policy-makers and parents to be mindful of the long-term effects of genetic 'kinlessness' upon origin deprived persons, especially where they have been tasked with protecting this vulnerable section of the population.
In order to be effective, international tribunals should be perceived as legitimate adjudicators. European Consensus and the Legitimacy of the European Court of Human Rights provides in-depth analyses on whether European consensus is capable of enhancing the legitimacy of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Focusing on the method and value of European consensus, it examines the practicalities of consensus identification and application and discusses whether State-counting is appropriate in human rights adjudication. With over 30 interviews from judges of the ECtHR and qualitative analyses of the case law, this book gives readers access to firsthand and up-to-date information, and provides an understanding of how the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg interprets the European Convention on Human Rights.
This book covers some biostatistical methods and several case studies useful to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. It will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. After an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. The final section contains a recent approach based on nonparametric permutation tests which can be adopted in many practical situations. The field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. Due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the TMD practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and medical statistics. Indeed, proper methodological designs are fundamental to reaching high levels of internal and external validity of findings in this specific area.
The Internet and related technologies havedramatically changed the way we live, work, socialize, and even topple nationalgovernments. As the Internet becomes increasingly pervasive across societies,we find more often that governments adopt Information CommunicationTechnologies (ICTs) as part of their toolbox for facilitating efficient andcitizen-oriented service delivery at all levels of government. Local governmentsacross the major industrialized democracies have not been an exception to thistrend and have set sail into the age of digital government. Closest to theircitizens, towns and cities have adopted ICTs to facilitate electronicgovernment (e-government). While research on local e-government functionalityin terms of information dissemination, service delivery, and citizen engagementcontinues at an impressive empirical and methodological pace, gaps in ourknowledge remain. Cross-national comparative research on local e-governmentthat covers a wide range of municipalities in combination with in-depth casestudy analyses is lacking. Informed by a comparative case study approach, thisbook seeks to narrow that gap and offer practical policy solutions tofacilitate local e-government. We do so by pursuing both a macro and microperspective of e-government functionality in the federal republics of Germanyand the United States and unitary France and Japan. The macro perspectivefocuses on the state and scope of e-government functionalityacross a large number of randomly selected municipalities of all sizes in theseadvanced industrialized countries. Based on a small sample of case studies, themicro perspective analyzes the successful implementation of e-government inSeattle (United States), Nuremberg (Germany), Bordeaux (France), and Shizuoka City(Japan).
The conflict that ended in 1945 is often described as a 'total war', unprecedented in both scale and character. Volume 3 of The Cambridge History of the Second World War adopts a transnational approach to offer a comprehensive and global analysis of the war as an economic, social and cultural event. Across twenty-eight chapters and four key parts, the volume addresses complex themes such as the political economy of industrial war, the social practices of war, the moral economy of war and peace and the repercussions of catastrophic destruction. A team of nearly thirty leading historians together show how entire nations mobilized their economies and populations in the face of unimaginable violence, and how they dealt with the subsequent losses that followed. The volume concludes by considering the lasting impact of the conflict and the memory of war across different cultures of commemoration.
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